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i Matt. 6. 1.


er from a


drunken: neither let drunkenness gol depart together. 17 But his mother is
with thee in thy journey.

grieved for her son's departing.
h Luke 14. 13. 16 h Give of thy bread to the hun- |

M OBIAS then answered and
gry, and of thy garments to them I said, Father, I will do all things
that are naked; and according to which thou hast commanded me :
thine abundance i give alms; and let 2 But how can I receive the money,
not thine eye be envious, when thou seeing I know him not?
givest alms.

3 Then he gave him the hand-
17 Pour out thy bread on the bu- writing, and said unto him, Seek thee
rial of the just, but give nothing to a man which may go with thee, whiles
the wicked.

I yet live, and I will give him wages:
18 Ask counsel of all that are wise, and go and receive the money.
and despise not any counsel that is 4 Therefore when he went to seek

a man, he found Raphael that was an
19 Bless the Lord thy God alway, angel.
and desire of him that thy ways may 15 But he knew not; and he said
be directed, and that all thy paths unto him, Canst thou go with me to
and counsels may prosper: for every Rages? and knowest thou those
nation hath not counsel; but the Lord | places well?
himself giveth all good things, and 6 To whom the angel said, I will
he humbleth whom he will, as he go with thee, and I know the way
will; now therefore, my son, remem- well: for I have lodged with our bro-
ber my commandments, neither let ther Gabạel.
them be put out of thy mind.

7 Then Tobias said unto him,
20 And now I signify this to thee, Tarry for me, till I tell my father.
that I committed ten talents to Ga- 8 Then he said unto him, Go, and
bael the son of Gabrias at Rages in tarry not. So he went in and said to

his father, Behold, I have found one 21 And fear not, my son, that we which will go with me. Then he are made poor: for thou hast much said, Call him unto me, that I may wealth, if 'thou fear God, and depart know of what tribe he is, and whether from all sin, and do that which is he be a trusty man to go with thee. pleasing in his sight.

9 So he called him, and he came

in, and they saluted one another. CHAP. V.

10 Then Tobit said unto him,
4 Young Tobias seeketh a guide into Media. |

Brother, shew me of what tribe and
6 The angel will go with him, 12 and saith family thou art.
he is his kinsman. 16 Tobias and the angel 11 To whom he said, Dost thou

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cept is extremely similar to that admirable precept, greater flow of prosperity; or, having proved his soul by a which our blessed Lord sanctioned by His authority at great trial of afflictions, reserve for him a treasure in the Matt. vii. 12. Calmet. See the notes there.

heavens, with which temporal goods are not worthy to - go with thee in thy journey. Some other copies be compared. How happy would the case of the poor read “in any of thy ways.” But perhaps Tobit may be, if, like Tobit, they had ever this excellent maxim in have had particular respect to the journey on which he their minds, which he here gives in charge to his son ! was about to send his son, and may have given him a It may not be amiss to observe, and place in one view, caution against excess in drinking, to which the thirst the several admirable precepts given by a religious father arising from travelling in a warm climate would es to his son, in this chapter. 1. To remember God; and pecially tempt him. Arnald.

to praise Him devoutly for His blessings. 2. To pay a 17. Pour out thy bread on the burial of the just,] reverence and regard to parents for the kindness reSee the note on Jer. xvi. 7.

ceived from them. 3. To shew charity to the poor. 4. 21. - thou hast much wealth, if thou fear God,] This To avoid fornication, and every species of lewdness. 5. sentiment is so exalted, that, as has been observed upon To abhor all pride. 6. To be just towards all, and in it, it might be thought to have been spoken by some particular to give the labourer his hire. 7. To honour Christian father to his son, in the times of the Gospel. good and just men, and to pay a respect to their memory Tobit had lost his sight, was a captive, and reduced to by a decent funeral. 8. To ask counsel of the wise, and low circumstances ; and yet in the full assurance of follow it.- 9. To trust in God's goodness, even in the faith, from the good treasure of his heart, he pronounces midst of poverty. Arnald. this encouraging maxim to all others in the like distressed circumstances, “Thou hast much wealth if thou Chap. V. ver. 3. — the handwriting,] Containing the fear God.” God will either return with advantage to a acknowledgment of the debt. persecuted and afflicted servant what he may at any 5. But he knew not ;] He knew not that he was an time have lost, especially for the sake of His truth, and I angel, having assumed a human form. Arnald. bless his latter end, as He did that of Job, with the ! 11.- Dost thou seek for a tribe or a family,] is


c.) Thero


the brethren Tobit said now angry know | re

money be

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seek for a tribe or family, or an hired went forth both, and the young man's
man to go with thy son? Then To-dog with them.
bit said unto him, I would know, 17 But Anna his mother wept, and
brother, thy kindred and name. said to Tobit, Why hast thou sent

