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to repentance. plishment, in order not to clash with the freedom of human agency. And there is no doubt, that some of Zechariah's predictions relate to matters that are still involved in futurity. No wonder then that these fall not within the reach of our comprehension. Others there are, which we have good reason to believe have already been fulfilled, but which do not appear with such a degree of evidence, as they probably would have done if we had been better informed concerning the times and facts to which they relate. With respect to the emblems and types that are exhibited, they are most of them of easy and determinate application. And in favour of the importance of his subject matter it must be acknowledged, that, next to Isaiah, Zechariah is the most evangelical of all the Prophets, having more frequent and more clear and direct allusions to the character and coming of the Messiah and His kingdom, than any of the rest. Upon the whole, we shall find the diction remarkably pure, the construction natural and perspicuous, and the style judiciously varied according to the nature of the subject; simple and plain in the narrative and historical parts; but in those that are wholly prophetical, the latter chapters in particular, rising to a degree of elevation and grandeur, scarcely inferiour to the
sublimest of the inspired writings. Dr. Blayney. The style of Zechariah is so remarkably similar to that of Jeremiah, that the Jews were accustomed to observe,
that the spirit of Jeremiah had passed into him. He is generally prosaick till towards the conclusion of his work, when he becomes more elevated and poetical. The whole work is beautifully connected by easy transitions, and present and future scenes are blended with the most delicate contexture, Dr. Gray.
whom the former prophets have cried, Before CHRIST about 520. i Zechariah exhorteth to repentance.
saying, Thus saith the Lord of hosts; about 520.
7 The bi vision of the horses.
b Turn ye now from your evil ways, b Isai. 31.6. 12 At the prayer of the angel comfortable promises are made and from your evil doings : but they Jer. 3. 12. &
18, 11. to Jerusalem. 18 The vision of the four did not hear, nor hearken unto me, Ezek. 18. 30. horns, and the four carpenters.
Hosea 11.1. saith the Lord. TN the eighth month, in the second 5 Your fathers, where are they? 1 year of Darius, came the word of and the prophets, do they live for the LORD unto Zechariah, the son of ever? Berechiah, the son of Iddo the pro- 6 But my words and my statutes, phet, saying,
which I commanded my servants the la 2 The LORD hath been psore dis- prophets, did they not il take hold of 10r, displeasure. pleased with your fathers.
your fathers ? and they returned and o 3 Therefore say thou unto them, said, · Like as the LORD of hosts c Lam. 1. 18. a Mal. 3. 7. Thus saith the Lord of hosts; a Turn thought to do unto us, according to
ye unto me, saith the Lord of hosts, our ways, and according to our doings,
| 7 | Upon the four and twentieth about 519. 4 Be ye not as your fathers, unto day of the eleventh month, which is
+ Heb. with
Chap. I. The first six verses of this chapter contain a though the parties themselves are dead, I appeal to you separate and distinct revelation, but at the same time who are living, and well know, that the things, which connected with the general purport of the following the Prophets were commissioned to deliver to your fa. visions, to which it forms a suitable introduction. The thers in My name, did actually come upon them; and Jews were dispirited with the recollection of their past that your fathers themselves, though they would not sufferings, and a sense of their present weak and de- / at first believe and regard, were at last convinced, and pendent state. The Divine wisdom thought meet to acknowledged that God had dealt with them exactly rally their courage, and animate them to the under-, according to His declared purpose. Dr. Blayney. taking of what was necessary for the restoration of their “ Take hold,” in the margin“ overtake;" as an enemy affairs, and particularly to a vigorous prosecution of does one whom he pursues. Abp. Newcome. the building of the temple already in hand, by holding 7. Upon the four and twentieth day &c.] The second forth to them a prospect of better times. Accordingly revelation made to Zechariah, about three months after they are assured, that God was now ready to restore the first, contains eight distinct visions following each them to favour, and accumulate His blessings upon other in the same night. them, provided they would turn to Him, and not pro- The first vision is of an angel in a human form, sitvoke His judgments, as their fathers had done, by wil- ting on horseback in a low valley among myrtle trees, ful disobedience. Dr. Blayney.
