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mch. x. 11, 15.
Rom. v. 7, 8.
John . Inch. xiv. 15,
another, as I [have] loved you. 13 m Greater love hath
¶ render, because.
I have heard 16 p Yes have ordained you,
23. Matt. xii. 50.
P render, No more do I call you.
render, because I made known unto you all things that I heard
from my Father.
8 render, did not choose.
explained (see ch. xiii. 34) to be, mutual love, and that, after His example of Love to them. 13.] A difficulty has been unnecessarily found in this verse, because St. Paul, Rom. v. 6 ff., cites it as a nobler instance of love, that Christ died for us when we were enemies. But manifestly here the example is from common life, in which if a man did lay down his life, it would naturally be for his friends; and would be, and is cited as, the greatest example of love. Nor again is there any doctrinal difficulty: our Lord does not assert of himself, that He laid down his life only for his friends (as defined in the next verse), but puts forward this side of his Love as a great and a practical example for his followers. His own great Sacrifice of Himself lies in the background of this verse; but only in the background, and with but one side of it seen, viz. his Love to them. See 1 Tim. iv. 10, and compare 1 John iii. 16. 14.] parallel to ver. 10,-and like it, guarded, in vv. 15, 16, 17, from legal misinterpretation. 15.] Spoken, by anticipation, of the state in which He would place them under the Spirit. Nor is there any discrepancy with ch. xiii. 13, 16, and ver. 20 here, which are also spoken of their future condition: for in that sense both relations subsist together. It is the lower sense of the word rendered servant (signifying both servant and slave), which is brought out in this verse. The anticipatory character of the saying is clearly shewn in the words, " Knoweth not what his lord doeth;" for this was precisely their present condition, but was after His Ascension changed into light and
trender, chose. I render, bear.
knowledge. I made known unto you] Here again the allusion must be (see ch. xvi. 12) to their future state under the dispensation of the Spirit: nay, even to the fulness and completion of it, as Augustine remarks; compare the confession of one of the greatest Apostles, 1 Cor. xiii. 10. "As we look for immortality of the flesh and salvation of the soul in the future, although, having received the pledge of both, we are said to be already saved: so we should hope for in the future the knowledge of all things which the Onlybegotten has heard from the Father, although Christ says He has already made them known to us." Augustine. 16.] See 1 John iv. 10, 19. Further proof of His love, in his choosing His, when they had not chosen Him. appointed] See Acts xiii. 47: 1 Thess. v. 9, and reff. Chrysostom and others explain it as meaning "planted," in reference to the similitude of the vine. But the parable seems to be no further returned to than in the allusion implied in bearing fruit. "Ordained," in A. V., is objectionable, as conveying a wrong idea, that of appointing to the Ministry, which is not here present.
that ye should go and bear fruit] The word go probably merely expresses (see Matt. xviii. 15; xix. 21, and Luke viii. 14) the activity of living and developing principle; not the missionary journeys of the Apostles, as some have explained it. The fruit is not the Church, to be founded by the Apostles, and endure; this is evident, for here the fruit is spoken of with reference to themselves, and their ripening into the full stature of Christ. Much of their fruit will be neces
I ver. 7. ch. fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye [7 shall] ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you. 17 s These
s ver. 12.
t1 John iii. 1, things I command that you,
u 1 John iv. 5.
x ch. xvii. 14.
love one another.
18 t If
the world hate you, a ye know that it bhated me before [ it hated] you. 19 u If ye were of the world, the world Would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 20 Remember the word that I said unto y The servant is not greater than his lord. you, they [have] persecuted me, they will also persecute you; z Ezek. iii. 7. if they [y have] kept my saying, they will keep your's also. 21 e But a all these things will they do unto
y Matt. x. 24. Luke vi. 40.
a Matt. x. 22: xxiv. 9. ch. xvi. 3.
a better imperative, know.
