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+ Gr.captains of thousands.


Apocrypha. Before taking care for the good ordering of to kill John: and unto the + tribunes Before about 135. them; at which time he came down he sent letters to come unto him, that about 135. himself to Jericho with his sons, Mat- he might give them silver, and gold,

tathias and Judas, in the hundred and rewards.
threescore and seventeenth year, in 20 And others he sent to take
the eleventh month, called Sabat : Jerusalem, and the mountain of the

15 Where the son of Abubus re- temple.
ceiving them deceitfully into a little 21 Now one had run afore to Ga-
hold, called Docus, which he had zara, and told John that his father
built, made them a great banquet : and brethren were slain, and, quoth
howbeit he had hid men there. he, Ptolemee hath sent to slay thee

16 So when Simon and his sons also.
had drunk largely, Ptolemee and his 22 Hereof when he heard, he was
men rose up, and took their weapons, sore astonished: so he laid hands on
and came upon Simon into the ban- them that were come to destroy him,
quetting place, and slew him, and his and slew them; for he knew that
two sons, and certain of his servants. they sought to make him away.

17 In which doing he committed 23 As concerning the rest of the
a great treachery, and recompensed acts of John, and his wars, and worthy
evil for good.

deeds which he did, and the building
18 Then Ptolemee wrote these of the walls which he made, and his
things, and sent to the king, that he doings,
should send him an host to aid him, 24 Behold, these are written in
and he would deliver him the country the chronicles of his priesthood, from
and cities.

the time he was made high priest
19 He sent others also to Gazara after his father.

Chap. XVI. ver. 17. In which doing he committed a . and their friendship courted by all the nations round great treachery, &c.] What finally became of this traitor them, even by the Romans and Lacedemonians. He we have no manner of account in history. Being un-observes further, that this Simon was no less zealous for able to support himself against John the son of Simon, the service of God, in exterminating apostasy, superstiwho speedily marched against him, he fled to Zeno, tion, idolatry, and every thing else that was contrary to tyrant of Philadelphia, and there waited in expectation His laws ; that he was a great protector of the true Isof the arrival of Antiochus. No farther mention is made raelites, and a friend to the poor ; that he restored the of him by Josephus. Though Antiochus might have service of the temple to its ancient splendour, and reliked the treason, he must have hated and abhorred paired the number of the sacred vessels. So that we the traitor. And how could he trust an ungrate- need not wonder, if the Jewish Sanhedrim thought no ful viper, who had stung his best friend and benefactor dignity and honour while he lived, and, when he was so to his death? Dr. Hales. As to the victim of his trea- basely and barbarously cut off, no grief and lamentation, chery, the commendation, which the author of this book too great for a man of his uncommon merit. Universal bestows upon him, chap. xiv. 4—15, is worth our obser- | History, Stackhouse. vation : for therein he tells us, that “he sought the 23. As concerning the rest of the acts of John,] He good of his nation in such wise, as that evermore his succeeded his father in the high priesthood and princiauthority pleased them well :” that during his adminis- pality of the nation, which continued in the Maccabean tration, whilst Syria and other neighbouring kingdoms family until the time of Herod the Great. See the notes were almost destroyed by wars, the Jews lived quietly, subjoined to the Book of Esther. “every man under his vine and his fig tree," enjoying 24.- in the chronicles of his priesthood,] Called in without fear the fruits of their labours, and beholding some of the Greek copies, the fourth book of Maccawith pleasure the flourishing state of their country ; beus ; which Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, their trade increased by the reduction of Joppa and here begins to follow and abridge. A Greek version of other maritime places ; their territories enlarged ; their this chronicle was extant not very long ago at Lyons, armies well disciplined; their towns and fortresses well though it seems to have been there burnt and to be utterly garrisoned ; their religion and liberties secured; their lost. Whiston. land freed from heathen enemies and Jewish apostates;

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THIS book contains a compilation of historical records extracted from different works ; but especially in

abridgment of an history of the persecutions of Epiphanes and Eupator against the Jews, which had been written in Greek in five books, by an Hellenistical Jew of Cyrene, named Jason, a descendant probable of those Jews who had been placed there by Ptolemy Soter ; and which is no longer extant. The name of the compiler is not known. He was doubtless a different person from the author of the preceding book. He data from an era six months later than that chosen by him, and he not only writes with less accuracy, and in a more florid style, but likewise relates some particulars in a manner inconsistent with the accounts of the first book; from which nevertheless he has in other instances borrowed both sentiments and facts. By whomsoever it 133 composed, it should seem to have been originally written in Greek ; and the compiler, as well as the author, whose work he abridged, follows the Syrian mode of computation, reckoning by the years of the Seleucida,

