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they would pervert is broken ing us for the happiness of eter. in their hands; for among that nity, have civilized the world; race always frivolous and with. virtue and knowledge have every out character, that is called where marched in their train; Frenchmen, there is not one, every region has been abandoned even to the servant girl, who, in by virtue and knowledge, which robbing her master, does not re- has lost christianity ; those re. peat that religion is necessary gions have returned to barbarism; for the people, on conditiou that witness the church of Africa, il. she may be dispensed from hav. lustrious for so many learned ing it herself,

men, and which was once one of Religion, necessary to every the most brilliant portions of individual, is still more so to those christendom. Witness Algiers, magistrates who are the regula, where you resided two years ; tors of states. Fatal experience such would be the lot which the of the misfortunes occasioned by United States would feel, if ever an abandonment of christianity they should cease to be Christians. has not yet opened our eyes. And is not this equivalent to We have recourse to a pallia. what you propose in some lines, tive to cure the wounds which and by an engraving, which a have been made by irreligion, disciple of the gospel repels and its offspring immorality; with horror ? The attributes they have loosened the bonds of of pure christianity are classed society to such a degree, that among the emblems of prejudices. they menace it with a decompo. Where are your proofs ? It is in sition, wbich will be common to the nature of tbiogs, that what is many neighboring nations. If invariably useful should be es. erer decrepid Europe makes a sentially true; instead of proofs, step towards moral order, it will you give up to derision objects

be less from love of that, than revered by many hundred millions À from lassitude of crime; but it of men, who will not believe you i will be under the escort of chris. on your word; they will see that

tianity, and in consequence of in your antichristian sentence wants eritable catastrophes. In spite of justness; that it is a consequence the clouds that cover the future, without premises ; that, without this epoch may be perceived, reasoning at all, you decide that though we are unable to predict all the disciples of the gospel it in a precise manner, though reason falsely.

unable to calculate its term, or Virtuous minds wonld sigh to s its disasters.

behold calumny, impiety, and lu. * If the bounds of this letter bricity display themselves with permitted me, I would oppose effrontery, protected by the lib. to the evils engendered by infi. erty of the press ; but as we do delity the benefits profusely not know where to place the spread by the christian religion; limits, if we attempt to establish its introduction was the most vast by law repressive measures, this of all revolutions, and the most evil would be counterbalanced beautifal, because the most use by others, if our mouths were ful to the human race. The locked, and our pens crushed cross and the gospel, in prepare by tyranny. The press is free in

your country ; thus you are not Berkeley, Barrow, Beattie, Bent. reprehensible by the law, but ley, Boerhave, Bonnet, Boyle, condemnable at the tribunal of Blackstone, Clarke, Cullen, Doda opinion, the supreme judge of dridge, Ditton, Forbes, Fother. all crimes that offend propriety gill, Ferguson, Grotius, Gray; and justice. Yours offend both, Hervey, Hanway, Hartley, Har.

It offends justice, because it rington, Hyde, Haller, Jones, is a gratuitous outrage, that re. Johnson, Locke, Lardner, Leib. sembles that of the Jesumy at nitz, Littleton, De Luc, Milton, Japan, What would you say, if Newton, Puffendorf, Paley, Pri. the attributes of liberty, which or, Pringle, Priestly, Price, Ray, are so dear to you, were tram. Rabener, Roustan, Robertson, pled under foot before your eyes? Sherlock,Spenser,Steele, Thomp.

It offends propriety, because, son, Wolfe, Washington, Ush. in holding out as prejudices the er, Woodward, Young, ect. and emblems of the christian religion, with those madmen, worthy of it is saying to all those who pro- pity, Bossuet, Bourdaloue, la fess it, that they are fools ; this Bruyere, Copernicus, Corneille, compliment addresses itself to d'Aguesseau, Descartes, Des. the disciples of the gospel in préaux, Fénélon, Galileo, Gas. every part of the globe ; it sendi, Houbigant, Mallebranche, addresses itself to the esti. Massillon, Nicole, Pope, Pascal, mable descendants of those Racine, Winslow, Winkelman, catholics, who, flying from &c. all sincere catholics : but British persecution, established to speak seriously, it is pleasant in Maryland a state belonging to to lose ourselves in such a bril, your confederation ; it addres. liant company. ses itself to the venerable Car. I must add, that, in wishing to roll, bishop of Baltimore; you undeceive us in regard to what trample on the attributes of his you call prejudices, you err in pastoral character. In France, the choice of means; for con. it is true, the nonconformists viction can only be the effect of outrage in this way episcopacy reasoning; man cannot detach in the person of those pastors, his affection from the object most who, faithful to the voice of their dear to him, unless the motives consciences, have committed the that support it are destroy. unpardonable crime of submit. ed. But if injuries that revolt ting to the laws of their country; are substituted for arguments that this is a sad example to cite, not convince, we aresure to strength. a model to imitate. Your pres. en the adhesion to principles byterian countrymen will perhaps which are rooted in the mind and ask, if you have abjured the the heart. If to convert a Mus. principles, that you professed sulman, instead of proving to when you were the chaplain of a bim that Mahomet was an impos. reginient in the war of indepen. tor, I should commence by plac. dence..