sarily the winning of others to Christ: but that is not the prominent idea here. that your fruit should remain] See 2 John 8; Rev. xiv. 13. that whatsoever ye ask...] This second that is parallel with the former one, not the result of it; the two, the bringing forth of fruit and the obtaining answer to prayer, being co-ordinate with each other; but (vv. 7, 8) the bearing fruit to God's glory is of these the greater, being the result and aim of the other. 17.] The expression these things refers (as almost always in John, see verses 11, 21; xvi. 1, 25, 33; xvii. 1; xviii. 1 al.) back to what has gone before. The object of my enjoining these things on you is (for all since ver. 12 has been an expansion of the words "as I loved you") that ye love one another' (see 1 John iv. 11). Then from the indefiniteness of this term, one another, our Lord takes occasion to forewarn them that however wide their love to one another, they cannot bring all within this category; there will be still the world outside, which will hate them.
18-27.] Their relation to the world: and vv. 18-21, ground of the world's hatred. On the connexion, see above. 18.] See ch. vii. 7. The verb rendered in the A. V. "ye know," is most likely imperative, know ye. The assertion of their knowledge of the fact would in all likelihood have been otherwise expressed in the original. See more in the note in my Greek Test. The great proof of this hatred to Him was yet to come, but is viewed as past. This knowledge brings comfort, 1 Pet. iv. 12, 13. 19.] not only ex
plains this hatred, but derives additional comfort from it, as a sign that they were not (any longer) of the world; but chosen out of it by Him, and endued with a new life from above. By the result being expressed in the words, would love his (its) own, not "would love you," we have the true practice of the world hinted at, and the false character of the world's love, as a mere self-love, set forth. In this
loving their own,' the children of this world fall into hating one another. Meyer remarks the solemnity of the world thus repeated five times. 20.] Our
Lord had said it to them in ch. xiii. 16, but with a different reference: the sense here being, Remember the saying, for it is true in this matter also;' see Matt. x. 24, where it is used in the same sense. They, i. e. the world-the persons constituting it.
A difficulty has been raised
on the latter clause of this verse, because
my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me.
James iv. 17.
ech. iii. 2:
vii. 31: ix.
22 b If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had b ch. ix. 41. not had sin but now they have no g cloke for their sin. Rom. 1. 20. 23 d He that hateth me hateth my Father also. 24 If I d 1 John ii. 23. had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But [h this cometh to pass,] that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause. 26 8 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, [1 even] the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall i testify of
render, would not have. h not expressed in the original. "But:"-nay, so far is this from being so, that it is on this very account, because ye belong to Me, that they will thus treat you. all these things-all that is implied in hating and persecuting. It was on account of bearing the Name of Christ that the Christians were subjected to persecution in the early ages, and that they are even now hated by those who know Him not: but this is to them comfort and joy, see Acts v. 41: 2 Cor. xii. 10: Gal. vi. 17: Pet. iv. 14. they know not] not, They know Him not as having sent Me'-but they know not Him who has sent Me. Ignorance of God (not desiring the knowledge of His ways) is the great cause of hostility to Christ and His servants. 22. The sinfulness of this hate. See ch. ix. 41 and note. If I had not come and spoken unto them, i. e. discoursed to them, generally acquainted them with their sin. The sin spoken of is, not the generally sinful state of the world,-nor the sin of unbelief in Christ, which they of course could not have committed, had He never come: but the sin of hatred to Him and His, which might have been excused otherwise, but now that He had come and discoursed with them, had no excuse, since He had plainly shewn them the proofs of His mission from the Father. Thus He shews that they embraced the side of evil of their own accord, and had no pretext of selfjustification. 23.] See ch. xiv. 9. Human regards, whether of love or of hatred, towards Him who is the only manifestation of the Father to His creatures, are in fact directed towards the Father Himself; see Ps. lxix. 9, cited in Rom. xv. 3. 24.] He refers to the
Ps. xxxv. 19: Luke xxiv. 17, 26 x John v. 6.
49. ch. xiv.