The two epistles which are contained in the first and second chapters, and which are there said to have been

written by the Jews at Jerusalem to their brethren at Alexandria, exhorting them to observe the feast of tabernacles, and that of the purification, are by Prideaux considered as spurious; the second, indeed, is said have been written by Judas, who was not living at the time of the date ; and it contains many extravagant and fabulous particulars. It begins at the tenth verse of the first chapter, and terminates with the eighteenth of the second ; from thence to the end of the chapter is a short preface of the compiler of the abridgment of Jason's history ; which commences with the third chapter, and concludes with the thirty-seventh verse of the fifteens

chapter, the two last verses forming a kind of conclusion to the work. The book contains an history of about fifteen years, from the enterprise of Heliodorus in the temple, in the rear

of the world 3828, to the victory of Judas Maccabeus against Nicanor, 3843. The chapters are not howera arranged exactly in chronological order. The book begins at a period somewhat earlier than that of the first book of the Maccabees. As the author appears at first to have intended only an epitome of the history of Judas Maccabeus and his brethren, with some contemporary events; the account of the punishment of Heliodorus, which occurred under Seleucus, the predecessor of Epiphanes, as well as the circumstances related in the two last chapters, which happened under Demetrius Soter, the successor of Eupator, have been sometimes represented as additions by some later writer. But since these events, as connected with the time of Judas, were not irrelative to the author's design, there is no reason, except from a pretended difference of style, tu dispute their authenticity as a part of Jason's history; or, at least, as a genuine addition affixed to the epitome by the compiler. The author has no title, any more than the writer of the preceding book, to be considered as an inspired historian ; he speaks, indeed, of his own performance in the diffident style of one conscious of the fallibility of his own judgment, and distrustful of his own powers. His work was never considered as strict canonical till received into the sacred list by the Council of Trent, though examples are produced from it by many ancient writers. It must be allowed to be a valuable and instructive history ; and affords an interesting description of a persecuted and afflicted people ; furnishing in the relation of the conduct of Eleazar, and of the woman and her children who suffered for their attachment to their religion, an example of constancy, that mig: have animated the martyrs of the Christian Church. The author industriously displays the confidence in a resurrection and future life which prevailed at the period of his history, and which was the encourageineni tha: enabled those who were so severely tried to sustain their tortures. He likewise, perhaps, more particularis enforced the doctrine of a resurrection with a design to counteract the propagation of the Sadducean principes which were then rising into notice.

The work, as the production of a fallible and unenlightened man, contains a mixture of errour, and certain

should be read with that discretion, which, while it seeks instruction, guards against the intrusion of false ar. pernicious opinions. If St. Paul in his eulogium on some illustrious examples of faith should be thought have established the truth, or approved the examples of this history, he by no means bears testimony to the inspiration of its author, or establishes its general authority in point of doctrine. The Apostles consigned for the direction of the Christian Church the productions of only those “ holy men who were moved by the Holy Ghost.” The Fathers in general cite the book as an useful history, but not as of authority in point of doctrine.

There are two other books, entitled the third and fourth books of the Maccabees, which were never receired by

any church. That, which is improperly styled the third, and which in point of time should be considered as


Apocrypha. the first, describes the persecution of Ptolemy Philopator against the Jews in Egypt, about the year of the world 3789; and the miraculous delivery of those who were exposed in the hippodrome of Alexandria to the fury of elephants. This is a work entitled to much respect; it is in the most ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint, and is cited by the Fathers; but never having been in the Vulgate, which version was universally used in the Western Church, and from which our translations of the Apocrypha were made, it never was admitted into our Bibles.

The book, which is usually called the fourth book of the Maccabees, contains an history of the pontificate of John

Hyrcanus. Dr. Gray.

about 144,

THE brethrem and in thferen, the cierusalem and das, sent greeti" Stole-
L at wish unto the ghout Egypt, Jeuncil, and Judas bulus, king Ptolete


| also sacrifices and fine flour, and
1 A letter of the Jews from Jerusalem to them ngnted the lamps, and set forth the

of Egypt, to thank God for the death of loaves.
Antiochus. 19 Of the fire that was hid in 9 And now see that ye keep the

the pit. 24 The prayer of Neemias. feast of a tabernacles in the month a Lev. 23. 34. about 144. THE brethren, the Jews that be | Casleu.

I at Jerusalem and in the land of 10 In the hundred fourscore and
Judea, wish unto the brethren, the eighth year, the people that were at
Jews that are throughout Egypt, Jerusalem and in Judea, and the
health and peace:

2 God be gracious unto you, and health unto Aristobulus, king Ptole-
remember his covenant that he made meus' master, who was of the stock
with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, his of the anointed priests, and to the
faithful servants;

| Jews that were in Egypt:
3 And give you all an heart 11 Insomuch as God hath delivered
to serve him, and to do his will, us from great perils, we thank him
with a good courage and a willing highly, as having been in battle

against a king.
4 And open your hearts in his law 12 For lie cast them out that
and commandments, and send you fought within the holy city.