12 Then he said, I am Azarias, | away our son ? is he not the staff of the son of Ananias the great, and of our hand, in going in and out before

us ?
13 Then Tobit said, Thou art wel- 18 || Be not greedy to add money 101, Les est
come, brother; be not now angry with to money : but let it be as refuse in added, but
me, because I have enquired to know respect of our child.
thy tribe and thy family; for thou 19 || For that which the Lord hath our sok.
art my brother, of an honest and good given us to live with doth suffice us. as God data
stock: for I know Ananias and Jo- 20 Then said Tobit to her, Take fire this is
nathas, sons of that great Samaias, as no care, my sister; he shall return in suficient.
we went together to Jerusalem to safety, and thine eyes shall see him.
worship, and offered the firstborn, 21 For the good angel will keep
and the tenth of the fruits; and they him company, and his journey shall
were not seduced with the error of be prosperous, and he shall return
our brethren: my brother, thou art safe.
of a good stock.

22 Then she made an end of
14 But tell me, what wages shall I weeping.
give thee? wilt thou a drachm a day,
and things necessary, as to mine own


4 The angel biddeth Tobias to take the liver, 15 Yea, moreover, if ye return heart, and gall out of a fish, 10 and to safe, I will add something to thy

marry Sara the daughter of Raquel : 16 wages.

and teacheth how to drive the wicked spirit
16 So they were well pleased. Then

said he to Tobias, Prepare thyself for AND as they went on their jour-
the journey, and God send you a good | A ney, they came in the evening
journey. And when his son had pre- to the river s'igris, and they lodged
pared all things for the journey, his there.
father said, Go thou with this man, 2 And when the young man went
and God, which dwelleth in heaven, down to wash himself, a fish leaped
prosper your journey, and the angel out of the river, and would have de-
of God keep you company. So they voured him.

meaning seems to be, Why dost thou trouble thyself this nature. The introduction of such incidental partiabout my tribe or family? Content thyself, without any culars is not unusual in the most admired works of further inquiry, that thou hast a good guide for thy son. antiquity. Dr. Gray. Arnald.

17. - is he not the staff of our hand, &c.] This is a 12. - I am Azarias, &c.] The name Azarias signifies | Hebrew expression, to which there is a similar phrase at “God's help or assistance :” Raphael was manifestly Numb. xxvii. 17. The sense is, Is he not the staff of sent on this occasion for the purpose of being a guide our age in managing our affairs and taking care of us ? and assistance to Tobias on his journey, and therefore Arnald. he prudently concealed his quality of an angel, that he' 20. — my sister ;] It was often the custom of the might more conveniently execute his commission. / Jews to call their wives by this name, as being descended Stackhouse.

by the same common stock with themselves from their 14. -- a drachm a day,] We cannot discover with any | ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Grotius. certainty the value of this drachm. It is inferred from 21. the good angel will keep him company, 1 It was Matt. xvii. 24, that the Greek drachm was a fourth part the common persuasion of the ancient Hebrews, that of the Hebrew shekel : thus allowing the shekel to be every man has a guardian angel, who watches over his about two shillings and fourpence of our money, the preservation. Calmet. drachm was equal to about sevenpence of our money. On the other hand, if we suppose the translation of the Chap. VI. ver. 1.- to the rider Tigris,] This river book of Tobit from the Chaldee into Greek to have been runs from Nineveh towards Adiabene, which is the made by some Alexandrian Jew, then we must under route of persons going to Media. Grotius. stand the Alexandrian drachm to be meant, which was 2.- a fish leaped out] It is quite uncertain of what equal to half a Hebrew shekel, or about one shilling and species was the fish here mentioned. The gall of the two pence of our money. Arnald.