7, 13. Acts ii. 33.
grender, for perspicuity, excuse.
testimony of His works among them also,
26.] This assurance carries on the testimony concerning Christ,-which the world should see and hear, and yet reject and hate Him,-even to the end of time, by means of the Spirit of Truth: so that on the one hand this seeing and hating must not be expected to cease as long as the Spirit bears this witness,-and on the other, He, the Spirit of Truth, will never cease to overcome the hating world by this His testimony. the Comforter (Paraclete)] See ch. xiv. 16 and note. whom I will send] Stier dwells on the accurate division of the clauses here, the Comforter whom I will send,”-but "the Spirit of Truth which proceedeth from the Father." The first clause he regards as spoken with reference to the mediatorial dispensation, of the Spirit in His office as Paraclete, sent from the Father by the glorified Son (or, by the Father in the
48. Acts i.
1 Pet. v. 1.
2 Pet. i. 16. k Luke i. 2.
1 John i.
a Matt. xi. 6:
b ch. ix, 22,
me: 27 and ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.
XVI. These things have I spoken unto you, that ye a should not be offended. 2 b They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, 1 the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he m doeth God service. 3 And these 34: things will they do [n unto you], because they have not
e Acts viii. 1: known the Father nor me. 4eo But these things have I
ix. 1: xxvi.
9, 10, 11.
d ch. xv. 21.
1 Cor. ii. 8. 1 Tim. i. 13.
that when the time shall come, ye may remem
e ch. xiii. 19: xiv. 29.
render, are witnesses.
1 render, the hour, or, an hour.
m better, offereth a service to God.
I read and render, their hour is come.
Son's name, ch. xiv. 26), and bringing in the dispensation of the Spirit ;-the second, in strictness of theological meaning, of the essential nature of the Spirit Himself, that He proceedeth forth from the Father. (And if from the Father, from the Son also,-see ch. xvi. 15, and those passages where the Spirit is said to be His Spirit, Rom. viii. 9; Gal. iv. 6; Phil. i. 19; 1 Pet. i. 11, also Rev. xxii. 1.) Perhaps however it is better to take the whole as spoken with reference to the mediatorial dispensation. Then the former description is parallel with the latter, and the procession from the Father is the sending by the Son. At all events, this passage, as Beza remarks, cannot be alleged either one way or the other in the controversy with the Greek church, which maintains that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone, not as we (see Nicene Creed) from the Father and the Son. 27.] The
disciples are not, as some have supposed, here mentioned as witnesses separate from and working with the Holy Spirit. The witness is one and the same; the Spirit will witness in and by them: the introductory clause, when the Comforter is come, belongs to the whole; see Luke xxiv. 48, 49, where this is strongly expressed. This verse alludes to the historical witness which the Holy Ghost in the ministers and eye-witnesses of the word, Luke i. 2, should enable them to give, which forms the human side of this great testimony of the Spirit of truth, and OF WHICH OUR INSPIRED GOSPELS ARE THE SUMMARY: the Divine side being, His own indwelling testimony in the life and heart of every believer in all time.
P render, spoken unto you.
But both the one and the other are given by the self-same SPIRIT ;-neither of them inconsistent with, or superseding the other.
from the beginning, as in Luke i. 2, and in the sense of Acts i. 21 ;-' from the beginning of the Lord's ministry.' The present tenses set forth the connexion between the being (continuing to be) witnesses, and the being (having been throughout) companions of the Lord in His ministry. Thus we have in 1 John iii. 8, "the devil sinneth from the beginning."