13 For when the leader was come
5 And hear your prayers, and be into Persia, and the army with him
at one with you, and never forsake that seemed invincible, they were
you in time of trouble.

slain in the temple of Nanea by the
6 And now we be here praying deceit of Nanea's priests. :
for you.

14 For Antiochus, as though he
7 What time as Demetrius reigned, would marry her, came into the
in the hundred threescore and ninth place, and his friends that were with
year, we the Jews wrote unto you in him, to receive money in name of a
the extremity of trouble that came dowry.
upon us in those years, from the time 15 Which when the priests of
that Jason and his company revolted Nanea had set forth, and he was
from the holy land and kingdom, entered with a small company into

8 And burned the porch, and shed the compass of the temple, they shut
innocent blood : then we prayed unto the temple as soon as Antiochus was

the Lord, and were heard; we offered come in : Chap. I. ver. 1. The brethren, the Jews &c.] From The second epistle begins here, and ends with the hence to the end of the sixth verse is nothing more than eighteenth verse of the second chapter. It is not only a preliminary salutation. The epistle begins at the se- written in the name of Judas Maccabeus, who was slain venth verse and ends with the ninth. The purport of it six and thirty years before the date which it bears, but is to exhort the Jews of Alexandria and Egypt to observe its contents also are so fabulous and absurd, that it never the feast of the dedication of the new altar erected by could have been written by the great council of Jews Judas, when he purified the temple, 1 Mac. iv. 59. assembled at Jerusalem for the whole nation, as it preGrotius, Dean Prideaux.

tends to be. Dean Prideaux, Stackhouse. 9. the feast of tabernacles This appellation is im- - king Ptolemeus' master,] Namely, in the studies proper. What is meant is the feast of the dedication : 1 of Philosophy. Grotius. during which solemnity although they might carry some 11.- against a king.) Antiochus Epiphanes. winter greens in their hands, to express their rejoicing, 13. — the temple of Nanea.] Who this Nanea was the yet they could not make such booths as in the feast of learned are not agreed : some take her for Venus, others tabernacles, because the month Casleu fell in the winter. for Cybele, others for Diana. The manner in which AnDean Prideaux.

tiochus was disappointed, is related very differently here 10. In the hundred fourscore and eighth year, &c.7' from the account in 1 Mac. vi. 1, &c. Stackhouse. Vol. II.

about 144.

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16 And opening a privy door of ( the only just, almighty, and ever-
the roof, they threw stones like lasting, thou that deliverest Israel
thunderbolts, and struck down the from all trouble, and didst choose the
captain, hewed them in pieces, smote fathers, and sanctify them:
off their heads, and cast them to 26 Receive the sacrifice for thy
those that were without.

whole people Israel, and preserve 17 Blessed be our God in all thine own portion, and sanctify it. things, who hath delivered up the 27 Gather those together that are ungodly.

scattered from us, deliver them that 18 Therefore whereas we are now serve among the heathen, look upon purposed to keep the purification of them that are despised and abhorred,

the temple upon the five and twen- and let the heathen know that thou b Lev. 23. tieth day of the month Casleu, we art our God.

thought it necessary to certify you 28 Punish them that oppress us,
thereof, that ye also might keep it, as and with pride do us wrong.
the feast of the tabernacles, and of 29 Plant thy people again in thy
the fire, which was given us when holy place, as Moses hath spoken.
Neemias offered sacrifice, after that 30 And the priests sung psalms of
he had builded the temple and the thanksgiving.

31 Now when the sacrifice was
19 For when our fathers were led consumed, Neemias commanded the
into Persia, the priests that were water that was left to be poured on
then devout took the fire of the altar the great stones.
privily, and hid it in an hollow place 32 When this was done, there was
of a pit without water, where they kindled a flame : but it was consumed
kept it sure, so that the place was by the light that shined from the
unknown to all men.

20 Now after many years, when it 33 So when this matter was known,
pleased God, Neemias, being sent it was told the king of Persia, that in
from the king of Persia, did send of the place, where the priests that were
the posterity of those priests that had led away had hid the fire, there ap-
hid it to the fire: but when they told peared water, and that || Neemias had 1 Or,
us they found no fire, but thick purified the sacrifices therewith. ceapass.