| attended by others upon horses of different colours. Ver. 1. In the eighth month,] Corresponding with the The Prophet asks the meaning, and is informed that they latter part of October, and the beginning of November. were the ministers of Providence, sent to examine into The work in the house of God had been already re- the state of the whole earth, which they report to be sumed this same year, on the twenty-fourth day of the | quiet and tranquil. The angel hereupon intercedes for sixth month, that is, the beginning of September, in Judah and Jerusalem, which he represents to have pursuance of a Divine message delivered by the Pro- | suffered under the Divine indignation seventy years. He phet Haggai, Hag. i. 14, 15. Dr. Blayney.
receives a consolatory answer. The prophet is directed 5, 6. Your fathers, where are they? &c.] The purport to proclaim, that God's wrath against Judah was at an of these verses is this : Both your fathers, and the Pro. end; that He would cause the temple and Jerusalem phets who prophesied unto them, are no more; but to be rebuilt ; and would fill the country with good, as
The vision of the horses.
CHAP. I. Comfortable promises to Jerusalem. Before the month Sebat, in the second year against which thou hast had indigna- o about 519. of Darius, came the word of the LORD tion these threescore and ten years? about 519.
unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, 13 And the Lord answered the
8 I saw by night, and behold a words and comfortable words.
Zion with a great jealousy.
helped forward the affliction.
shall be stretched forth upon Jerusa-
fort Zion, and shall yet choose Jeru-
a token and consequence of His renewed favour, ver. the Persian empire, and the other nations connected 7-17. Dr. Blayney.
with Judea, which enjoyed peace at that time. But the - the month Sebat,] A Chaldee or a Syriack name. state of the Jews was unsettled, see ver. 16; which It corresponds with the latter end of January and the circumstance gives occasion to the following intercesbeginning of February. Abp. Newcome, Dr. Blayney. sion. Abp. Newcome.
8. I saw by night, and behold a man &c.] A “red 12. Then the angel of the Lord answered and said, O horse" is an emblem of war and bloodshed: see Rev. Lord of hosts, &c.] The angel, mentioned ver. 9, makes vi. 4. The “Man” or “Angel," ver. ll, denotes the his supplication to the superiour Angel, ver. 8, 10, who Logos, or Son of God, appearing as the “ Captain of was indeed the Logos, or Son of God, being called by God's hosts," or armies : see Josh. v. 13, 14; and the the name of Jehovah here, and ver. 13, 20. Compare notes on verses 12, 13, 20. W. Lowth.
chap. ii. 1, 2; xii. 8, 10. W. Lowth. - behind him were there red horses,] With riders,
threescore and ten years ?? See the notes on who were angels, ver. 11. They had horses to shew Jer. xxv. 11; xxix. 10. their power and celerity; and horses of different colours, 13. And the Lord answered] The Lord of hosts, mento intimate the difference of their ministries. Abp. Neu- tioned in the foregoing verse. W. Lowth. come, Dr. Blayney.
15. — for I was but a little displeased, &c.] I made 9. — the angel that talked with me] Distinct from the Babylonians instruments of My vengeance upon those represented, ver. 8; he who talked with the Pro- the Jews, but they exceeded their commission, and phet, ver. 13. Abp. Newcome. This was another heavenly I acted as they were prompted by their own ambition and minister, sent probably to present the visions to the cruelty. Compare Isai. xlvii. 6. W. Lowth. Prophet's imagination, as well as to explain them. / 16.— a line] That is, the architect's measuring line Vitringa styles him, The accompanying and interpreting for laying out the building. See chap. ii. 1; Jer. xxxi. angel. Dr. Blayney.