CHAP. XVI. 1–33.] The promise of the Comforter expanded in its fulness. And herein, vv. 1-15, the conditions of His coming and His office. 1.] These things, viz. ch. xv. 18-27,-not only the warning of the hatred of the world, but the promise of the testifying Spirit (Stier). 2.] On putting out of the Synagogue, see eh. ix. 22; xii. 42. The word yea introduces a yet more grievous and decisive proof of their nature. that he offereth a service to God] The verb in the original is the technical word for offering a sacrifice. The Rabbinical books say that "he who sheds the blood of an infidel is as one offering a sacrifice." See 1 Cor. iv. 13, and note. 3.] See Luke xxiii. 34; ch. xv. 21; Acts iii. 17; and 1 Tim. i. 13. 4. Nevertheless here indicates no contrast, but only breaking off the mournful details, and passing back to the subject of ver. 1. If we are to seek any contrast, it will be between the "non-knowledge" of the world, and the "remembering" of the church. The one know not what they are doing the other know well what they are suffering. their hour] i. e. the time of their
ch. vii. 33:
xiii. 3: xiv.
ber that I told you of them. And these things I said f see Matt. ix. not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you. 5 But now & I go my way to him that sent me; and none sg ver. 10, 16. of you asketh me, Whither goest thou? 68 But because I have said these things unto you, h sorrow hath filled your heart. 7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth, It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, IX. 20. will send him unto you. 8 And when he is come, he will Eph. iv. 8.
rrender, But. trender, depart.
& render, go.
The "I" before told you of them is emphatic, I MYSELF:'-that it was I MYSELF who told you. A difficulty has been found in the latter part of the verse, because our Lord had repeatedly announced to them future persecutions, and that at least as plainly as here, Matt. v. 10; x. 16, 21-28, and elsewhere. And hence some Commentators find ground for supposing that the chronological order of the discourses has not been followed in the three first Gospels. But there is in reality no inconsistency, and therefore no need for such a supposition. This declaration, as here meant, was not made before, because He was with them. Then clearly it is now made, in reference to His immediate departure. And if so, to what will these things most naturally refer? To that full and complete account of the world's mo tives, and their own office, and their comfort under it, which He has been giving them. This He had never before done so plainly, though occasional mention has been made even of the help of the Spirit under such trials; see Matt. x. 19, 20. because I was with you] While the Lord was with them (compare Matt. ix. 15), the malice of the world was mainly directed against Him,and they were overlooked: see ch. xviii. 8.
In this past tense, I was, we have the anticipatory character of the discourse again manifest. The Lord looks upon His earthly course as ended. 5.] This is
occasioned by the foregoing, but in fact begins the new subject, the condition of the Comforter's coming. and none of you asketh me....] They had (see ch. xiii. 36; xiv. 5) asked this verbally before: our Lord therefore cites the question here in some other and deeper sense than they had used it there. I believe the meaning to be: None of you enquires into the NATURE of My departure, so as to appear VOL. I.
8 render, Yet.
ver. 22. ch.
ich. vii. 39:
xiv. 16, 26: k Acts ii. 83.
u render, depart not.
anxious to know what advantages are to be derived from it; but (ver. 6) you are all given up to grief on account of what I have said.' 6.] Grief has filled, entirely occupied, your heart (not "your hearts," but singular, as common to all, see Rom. i. 21), to the exclusion of any regard of my object in leaving you.'
These are the same disciples who afterwards, when their risen Lord had ascended to heaven, without any pang at parting with Him, returned with great joy to Jerusalem, Luke xxiv. 52.' Augustine remarks that "there is beneath this mild rebuke a tacit consolation. For while He blames them in that they neglected enquiring whither He was going, He virtually excuses this their negligence, in that it arose from their being overwhelmed with sorrow."
7.] Nevertheless refers to the last clause, --notwithstanding that no one of you asks me, I Myself will tell you the real state of the case. It is expedient for you, implies that the dispensation of the Spirit is a more blessed manifestation of God than was even the bodily presence of the risen Saviour. Every rendering
of this verse ought to keep the distinction between the two verbs which our Lord uses in speaking of His departure; which is not accurately done in the A. V. Depart and go seem to be the best words: the first expressing merely the leaving them, the second, the going up to the Father. The I before depart is again emphatic: that I, for my part, should leave you.' This saying of our Lord, that the Comforter will not come, except He himself depart, is a convincing proof, if one more were needed, that the gift of the Spirit at and since the day of Pentecost, was and is something TOTALLY DISTINCT from any thing before that time: a new and loftier dispensation. 8-11.]