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i Matt. 6. 1.
er from a
grieved for her son's departing.
M OBIAS then answered and
3 Then he gave him the hand-
I yet live, and I will give him wages:
a man, he found Raphael that was an
7 Then Tobias said unto him,
his father, Behold, I have found one 21 And fear not, my son, that we which will go with me. Then he are made poor: for thou hast much said, Call him unto me, that I may wealth, if 'thou fear God, and depart know of what tribe he is, and whether from all sin, and do that which is he be a trusty man to go with thee. pleasing in his sight.
9 So he called him, and he came
in, and they saluted one another. CHAP. V.
10 Then Tobit said unto him,
Brother, shew me of what tribe and
cept is extremely similar to that admirable precept, greater flow of prosperity; or, having proved his soul by a which our blessed Lord sanctioned by His authority at great trial of afflictions, reserve for him a treasure in the Matt. vii. 12. Calmet. See the notes there.
heavens, with which temporal goods are not worthy to - go with thee in thy journey. Some other copies be compared. How happy would the case of the poor read “in any of thy ways.” But perhaps Tobit may be, if, like Tobit, they had ever this excellent maxim in have had particular respect to the journey on which he their minds, which he here gives in charge to his son ! was about to send his son, and may have given him a It may not be amiss to observe, and place in one view, caution against excess in drinking, to which the thirst the several admirable precepts given by a religious father arising from travelling in a warm climate would es to his son, in this chapter. 1. To remember God; and pecially tempt him. Arnald.
to praise Him devoutly for His blessings. 2. To pay a 17. Pour out thy bread on the burial of the just,] reverence and regard to parents for the kindness reSee the note on Jer. xvi. 7.
ceived from them. 3. To shew charity to the poor. 4. 21. - thou hast much wealth, if thou fear God,] This To avoid fornication, and every species of lewdness. 5. sentiment is so exalted, that, as has been observed upon To abhor all pride. 6. To be just towards all, and in it, it might be thought to have been spoken by some particular to give the labourer his hire. 7. To honour Christian father to his son, in the times of the Gospel. good and just men, and to pay a respect to their memory Tobit had lost his sight, was a captive, and reduced to by a decent funeral. 8. To ask counsel of the wise, and low circumstances ; and yet in the full assurance of follow it.- 9. To trust in God's goodness, even in the faith, from the good treasure of his heart, he pronounces midst of poverty. Arnald. this encouraging maxim to all others in the like distressed circumstances, “Thou hast much wealth if thou Chap. V. ver. 3. — the handwriting,] Containing the fear God.” God will either return with advantage to a acknowledgment of the debt. persecuted and afflicted servant what he may at any 5. But he knew not ;] He knew not that he was an time have lost, especially for the sake of His truth, and I angel, having assumed a human form. Arnald. bless his latter end, as He did that of Job, with the ! 11.- Dost thou seek for a tribe or a family,] is
the brethren Tobit said now angry know | re
OT, So long
12 Then he said, I am Azarias, | away our son ? is he not the staff of the son of Ananias the great, and of our hand, in going in and out before
22 Then she made an end of
4 The angel biddeth Tobias to take the liver, 15 Yea, moreover, if ye return heart, and gall out of a fish, 10 and to safe, I will add something to thy
marry Sara the daughter of Raquel : 16 wages.
and teacheth how to drive the wicked spirit
meaning seems to be, Why dost thou trouble thyself this nature. The introduction of such incidental partiabout my tribe or family? Content thyself, without any culars is not unusual in the most admired works of further inquiry, that thou hast a good guide for thy son. antiquity. Dr. Gray. Arnald.