39. Dr. Blayney. 10. And the man that stood among the myrtle trees 17. – My cities through prosperity shall yet be spread answered and said, &c.] And the great Angel of the abroad;] God having determined once more to adopt covenant, Christ Jesus, who stood among the myrtle the cities of Judah for His own, very aptly calls them trees, as taking the answer out of the mouth of that “My cities.” The prosperity of the Jews under Simon angel who spake to me, answered and said, These are and others of the Asmonean family completely answers ministering spirits, &c. Bp. Hall.
to this prediction. Dr. Blayney. 11. And they answered the angel of the Lord that stood 18. Then lifted I up mine eyes, &c.] In this second among the myrtle trees,] They answer Him, as their su- vision under the emblem of four horns is represented, periour and commander. He is distinguished from that God, by such agents as He would appoint, would the other “angel of the Lord,” ver. 12, by the circum- quell and bring down all those powers, which had risen, stance of His « standing among the myrtle trees.” W. or should rise, to oppress His people. Horns are an Lowth.
usual emblem of strength and power; and because - all the earth sitteth still, and is at rest.] Meaning 'those fierce beasts, that have them, push and gore with
God sendeth to measure Jerusalem. ZECHARIAH.
The redemption of Zion. Before talked with me, What be these? And Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth Before about 519. he answered me, These are the horns thereof, and what is the length there- 519.
which have scattered Judah, Israel, of.
3 And, behold, the angel that talk-
angel went out to meet him,
6 9 Ho, ho, come forth, and fee
10 The promise of God's presence. as the four winds of the heaven, saith
2 Then said I, Whither goest thou? lon.
them, and, tossing them furiously about, scatter and - Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without drive all before them, they aptly denote conquering and walls &c.] The inhabitants of Jerusalem will multiply oppressive princes and states. See Dan. vii, viii. Dr. so fast, that the houses within the walls will not be able Blayney. The number “ four” may denote that the to contain them, and their cattle will increase in proJews had many enemies, enemies on every side ; from portion ; see Jer. xxxi. 27. Under the captivity the land all the four coasts of heaven. Abp. Newcome, Bp. Hall. was made a desolation “ without man and without
20. — four carpenters. ] Or, smiths, according to the beast," Jer. xxxiii. 12; now the contrary blessing is nuinber of the horns. W. Louth. To denote such as promised. W. Lowth. should “come to fray them,” or frighten away the That the prophecy was literally fulfilled, we learn from beasts with the horns, and to “cast out” or break to the words of Josephus: “For the city overflowing with pieces “the horns of the Gentiles;" that is, to take away multitudes by degrees crept beyond the walls, and jointheir power, to cause them to cease from disturbing the ing the northern parts of the temple to the hill, they Jews any more in the building of the temple ; (Dr. advanced no small way, so that the fourth hill, called Wells ;) and to repair the mischief which the horns had Bezetha, was surrounded with buildings.” Dr. Blayney. made. Bp. Hall, W. Lowth.
5. For 1, — will be unto her a wall of fire &c.) This
image strongly expresses the protection of the Deity. Chap. II. This chapter contains the substance of a It must have reminded the Jews of the pillar of firt, by third vision. In conformity to what was said, chap. i. which God directed and defended their ancestors. The 16, “a line shall be stretched forth upon Jerusalem," a promise that the Lord “will be the glory in the midst man, or an angel, appears with a measuring line in his of her," is an allusion to the symbol of the Divine pre. hand, going, as he says, to take the dimensions of Jeru- sence in the Holy of Holies, Rom. ix. 4. Vitringa refers salem, in order to its being rebuilt according to its the literal completion of this prophecy to the time of the former extent; which was afterwards done by Nehemiah. Maccabees; but thinks that the protection and glory of This is accompanied with a message delivered to the the future Jerusalem may also be predicted, Rev. XX. 9. Prophet, shewing the great increase of her population Abp. Newcome. and wealth ; her perfect security under the Divine This promise will receive its utmost completion in protection ; recall of her exiles from the north coun- that “New Jerusalem," described Rev. xxi, 10, where try, and the punishment of those that had oppressed “the glory of God and the Lamb" are said to be them ; the return of God's presence to dwell in “the light thereof,” ver. 11, 23. Compare Isai. lx. 19. her; and the conversion of many heathen nations; W. Lowth. and lastly, the reinstatement of Judah and Jerusalem 6. Ho, ho, come forth, and flee from the land of the in the full possession of all their ancient privileges. Dr. north, &c.] This beautiful apostrophe is addressed to Blayney.