fish called Callionimus is efficacious in removing specks 16. - and the young man's dog with them. The men- / and obstructions of the sight. But this fish seerns to tion of Tobit's dog has been frequently represented as a / be too small to correspond with this description. ludicrous and unnecessary particular.' But there is of- / Bochart contends for the Silurus, the Sheat-fish, or ten as much want of taste as of candour in criticism of Sturgeon, called also the Glanis. This the naturalis

upon the land.

liver Thing and takele angel said,


Apocrypha. 3 Then the angel said unto him, right of inheritance doth rather ap

Take the fish. And the your'g man pertain to thee than to any other.
! Or, cast it laid hold of the fish, and || drew it to 13 Then the young man answered

the angel, I have heard, brother Aza-
4 To whom the angel said, Open rias, that this maid hath been given
the fish, and take the heart and the to seven men, who all died in the
liver and the gall, and put them up marriage chamber.

14 And now I am the only son of
5 So the young man did as the my father, and I am afraid, lest, if I
angel commanded him; and when go in unto her, I die, as the other
they had roasted the fish, they did before : for a wicked spirit loveth
eat it: then they both went on her, which hurteth no body, but those
their way, till they drew near to Ec- which come unto her: wherefore I

also fear lest I die, and bring my fa-
6 Then the young man said to the ther's and my mother's life because of
angel, Brother Azarias, to what use me to the grave with sorrow: for they
is the heart and the liver and the gall have no other son to bury them.
of the fish?

15 Then the angel said unto him,
7 And he said unto him, Touching Dost thou not remember the precepts
the heart and the liver, if a devil or which thy father gave thee, that thou
an evil spirit trouble any, we must shouldest marry a wife of thine own
make a smoke thereof before the man kindred ? wherefore hear me, O my
or the woman, and the party shall be brother; for she shall be given thee
no more vexed.

to wife; and make thou no reckoning
8 As for the gall, it is good to of the evil spirit; for this same night
anoint a man that hath whiteness in shall she be given thee in marriage.
his eyes, and he shall be healed. L 16 And when thou shalt come into

9 And when they were come near the marriage chamber, thou shalt take
to Rages,

the || ashes of perfume, and shalt lay | Or, embers.
10 The angel said to the young upon them some of the heart and
man, Brother, to day we shall lodge liver of the fish, and shalt make a
with Raguel, who is thy cousin; he smoke with it:
also hath one only daughter, named | 17 And the devil shall smell it,
Sara; I will speak for her, that she and flee away, and never come again
may be given thee for a wife. any more: but when thou shalt come
· il For to thee doth the || a right of to her, rise up both of you, and pray
her appertain, seeing thou only art of to God which is merciful, who will
her kindred.

have pity on you, and save you : fear
12 And the maid is fair and wise: not, for she is appointed unto thee
now therefore hear me, and I will from the beginning; and thou shalt
speak to her father; and when we preserve her, and she shall go with
return from Rages we will celebrate thee. Moreover I suppose that she
the marriage: for I know that Ra- shall bear thee children. Now when
guel cannot marry her to another ac- Tobias had heard these things, he
cording to the law of Moses, but he loved her, and his heart was || effec- || Or,
shall be guilty of death, because the tually joined to her.

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describe as large and voracious : and its liver was he shall be guilty of death.” In some copies this clause famous for removing suffusions and dimness. But it is wholly omitted. Arnald. is objected that this fish, as having no scales, could not 16. - the ashes of perfume,] Perfumes were usually be eaten consistently with the restrictions of the Le-burnt at marriages. See note at Cant, iii. 6. Indeed, vitical law; Lev. xi. 10, 11. The livers of many other at all feasts, it is the common custom of the East to use fishes may have the same medicinal qualities. Dr. censers of different perfumes. Sir J. Chardin. Gray.