17. - is he not the staff of our hand, &c.] This is a 12. - I am Azarias, &c.] The name Azarias signifies | Hebrew expression, to which there is a similar phrase at “God's help or assistance :” Raphael was manifestly Numb. xxvii. 17. The sense is, Is he not the staff of sent on this occasion for the purpose of being a guide our age in managing our affairs and taking care of us ? and assistance to Tobias on his journey, and therefore Arnald. he prudently concealed his quality of an angel, that he' 20. — my sister ;] It was often the custom of the might more conveniently execute his commission. / Jews to call their wives by this name, as being descended Stackhouse.
by the same common stock with themselves from their 14. -- a drachm a day,] We cannot discover with any | ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Grotius. certainty the value of this drachm. It is inferred from 21. — the good angel will keep him company, 1 It was Matt. xvii. 24, that the Greek drachm was a fourth part the common persuasion of the ancient Hebrews, that of the Hebrew shekel : thus allowing the shekel to be every man has a guardian angel, who watches over his about two shillings and fourpence of our money, the preservation. Calmet. drachm was equal to about sevenpence of our money. On the other hand, if we suppose the translation of the Chap. VI. ver. 1.- to the rider Tigris,] This river book of Tobit from the Chaldee into Greek to have been runs from Nineveh towards Adiabene, which is the made by some Alexandrian Jew, then we must under route of persons going to Media. Grotius. stand the Alexandrian drachm to be meant, which was 2.- a fish leaped out] It is quite uncertain of what equal to half a Hebrew shekel, or about one shilling and species was the fish here mentioned. The gall of the two pence of our money. Arnald.
fish called Callionimus is efficacious in removing specks 16. - and the young man's dog with them. The men- / and obstructions of the sight. But this fish seerns to tion of Tobit's dog has been frequently represented as a / be too small to correspond with this description. ludicrous and unnecessary particular.' But there is of- / Bochart contends for the Silurus, the Sheat-fish, or ten as much want of taste as of candour in criticism of Sturgeon, called also the Glanis. This the naturalis
upon the land.
liver Thing and takele angel said,
Apocrypha. 3 Then the angel said unto him, right of inheritance doth rather ap
Take the fish. And the your'g man pertain to thee than to any other.
the angel, I have heard, brother Aza-
14 And now I am the only son of
also fear lest I die, and bring my fa-
15 Then the angel said unto him,
to wife; and make thou no reckoning
9 And when they were come near the marriage chamber, thou shalt take
the || ashes of perfume, and shalt lay | Or, embers.
have pity on you, and save you : fear
describe as large and voracious : and its liver was he shall be guilty of death.” In some copies this clause famous for removing suffusions and dimness. But it is wholly omitted. Arnald. is objected that this fish, as having no scales, could not 16. - the ashes of perfume,] Perfumes were usually be eaten consistently with the restrictions of the Le-burnt at marriages. See note at Cant, iii. 6. Indeed, vitical law; Lev. xi. 10, 11. The livers of many other at all feasts, it is the common custom of the East to use fishes may have the same medicinal qualities. Dr. censers of different perfumes. Sir J. Chardin. Gray.
17. – pray to God — who will have pity on you] 12.- cannot marry her to another according to the law This seems sufficiently to intimate, that the expulsion of of Moses,] According to the precept in the Mosaick the evil spirit was effected by the Divine power, although law, Numb. xxvii. 8, a woman who, having no brother, it is related as having been effected by a natural cause, succeeded to the inheritance of her father, ought to the smoke of the fish. Stackhouse. marry her nearest kinsman. But the penalty of death
for she is appointed unto thee from the beginning;] here mentioned is no where denounced in the law. A Meaning, she belongs to thee, according to the law, preferable sense seems to be that of the Geneva ver- and is thine by Divine appointment and designation. sion, "Else he would deserve death," instead of " but | Arnald.
know We know binti?
that night they came in unto her:
to his daughter : 12 and giveth her in mar- But Tobias said, I will eat nothing
12 Raguel said, Then take her H Ecbatane, they came to the
from henceforth according to the house of Raguel, and Sara met them:
|| manner, for thou art her cousin, 1 Or, ler. and after they had saluted one ano
and she is thine, and the merciful ther, she brought them into the house.
God give you good success in all 2 Then said Raguel to Edna his
things. wife, How like is this young man to
13 Then he called his daughter Tobit my cousin !
Sara, and she came to her father, and 3 And Raguel asked them, From
he took her by the hand, and gave whence are ye, brethren? To whom
her to be wife to Tobias, saying, Bethey said, We are of the sons of Neph
hold, take her after a the law of a Numb. X. thalim, which are captives in Nineve.
