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counselling or commanding it, that sets fire on a Plane-tree to by acting it, or not hindering spite his neighbor, and the Planeit when he might and ought, by tree set fire on his neighbor's concealing it or receiving it, is house, he is bound to pay for all bound to make restitution to his the loss. Because it did all arise neighbor; if without, the inju. from his own ill-intention. It ry had not been done, but by is like murder committed by a him or his assistance it was. For drunken person, involuntary in by the same reason that every some of the effect, but volunta. one of these is guilty of the sin, ry in the other parts of it, and in and is cause of the injury, by all the cause ; and therefore the the same they are bound to make guilty person is answerable for reparation ; because by him his all of it. And when Ariarathes neighbor is made worse, and the Cappadocian king had but in therefore is it put into that state waptonness stopped the mouth of from whence he was forced. And the river Melancus, although he suppose that thou hast persuad. intended no evil, yet the Euphra. ed an injury to be done to thy tes being swelled by that means, neighbor, which others would and bearing away some of the have persuaded if thou hast not, strand of Cappadocia, did great yet thou art still obliged, because spoil to the Phrygians and Gathou didst cause the injury, just latians : he therefore by the as they had been obliged if they Roman senate was condemned in had done it : and thou art not at three hundred talents towards reall the less bound by having per- paration of the damage. Much sons as ill inclined as thou wert. rather therefore when the lesser
2. He that commanded the in. part of the evil was directly in. jury to be done, is first bound; tended. then he that did it; and after 4. He that hinders a charitable these, they also are obliged who person from giving alms to a did só assist, as without them the poor man, is tied to restitution thing would not have been done. if he hindered him by fraud or If satisfaction be made by any of violence; because it was a right the former, the latter is tied to which the poor man had when the repentance, but no restitution. good man had designed and reBut if the injured person be not solved it, and the fraud or vio. righted, every one of them is lence hinders the effect, but not wholly guilty of the injustice, the purpose, and therefore he who and therefore bound to restitu. used the deceit or the force is tion singly and entirely.
injurious, and did damage to the 3. Whosoever intends a lit. poor man.
But if the alms were tle injury to his neighbor, and hindered only by intreaty, the acts it, and by it a greater evil hinderer is not tied to restitu. accidentally comes, he is oblig. tion, because intreaty took oot ed to make an entire reparation liberty away from the giver, of all the injury, of that which but left him still master of his he intended, and of that which own act, and he had power to he intended not, but yet acted by alter his purpose, and so long his own instrument going farther there no injustice done. than he at first proposed it. He The same is the case of a testa.
tor giving a legacy either by
7. The heir of an obliged perkindness or by promise and com. son is not bound to make resti. mon right. He that hinders the tution, if the obligation passed charitable legacy by fraud or vi. only by a personal act, but if it olence, or the due legacy by passed from his person to his intreaty, is equally obliged to estate, then the estate passes restitution. The reason of the with all its burthen. If the fa. latter part of this case is, be. ther by persuading his neighbor cause he that intreats or per- to do injustice, be bound to resuades to a sin is as guilty as he store, the action is extinguished that acts it ; and if without his by the death of the father, be. persuasion the sin and the inju. cause it was only the father's ry would not be acted, he is in sin that bound him, which can. his kind the active cause, and not directly bind the son; there. therefore obliged to repair the fore the son is free, And this injury as much as the person is so in all personal actions, unthat does the wrong immediately. less where the civil law interpos. 5. He that refuses to do any
es and alters the case. part of his duty (to which he is He that hath really lessened otherwise obliged) without the fame of his neighbor by fraud bribe, is bound to restore that or violence, is bound to restore money, because he took it it by its proper instruments; in his neighbor's wrong, and such as are confessions of his not as a salary for his la. fault, giving testimony of his bor, or a reward of his wisdom, innocence or worth, doing him (for his stipend hath paid alí honor, (or if that will do it and that) or he hath obliged bioself to both parties agree) by money do by his voluntary undertaking. which answers all things. 6. He that takes any thing
le that hath wounded his from his neighbor which was neighbor is tied to the expenses justly forfeited, but yet takes it of the surgeon and other inci. not as a minister of justice, but dences, and to repair whatever to satisfy his own revenge or