17. pray to God who will have pity on you] 12.- cannot marry her to another according to the law This seems sufficiently to intimate, that the expulsion of of Moses,] According to the precept in the Mosaick the evil spirit was effected by the Divine power, although law, Numb. xxvii. 8, a woman who, having no brother, it is related as having been effected by a natural cause, succeeded to the inheritance of her father, ought to the smoke of the fish. Stackhouse. marry her nearest kinsman. But the penalty of death

for she is appointed unto thee from the beginning;] here mentioned is no where denounced in the law. A Meaning, she belongs to thee, according to the law, preferable sense seems to be that of the Geneva ver- and is thine by Divine appointment and designation. sion, "Else he would deserve death," instead of " but | Arnald.


know We know binti?



that night they came in unto her:
11 Raguel telleth Tobias what had happened nevertheless for the present be merry.

to his daughter : 12 and giveth her in mar- But Tobias said, I will eat nothing
riage unto him. 17 She is conveyed to her here, till we agree and swear one to
chamber, and weepeth. 18 Her mother
comforteth her.

AND when they were come to

12 Raguel said, Then take her H Ecbatane, they came to the

from henceforth according to the house of Raguel, and Sara met them:

|| manner, for thou art her cousin, 1 Or, ler. and after they had saluted one ano

and she is thine, and the merciful ther, she brought them into the house.

God give you good success in all 2 Then said Raguel to Edna his

things. wife, How like is this young man to

13 Then he called his daughter Tobit my cousin !

Sara, and she came to her father, and 3 And Raguel asked them, From

he took her by the hand, and gave whence are ye, brethren? To whom

her to be wife to Tobias, saying, Bethey said, We are of the sons of Neph

hold, take her after a the law of a Numb. X. thalim, which are captives in Nineve.

Moses, and lead her away to thy 4 Then he said to them, Do ye

father. And he blessed them; know Tobit our kinsman ? And they

14 And called Edna his wife, and said. We know him. Then said he took paper, and did write an instruIs he in good health ?

ment of covenants, and sealed it. 5 And they said, He is both alive,

15 Then they began to eat,

16 After Raguel called his wife
and in good health : and Tobias said,
He is my father.

| Edna, and said unto her, Sister, pre-
6 Then Raguel leaped up, and

pare another chamber, and bring her kissed him, and wept,

in thither. 7 And blessed him, and said unto,

17 Which when she had done as him, Thou art the son of an honest

| he had bidden her, she brought her and good man. But when he had

thither: and she wept, and she || re- 1 Or, licked. heard that Tobit was blind, he was

ceived the tears of her daughter, and sorrowful, and wept.

said unto her, 8 And likewise Edna his wife and

18 Be of good comfort, my daugh-
Sara his daughter wept. Moreover teri tn

reoverter; the Lord of heaven and earth
they entertained them chearfully: and give thee joy for this thy sorrow: be
k- after that they had killed Il a ram of of good comfort, my daughter.
the flock, they set store of meat on

the table. Then said Tobias to Ra-

3 Tobias driveth the wicked spirit away, as phael, Brother Azarias, speak of those

he was taught. 4 He and his wife rise up things of which thou didst talk in the

to pray. 10 Raguel thought he was dead:
way, and let this business be dis- 15 bul findiny him alive, praiseth God, 19

and maketh a wedding feas..
9 So he communicated the matter | ND when they had supped, they
with Raguel: and Raguel said to A brought Tobias in unto her.
Tobias, Eat and drink, and make 2 And as he went, he remembered

the words of Raphael, and took the
10 For it is meet that thou should- | || ashes of the perfumes, and put the 101, eskal
est marry my daughter: nevertheless heart and the liver of the fish there-
I will declare unto thee the truth. upon, and made a smoke therewith.

11 I have given my daughter in 3 The which smell when the evil marriage to seven men, who died spirit had smelled, he fed into the

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Chap. VII. ver. 7. And blessed him,] As it was cus- Chap. VIII. ver. 3. The which smell, &c.] The sup tomary for aged persons to do to those who were younger posed effect of fumigation on demons was agreeable to than themselves, Gen. xlix. 28; Mark x. 16. Grotius. vulgar notions. We should observe, that the perfume

13. - and gave her to be wife to Tobias,] We have is described as having been rendered efficacious by here an instance of the very simple mode of celebrating faith, prayer, and continence; (ver. 4, 5, &c. ;) and 18 a marriage in ancient times. It is the father who per- seems that the burning of the entrails of the fish was forms the ceremony, and joins the right hands of the enjoined rather as a sign and intimation, than as a pbro two parties ; as the Latin translation expresses it : a sical cause, of the defeat of the evil spirit, as in John custom, which was common in Media, where this took ix. 6. Dr. Gray. place, in confirming all alliances and treaties. Calmet. I - into the utmost parts of Egypt,] The evil spirit