such of the Jews as continued still to dwell in Babylon, Ver. 1. - a man] An angel in human appearance; and the adjacent country, lying north of Jerusalem, see ver. 3. W. Lowth.
exhorting them not only to come, but to make their 3. — the angel that talked with me) See chap. i. 9. escape with all possible speed from a land, which God “Another angel,” in the following clause, should be was about to make the scene of His vengeance. Dr. rather “the other angel ;" that is, the angel “with the Blayney. measuring line in his hand.” W. Lowth.
8. For thus saith the Lord of hosts ;] That is, the Mes4. — speak to this young man,] Zechariah was pro siah. There is no part of Holy Scripture that more bably at this time between twenty and thirty years of fully vindicates those confessions of our faith, which age. Dr. Blayney.
call upon us to acknowledge a plurality of Persons in
c Lev. 26. 12.
a Deut. 32. 10.
2 Cor. 6, 16.
The promise of
God's presence. Before , hosts; After the glory hath he sent will dwell in the midst of thee, saith Before 519. me unto the nations which spoiled the Lord.
you: for he that a toucheth you touch- 11 And many nations shall be
joined to the Lord in that day, and Ezek. 37. 27. Ps. 17. 8.
9 For, behold, I will shake mine shall be my people : and I will dwell
12 And the LORD shall inherit bIsai12. 6. 10 q Sing and rejoice, O daugh- Judah his portion in the holy land,
ter of Zion : for, lo, I come, and I and shall choose Jerusalem again.
the Godhead, than the very remarkable passage in this of hosts Himself, which is said, in one passage of Isaiah, and the three next verses. On the present verse St. Je- to be “shaken over the river," Isai. xi. 15; and in rome remarks, “ The voice of the Saviour speaking is another, “over Egypt," Isai. xix. 16: and no where introduced, who, the Almighty God, says that He is else, except in the text, is the same form of expression sent by the Almighty Father.” And again, citing the used in holy writ. Dr. Eveleigh. tenth and eleventh verses, he thus explains them, “These — they shall be a spoil to their servants :] As the things saith the Lord sent by the Lord whose name is Babylonians became to the Medes and Persians, who Almighty." The comment of Theodoret also is not less had been subdued, and reduced to subjection, by Ne. full and pointed : “ The Prophet has given us to under- buchadnezzar king of Babylon. Abp. Newcome, Dr. stand, not only that there are two Persons, but also two Blayney. Persons of the same rank: For thus saith the Lord 11. And many nations shall be joined to the Lord &c.] of hosts, After the glory hath He sent Me;' and, to shew Without excluding an allusion in these words to the who the Person sending is, He subjoins, “And ye shall coming in of the Gentiles to the Christian Church, the know that the Lord of hosts hath sent Me:' therefore spiritual Zion; this prediction would be verified in earboth the Person sending is the Lord of hosts, and the lier times, not only by the conversion of the Edomites Person sent is the Lord of hosts, and there is no differ- in the time of John Hyrcanus, but by many other proence of dignity between them.” This explanation rests selytes to Judaism from the heathen nations. Such on the concurrent support of all the distinguished theo- were the religious proselytes spoken of, as no incon. logians of antiquity, whose opinion on the subject can 'siderable number, in the Acts of the Apostles, chap. ii. at present be ascertained. Dr. Eveleigh.