Moses, and lead her away to thy 4 Then he said to them, Do ye
father. And he blessed them; know Tobit our kinsman ? And they
14 And called Edna his wife, and said. We know him. Then said he took paper, and did write an instruIs he in good health ?
ment of covenants, and sealed it. 5 And they said, He is both alive,
15 Then they began to eat,
16 After Raguel called his wife
| Edna, and said unto her, Sister, pre-
pare another chamber, and bring her kissed him, and wept,
in thither. 7 And blessed him, and said unto,
17 Which when she had done as him, Thou art the son of an honest
| he had bidden her, she brought her and good man. But when he had
thither: and she wept, and she || re- 1 Or, licked. heard that Tobit was blind, he was
ceived the tears of her daughter, and sorrowful, and wept.
said unto her, 8 And likewise Edna his wife and
18 Be of good comfort, my daugh-
reoverter; the Lord of heaven and earth
3 Tobias driveth the wicked spirit away, as phael, Brother Azarias, speak of those
he was taught. 4 He and his wife rise up things of which thou didst talk in the
to pray. 10 Raguel thought he was dead:
and maketh a wedding feas..
the words of Raphael, and took the
11 I have given my daughter in 3 The which smell when the evil marriage to seven men, who died spirit had smelled, he fed into the
Chap. VII. ver. 7. And blessed him,] As it was cus- Chap. VIII. ver. 3. The which smell, &c.] The sup tomary for aged persons to do to those who were younger posed effect of fumigation on demons was agreeable to than themselves, Gen. xlix. 28; Mark x. 16. Grotius. vulgar notions. We should observe, that the perfume
13. - and gave her to be wife to Tobias,] We have is described as having been rendered efficacious by here an instance of the very simple mode of celebrating faith, prayer, and continence; (ver. 4, 5, &c. ;) and 18 a marriage in ancient times. It is the father who per- seems that the burning of the entrails of the fish was forms the ceremony, and joins the right hands of the enjoined rather as a sign and intimation, than as a pbro two parties ; as the Latin translation expresses it : a sical cause, of the defeat of the evil spirit, as in John custom, which was common in Media, where this took ix. 6. Dr. Gray. place, in confirming all alliances and treaties. Calmet. I - into the utmost parts of Egypt,] The evil spirit
hast made me joyful; and that is not
thou hast had mercy of two that were
6 Thou madest Adam, and gavest to fill the grave.
stay: of them came mankind: thou fourteen days.
7 And now, O Lord, I take not not depart till the fourteen days of
| half of his goods, and go in safety to
And Raguel arose, and went and
the money. 6 The angel bringeth it and
Gabael to the wedding.
THEN Tobias called Raphael,
me the money, and bring him to the
14 And came forth, and told them shall not depart.
4 But my father counteth the days;
was sent to those places where the dominion of Satan necessary, that the husband could not by any means be was especially established among idolaters, Zech. v. 11. excused from them, but was obliged to continue them Bp. Wilson.
seven days at least ; even the sabbath day itself being - and the angel bound him.) We read of the bind- accounted no hindrance. It appears from several pasing of evil spirits in some parts of Scripture ; see Rev. sages of Scripture, that the usual time of the marriage xx. 2 ; 2 Pet. ii. 4 ; Jude ver. 6. We are not to under- feast was seven days. See Gen. xxix. 27; Judg. xiv. 10, 12; stand the expression literally, as if the evil spirit were Tob. xi. 19. It is to be observed however, that although confined or locked up within certain limits of space ; the time was usually limited to a week, yet the parents but only that his power of doing mischief, and of exe- of the espoused were at liberty to prolong it, if they cuting his wicked intentions, was restrained within thought fit; and perhaps Raguel doubles the usual time limited bounds. As when God permits any person to by keeping the feast for fourteen days, from the satisbe tempted, the power of the tempter is limited to that faction he felt at the escape of his son-in-law from the person, and to the place where he is. Calmet.
power and evil intentions of the demon. Arnald. 19. — he kept the wedding feast fourteen days.] Rejoicings at the Jewish weddings were esteemed so absolutely! Chap. IX. ver. 5. — bags which were sealed] See