loss he sustains by his disability avarice, is tied to repentance but to work or trade; and the same not to restitution, For
is in the case of false imprison. neighbor is not the worse for my ment; in which cases only the act, for thither the law and bis real effect and remaining detriown demerits bore him; but be. ment are to be mended and re. cause I took the forfeiture indi. paired : for the action itself is rectly, I am answerable to God to be punished or repented of, for my unhandsome, unjust, or and enters not into the question uncharitable circumstance. Thus of restitution. But in these and Philip of Macedon was reprov. all other cases the injured pered by Aristides for destroying son is to be restored to that perthe Phociuses; because although fect and good condition from they deserved it, yet he did it which he was removed by my not in prosecution of the law of fraud or violence, so far as is nations, but to enlarge his own possible. dominions,
He that robbeth his neighbor
of his goods, or detains any but if we be, the best rule is to thing violently or fraudulently, do it as soon as we can, taking is bound not only to restore the our accounts in this as in our hu. principal, but all its fruits and man actions, according to pru. emoluments which would have dence, and civil or natural con.. accrued to the right owner dur- veniences or possibilities ; only ing the time of their being detain. securing these two things : 1. ed. By proportion of these rules That the duty be not wholly we may judge the obligation that omitted; and, 2. That it be not lies
upon all sorts of injurious deferred at all out of covetous. persons"; the sacrilegious, the ness, or any other principle, that detainers of tithes, cheaters of is vicious. Remember that in men's inheritances, unjust judg- the same day in which Zaccheus es, false witnesses and accusers,
made restitution to all whom he those that do fraudulently or vi. had injured, the same day Christ olently bring men to sin, that himself pronounced that salvaforce men to drink, that laugh tion was come to his house. at and disgrace virtue, that per
But besides the obligation suade servants to run away, or arising from contract or default, commend such purposes, vio. there is one of another sort lent persecutors of religion in which comes from kindness and any instance; and all of the the acts of charity and friendship. same nature.
He that does me a favor, bath He that hath wronged so many,
bound me to make him a return or in that manner (as in the way of thankfulness. The obligation of daily trade) that he knows comes not by covenant, nor by not in what measure he hath his own express intention, but by done it, or who they are, must the nature of the thing; and is redeem his fault by alms and lar. a duty springing up within the gesses to the poor, according to spirit of the obliged person, to the value of his wrongful deal. whom it is more natural to love ing, as near as he can proportion his friend, and to do good for it.
Better it is to go begging to good, than to return evil for heaven, than to go to hell laden evil ; because a man may forgive with the spoils of rapine and in- an injury, but he must never justice.
forget a good turn. For every The order of paying of debts thing that is excellent, and every of contract or restitution are in thing that is profitable, whatsosome instances set down by the ever is good in itself, or good civil laws of a kingdom, in which me, cannot but be beloved ; and cases their rule is to be observed. what we love we naturally cher. In destitution or want of such ish and do good to.
He there. rules we are, 1. To observe the ne. fore that refuses to do good to cessity of the creditor, 2. Then to them whom he is bound to the time of the delay; and, 3. The love, or to love that which did special obligations of friendship him good, is unnatural and mon. or kindness; and according to strous in his affections, and thinks these in their several degrees all the world born to minister to make our restitution, if we be not him, with a greediness worse able to do all that we should : than that of the sea, which als though it receives all rivers into titute and miserable in our death; itself, yet it furnishes the clouds or if thou shalt call us off from and springs with a return of all this world by a more timely stim. they need.
mons, let their portion be thy Our duty to benefactors is, to care, mercy, and providence over esteem and love their persons, to their bodies and sonts, and may make them proportionable re- they never live vicious lives, nor turns of service or duty, or profit, die violent or untimely deaths ; according as we can, or as they bot let them glorify thee here need, or as opportunity presents with a free obedience, and the itself, and according to the great. duties of a holy life, that when nesses of their kindness, and to they have served thee in their pray to God to make them recom- generations, and have profited pense for all the good they have the christian commonwealth, they done to us; which last office is also
may be co-heirs with Jesus in requisite to be done for our cred. the glories of thy eternal king. itors, who in charity have reliev. dom, through the same our Lord ed our wants.