18, 22.


utmost parts of Egypt, and the angel 16 Thou art to be praised, for thou
bound him.

hast made me joyful; and that is not
4 And after that they were both come to me which I suspected; but
shut in together, Tobias rose out of thou hast dealt with us according to
the bed, and said, Sister, arise, and thy great mercy.
let us pray that God would have pity! 17 Thou art to be praised, because
on us.

thou hast had mercy of two that were
5 Then began Tobias to say, the only begotten children of their
Blessed art thou, O God of our fa- | fathers : grant them mercy, O Lord,
thers, and blessed is thy holy and and finish their life in health with joy
glorious name for ever; let the hea- and mercy,
vens bless thee, and all thy creatures. 18 Then Raguel bade his servants

6 Thou madest Adam, and gavest to fill the grave.
a. Gen. 2.7, him a Eve his wife for an helper and 19 And he kept the wedding feast

stay: of them came mankind: thou fourteen days.
hast said, It is not good that man 20 For before the days of the mar-
should be alone; let us make unto riage were finished, Raguel bad said
him an aid like unto himself. unto him by an oath, that he should

7 And now, O Lord, I take not not depart till the fourteen days of
this my sister for lust, but uprightly: the marriage were expired;
therefore mercifully ordain that we 21 And then he should take the
may become aged together.

| half of his goods, and go in safety to
8 And she said with him, Amen. his father; and should have the rest
• 9 So they slept both that night. when I and my wife be dead.

And Raguel arose, and went and
made a grave,

10 Saying, I fear lest he also be 1 Tobias sendeth the angel unto Gabuel for

the money. 6 The angel bringeth it and
11 But when Raguel was come into

Gabael to the wedding.
his house,

THEN Tobias called Raphael,
12 He said unto his wife Edna, | 1 and said unto him,
Send one of the maids, and let her | 2 Brother Azarias, take with thee
see whether he be alive : if he be not, a servant, and two camels, and go to
that we may bury him, and no man | Rages of Media to Gabael, and bring
know it.

me the money, and bring him to the
13 So the maid opened the door, and wedding.
went in, and found them both asleep, 3 For Raguel hath sworn that I

14 And came forth, and told them shall not depart.
that he was alive.

4 But my father counteth the days;
15 Then Raguel praised God, and and if I tarry long, he will be very
said, O God, thou art worthy to be sorry.
praised with all pure and holy praise; 5 So Raphael went out, and lodged
therefore let thy saints praise thee with Gabael, and gave him the hand-
with all thy creatures; and let all writing: who brought forth bags
thine angels and thine elect praise which were sealed up, and gave them
thee for ever.

to him.

was sent to those places where the dominion of Satan necessary, that the husband could not by any means be was especially established among idolaters, Zech. v. 11. excused from them, but was obliged to continue them Bp. Wilson.

seven days at least ; even the sabbath day itself being - and the angel bound him.) We read of the bind- accounted no hindrance. It appears from several pasing of evil spirits in some parts of Scripture ; see Rev. sages of Scripture, that the usual time of the marriage xx. 2 ; 2 Pet. ii. 4 ; Jude ver. 6. We are not to under- feast was seven days. See Gen. xxix. 27; Judg. xiv. 10, 12; stand the expression literally, as if the evil spirit were Tob. xi. 19. It is to be observed however, that although confined or locked up within certain limits of space ; the time was usually limited to a week, yet the parents but only that his power of doing mischief, and of exe- of the espoused were at liberty to prolong it, if they cuting his wicked intentions, was restrained within thought fit; and perhaps Raguel doubles the usual time limited bounds. As when God permits any person to by keeping the feast for fourteen days, from the satisbe tempted, the power of the tempter is limited to that faction he felt at the escape of his son-in-law from the person, and to the place where he is. Calmet.

power and evil intentions of the demon. Arnald. 19. he kept the wedding feast fourteen days.] Rejoicings at the Jewish weddings were esteemed so absolutely! Chap. IX. ver. 5. bags which were sealed] See

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