34 Then the king, inclosing the
21 Then commanded he them to place, made it holy, after he had tried
draw it up, and to bring it; and when the matter.
the sacrifices were laid on, Neemias 35 And the king took many gifts,
commanded the priests to sprinkle and bestowed thereof on those whom
the wood and the things laid there- he would gratify.
upon with the water.

I 36 And Neemias called this thing
22 When this was done, and the Naphthar, which is as much as to say,
time came that the sun shone, which a cleansing: but many men call it
afore was hid in the cloud, there was Nephi.
a great fire kindled, so that every
man marvelled.

23 And the priests made a prayer 1 What Jeremy the prophet did. 5 How he hid
whilst the sacrifice was consuming, I the tabernacle, the ark, and the altar. 13
say, both the priests, and all the rest, What Neemias and Judas wrote. 20 What
Jonathan beginning, and the rest an-

Jason wrote in five books : 25 and how those
swering thereunto, as Neemias did.

were abridged by the author of this book. 24 And the prayer was after this TT is also found in the records, that manner; O Lord, Lord God, Crea- 1 Jeremy the prophet commanded tor of all things, who art fearful and them that were carried away to take strong, and righteous, and merciful, of the fire, as it hath been signified: and the only and gracious King, 2 And how that the prophet, have

25 The only giver of all things, I ing given them the law, charged

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18. - Neemias] Or, Nehemiah.

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all his people,

and the kingdom, and the priesthood,

sanctuary, as he promised

for we hope


them not to forget the command- founding a library gathered together
ments of the Lord, and that they the acts of the kings, and the pro-
should not err in their minds, when phets, and of David, and the epistles
they see images of silver and gold, of the kings concerning the holy
with their ornaments.

3 And with other such speeches 14 In like manner also Judas
exhorted he them, that the law should gathered together all those things
not depart from their hearts.

that were lost by reason of the
4 It was also contained in the same war we had, and they remain with
writing, that the prophet, being us.
warned of God, commanded the ta- 15 Wherefore if ye have need
bernacle and the ark to go with him, thereof, send some to fetch them
as he went forth into the mountain, unto you.
where Moses climbed up, and saw 16 Whereas we then are about to
the heritage of God.

celebrate the purification, we have
5 And when Jeremy came thither, written unto you, and ye shall do
he found an hollow cave, wherein he well, if ye keep the same days.
laid the tabernacle, and the ark, and 17 + We hope also, that the God, {Gr.
the altar of incense, and so stopped that delivered all his people, and is that saved
the door.

I gave them all an heritage, and the and rendered 6 And some of those that followed kingdom, and the priesthood, and the heritage, him came to mark the way, but they the sanctuary, could not find it.

18 As he promised in the law, and the
7 Which when Jeremy perceived, will shortly have mercy upon us, and
he blamed them, saying, As for that gather us together out of every land in the law :
place, it shall be unknown until the under heaven into the holy place : for in God that
time that God gather his people he hath delivered us out of great ;
again together, and receive them troubles, and hath purified the place.
unto mercy.

I 19 Now as concerning Judas Mac-
8 Then shall the Lord shew them cabeus, and his brethren, and the
these things, and the glory of the purification of the great temple, and
Lord shall appear, and the cloud the dedication of the altar,
also, as it was shewed under Moses, 20 And the wars against Antio-
and as when Solomon desired that chus Epiphanes, and Eupator his
the place might be honourably sanc- son,

21 And the manifest signs that
9 It was also declared, that he came from heaven unto those that
being wise offered the sacrifice of behaved themselves manfully to their
dedication, and of the finishing of honour for Judaism: so that, being
the temple.

but a few, they overcame the whole
10 And as when Moses prayed country, and chased barbarous multi-
unto the Lord, the fire came down tudes,
from heaven, and consumed the sa- 22 And recovered again the tem-
crifices : even so prayed Solomon ple renowned all the world over, and
also, and the fire came down from freed the city, and upheld the laws
heaven, and consumed the burnt which were going down, the Lord

being gracious unto them with all
11 And Moses said, Because the favour:
sin offering was not to be eaten, it 23 All these things, I say, being
was consumed.

declared by Jason of Cyrene in five
12 So Solomon kept those eight books, we will assay to abridge in

one volume.
13 The same things also were re- 24 For considering the infinite
ported in the writings and commen- | number, and the difficulty which
taries of Neemias; and how he they find that desire to look into the

leis people under heavens inter oue opere us, and =

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Chap. II. ver. 19. Now as concerning Judas Macca- of the third chapter, and is carried on to the end of the beus, and his brethren, &c.] What follows to the end of thirty-seventh verse of the last chapter. Dean Prideaux. the chapter is the author's preface to his abridgment of Concerning Jason see the Introduction, the history of Jason, which begins from the first verse!

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