A Prayer of Parents for their A Prayer to be used by Mer. Children.
chants, Tradesmen, and Han. O Almighty and most merciful dicraftsmen. Father, who hast promised chil. O Eternal God, thou Fountain dren as a reward to the righteous, of justice, mercy, and benedic. and hast given them to us as a tion, who by my education and testimony of thy mercy, and an other effects of thy providence, engagement of our duty ; be hast called me to this profession, pleased to be a Father unto them, that by my industry I may in my and give them healthful bodies, small proportion work together understanding souls, and sancti. for the good of myself and others; fied spirits, that they may be thy I humbly beg thy grace to guide servants and thy children all me in my intention, and in the their days. Let a great mercy
transaction of my affairs, and providence lead them through may be diligent, jast, and faith. the dangers and temptations, and ful. And give me thy favor, that ignorances of their youth, that this my labor may be accepted they may never run into folly, by thee as a part of my necessaand the evils of an unbridled ap- ry duty: and give me thy bless. petite. So order the accidents of ing to assist and prosper me in their lives, that by good educa. my calling, to such measures as tion, careful tutors, holy exam. thou shalt in mercy choose for ple, innocent company, prudent me: and be pleased to let thy counsel, and thy restraining Holy Spirit be for ever present grace, their duty to thee may be with me, that I may never be secured in the midst of a crook. given to covetousness and sordid ed and untoward generation: and appetites, to lying and falsehood, if it seem good in thy eyes, let us or any other base, indirect, and be enabled to provide convenient. beggarly arts; but give me pru}y for the support of their per. dence, honesty, and christian sin. suns,
that they may not be des. cerity, that my trade may ba sanctified by my religion, my la- this condition, yet make it up, bor by my intention and thy by, some means to them, that the blessing ; that when I have done prayer of thy servant, may obmy portion of work thou hast tain of thee at least to pay my allotted me, and improved the debt in blessings. AMEN. talent thou hast intrusted to me, LORD, sanctify and forgive all and served the commonwealth in that I have tempted to evil by my capacity, I may receive the my discourse or my example : mighty price of my high calling, instruct them in the right way which I expect and beg, in the whom I have led to error, and portion and inheritance of the let me never run farther on the ever blessed Savior and Redeem.
score of sin, but do thou blot er Jesus.
AMEN. out all the evils I have done by
the sponge of thy passion, and A Prayer to be said by Debtors, the blood of thy cross; and give
and all Persons obliged wheth- me a deep and an excellent re. er by Crime or Contract. pentance, and a free and a gra.
O Almighty God, who art cious pardón; that thou mayest rich unto all, the Treasury and answer for me, O Lord, and en. Fountain of all good, of all jus. able me to stand upright in judgtice, and all mercy, and all ment; for in thee, O Lord, have bounty, to whom we owe all I trusted, let me never be conthat we are, and all that we
founded. Pity me, and instruct have, being thy debtors by me, guide me, and support me, reason of
our sins, and by pardou me and save me, for my thy own gracious contract made sweet Savior Jesus Christ's sake. with us in Jesus Christ; teach
Amen. me in the first place to perform all my obligations to thee, both A Prayer for Patrons and Ben. of duty and thankfulness; and
efactors. next enable me to pay my duty O Almighty God, thou Foun. to all my friends, and my debts tain of all good, of all excellento all my creditors, that none be cy both to men and angels, exmade miserable, or lessened in tend thine abundant favor and his estate, by his kindness to me, loving kindness to my patrons, or traffic with me. Forgive me to all my friends and benefactors: all those sins and irregular ac- reward them, and make them tions by which I entered into plentiful recompense for all the debt farther than my necessity good which from thy merciful required, or by which such ne. Providence they have conveyed cessity was brought upon me: unto me. Let the light of thy but let not them suffer by occa- countenance shine upon them, sion of my sin Lord, reward all and never let them come into any their kindness into their bosoms, affliction or sadness, but such and make them recompense where as may be an instrument of thy I cannot, and make me very glory and their eternal comfort. willing in all that I can, and able Forgive them all their sins : let for all that I am obliged : or if thy divinest Spirit preserve them it seem good in thine eyes to af. from all the deeds of darkness. dict me by the continuance of Let thy ministering angels guard