| 10; xiii. 43: Nicolas of Antioch, the deacon, chap. vi. 5; - After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations the treasurer of Candace, queen of Ethiopia, chap. viii. &c.] To send a person after any thing implies the re- 27; Cornelius the centurion, chap. x. l; and such also quisition of his services for that particular purpose. perhaps were those Greeks mentioned John xii. 20. When therefore God is said to have sent His Angel Dr. Blayney. “ after the glory," He must be understood to have
the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto thee.] It charged Him with the means of bringing it about. being here said, that Jehovah, being sent by Jehovah, Now the mean which the Divine wisdom had devised should come and dwell in the Church, enlarged by the for securing to His people “the glory” He had pro- accession of the Gentiles, who can that be but our Lord mised them, was by executing a severe vengeance on Christ, who dwelt among us, and was by God His their oppressors, to manifest His concern for their Father sent unto us? Dr. Isaac Barrow. A passage, honour and interest, and His resolution not to suffer which like this declares, that “the Lord of hosts" was their wrongs to pass off with impunity. In pursuance sent by One who also Himself is “the Lord of hosts," of this plan, and of the orders he had received, the ought not for a moment to excite astonishment in a Angel says, he was about to “shake” his hand over the Christian ; knowing, as he must, that the second Person Babylonians, by whom the Jews had lately been op- in the Trinity, who is so often said to “have been sent pressed, and to deliver them over as “a spoil to their by the Father,” is called in the New Testament, not (former) servants.” And as this is given as a reason only “God," but also by a name which is allowed to be for summoning the Jews to quit that devoted country equivalent to “the Lord of hosts;" namely, “ the Alwith all possible speed, that they might not be involved | mighty.” See John i. 1; Rom. ix. 5; Rev. i. 8. Dr. in the calamities which were coming upon it; so the Eveleigh. Angel subjoins, that when this came to pass according Intimations of a plurality of Persons in the Godhead to His word, it would be a convincing proof that Je- seem to have been given to the Jews, as in other places hovah had sent Him. Dr. Blayney.
of Scripture, so in those texts, where mention is made - he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye.] of God more than once in the same text and under The highest expressions that language, assisted with all different capacities : as “the Lord raining fire upon its helps of metaphor and resemblance, can afford, are Sodom from the Lord," Gen. xix. 24; God anointing, very languid and faint, in comparison of what they strain and God anointed, Ps. xlv. 6, 7; “The Lord said unto to represent, when the goodness of God toward them, my Lord, Sit thou at My right hand,” Ps. cx. 1; "the who love Him, comes to be expressed. ee Ps. xxxvi. Lord sending and the Lord sent,” in this passage; with 6; ciii. 11, 13. So David strives to utter it, but with sundry others of the like nature. Those of the last form similitudes far short of the truth. If any will come are the more considerable, because the learned Jews near to reach it, it is that in Moses and Zechariah, where have acknowledged, that, though the other names of they who love God are compared to “the apple of God's God may be and are sometimes allowed to creatures, eye ;" that is, to the most dear and tender part, as it because derived from His works, or such excellences as were, about Him. Dr. Isaac Barrow.
are communicable, yet the name of “ Jehovah” or “the 9. For, behold, I will shake mine hand upon them, &c.] Lord” is peculiar to God alone, because this denotes This is the hand of Jehovah Himself, and of the Lord His eternal and necessary existence. Dean Stanhope.
Under the type of Joshua,
Christ the Branch Before. 13 Be silent, О all flesh, before filthy garments, and stood before the Before CHRIST 519. the Lord: for he is raised up out of angel. e † his holy habitation.
4 And he answered and spake unto + Heb. the habitation of
| those that stood before him, saying, his holiness, CHA P. III.
Take away the filthy garments from
him. And unto him he said, Behold,
the church, 8 Christ the Branch is pro- from thee, and I will clothe thee
with change of raiment.
A high priest standing before the mitre upon his head. So they set a ! That is, angel of the LORD, and || Satan fair mitre upon his head, and clothed tuleb to the standing at his right hand + to resist him with garments. And the angel
of the Lord stood by.
even the Lord that hath chosen Jeru- 7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts;
thou wilt keep my || charge, then lor, 3 Now Joshua was clothed with thou shalt also judge my house, and or 13. Be silent, О all flesh, &c.] Let all men be “silent” preserve them? Compare Amos iv. ll; Jude ver. 23. in token of the profoundest reverence and submission, W. Lowth. (see Hab. ii. 20, when God comes down from heaven, 3. Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, As (compare Mic. i. 3,) or gives visible signs of His ap- the rags of his captivity. Bp. Hall. What is meant by pearance to execute judgment upon His adversaries, or the “filthy garments” is evident from what is said by to shew mercy upon His servants. Heaven is called the Lord in the next verse, “Behold, I have caused “the habitation of God's holiness," Deut. xxvi. 15; thine iniquity to pass from thee.” It is no other than Isai. Ixüï. 15. W. Lowth.
the stain of moral pollution, which is in some degree
found in every man, though done away by the grace of Chap. III. Vision the fourth. Zechariah sees Joshua God in Christ. And it is in this respect that it is said, the high priest standing before the Angel of the Lord, Isaiah lxiv. 6, “we are all as an unclean thing, and all as it were soliciting to be admitted to the discharge of our righteousnesses are as filthy rags.” This makes us his sacred functions, and Satan, or the adversary, stand- unworthy in ourselves to appear in the presence of a ing by in the act of opposing him. The adversary re- God of purity, and this afforded the adversary his ceives a rebuke from Jehovah, by whose special com- ground of objection against Joshua, Dr. Blayney. mand Joshua is stripped of his filthy garments, and 4. And he answered and spake unto those that stood invested with the priestly robes of service, and a clean before him, 7 That is, to the angels that attended on “mitre" or bonnet set upon his head. The Angel Him, Jehovah, ready to execute His commands. Dr. delivers him a solemn charge. After this follows a clear Blayney. and interesting prediction of the coming of the Messiah, = And unto him he said,] That is, unto Joshua. and the establishment of His Church, of which Joshua “Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from and his companions are ordained to be signs. Pardon thee,” &c.; in token of My pardoning the publick and and peace are held forth as the blessed effects of Christ's | national sins of the Jews, and that I will restore them coming. Dr. Blayney.
to a more prosperous condition, I have commanded the Ver. 1. And he shewed me &c.] “ The angel that angels, My attendants, to clothe thee with new and talked with me," chap. ï. 3, represented to me a new clean raiment, an emblem of purity, Rev. xix. 8, as well vision; namely, that of “Joshua the high priest stand- as of joyfulness and prosperity. See Eccles. ix. S; Isai. ing before the Angel of the Lord,” or the Logos, men- lxi. 10. W. Lowth. tioned chap. i. 11. He is called “the LORD” in the The holy garments of service are here meant, with following verse. W. Lowth.
which the priests were to be clothed, when they came 2. And the Lord said unto Satan, The Lord rebuke into the inner court of the temple to minister before thee, &c.] The Logos, or Son of God, said unto Satan, God; and these they were directed to put off, when “The Lord,” even God the Father, “rebuke thee," and they went into the outer court, and conversed in comnot suffer thy mischievous imagination against Jerusa- mon with the people. Dr. Blayney. lem and the temple to prosper: He that hath chosen 5. And I said, Let them set &c.] “I said," that is, I, that place for His especial residence. This text seems the Lord, further said and commanded. As the new parallel with Gen. xix. 24, where it is said, “the Lord garments put upon Joshua were such as belonged to the rained fire from the Lord out of heaven;" a text alleged high priest, and were contrived for “ glory and beauty," by both ancient and modern writers, to prove that a Exod. xxviii. 2; so the mitre was the proper ornament distinction of Persons in the blessed Trinity was a doc. \ for his head, chap. xxix. 6. W. Lowth. trine delivered, though but imperfectly, in the Old Tes-! The vision imports, that the priestly office was to be tament. W. Lowth.
| resumed, and exercised with decency and splendour. - is not this a brand plucked out of the fire?7 Out Abp. Newcome. of the furnace of Babylon. Bp. Hall. Is not this small 7.- then thou shalt also judge my house, &c.] Then remnant returned from captivity, miraculously rescued | shalt thou, and thy sons after thee, rule orer My house from utter destruction, like "a brand plucked out of as chief priest, and have the prime oversight and comthe fire?” And can it be thought that God will not mand of My courts; and at last I will give thee a place