ing before his eyes a picture, in If to believe in the gospel be a which the Coran and the Crescent prejudice, permit us to partake of were trampled under foot, his it with the feeble minds of Addi. heart, embittered, would cloud son, Abbadie, Arbuthnot, Bacon, his anderstanding, and prevent

all access to my attempts. Ap. ous to censuring an American, my ply these reflections to the true zeal should be exercised to con. religion, and see if you have not vert my countrymen ; far from failed entirely in a deplorable weakening the objection, I would design.

fortify it. I would say, that, Persecution, my dear Barlow, in a country where so many truths does not consist only in exiling, in. have returned to their wells, we carcerating, and assassinating see printed and circulated freely men ; Julian invented more cun. the obscene poetry of a member ning, and not less cruel vexa. of the national institute, and the tions. They have been refined rhapsodies of romance writers, among us, at the end of the eigh, who serve up afresh impieties so teenth century, ip harassing and many times refuted. I would lacerating the catholics without say too, that, without respect to cessation, by repeated invectives, the first body of the state, which by a multitude of those little ought to give an example of de. means, whose application was cency, immorality is authorized, continual torture : impious ver. by peopling the garden of the ses, songs, epigrams, caricatures, palace with licentious statues, to every thing was made use of. You such a degree that virtuous moth. are very different from such men; ers dare not conduct their chil. but why resemble them in any dren thither. thing? Your engraving is an of. You see that I am far from fence against the freedom of re. avoiding objections ; but by my ligion ; a sort of persccution disapprobation of an offence, in which your heart disavows; re, which I have no share, and against flection will bring on regret. which my colleague, Lanjuinais, Believe me, my friend, that these protested vainly in full senate, injured catholics will not make though with the general assent use of reprisals ; true piety opens of the senators, I have reserved her bosom to erring brethren, to myself the right of telling without opening it to error; you, that to recriminate is not to to enlighten them, she places the answer; and that what might be torch of truth in the hand of char. alleged as an example to follow, ity. Having but a moment to cannot be but as an abuse to reexist in this world, we should form. Gorani observes that the love our fellow men, be benev. licentiousness of painting and olent towards all, whatever may sculpture had exercised a disas. be their religion, their color, trous influence over Italy; that or their country. Jesus Christ the master pieces of the arts had has given us both precept and drawn away sound minds from example in their turn; he dis. useful and necessary studies, had played alternately firmness and depraved their manners, enervatgoodness towards the 'pharisees ; ed their courage, and fomented his parable of the Samaritan is a the most hateful vices.* When perpetual judgment against per public shame is extinct, do not secutors.

If you should say further, that * See the preface to the Memoires France offers examples worthy

secrets et critiques des cours des gouver

nans, des moeurs des principaux etats de of condemnation, and that previa l'Italie, by Gorani. Paris, 1793.

expect to preserve the private verses that liberty you defended virtues ; and when religion is with your arms; you came to publicly insulted, it is a wound render her homage at the bar of to morality, a national calamity. the national convention, where,

Many times I have repeoted as president, I answered in a man. having employed so many efforts ner that accorded with the prin. to defend the arts and those who ciples you proclaimed. Our oultivate them against Vandal. hearts were in unison. ism; not that those arts, which The true foundation of politi. are called fine, and which are not cal liberty is in the gospel, for it always good, are bad in their very perpetually reminds men, that, nature; but, almost always, they having all proceeded from the are flatterers, and corrupters, same stock, they compose only which, by an inconceivable fatal. one family ; that there exists ity, precede, bring on, escort, among them, not a species of re. and follow depravation. Even lationship, as has been said in a in his time the illustrious Ger. well known work, but a real son* complained of it, to whom consanguinity, whose bond is France owes a monument, and indestructible. The gospel un. whom she has almost forgotten; ceasingly inculcates on men a he was grieved to see scandalous spirit of charity and fraternal pictures, and a libidinous work, sentiments. The christian relig. the Romance of the Rose, expos. ion would be perverted and dis. ed to the eyes of youth. At the guised, if it were subordinate to moment I am writing, we are the caprices of rulers and the pas. menaced with a new edition of it. sions ; but well understood and

What will be the fruit of my rightly practised, it is the most remonstrance? You are not one certain guarantee of the purity of of those men who are afraid to publicand private manners. Un. acknowledge that you are wrong. der its wings, my friend, your A man is always honored in do. state of socicty was raised, and ing an act of reparation. I ap. consolidated, and the domestic peal to your loyalty, to your virtues hereditarily transmitted; delicacy; this is to put you at it is to that, without doubt, that strife with yourself.

you owe, among other advanta. My soul is oppressed in find, ges, that of having a wife gifted ing cause of blame in a man in with so many rare qualities and whom I see so much to praise. inestimable virtues. Ingratitude Your character is not degraded · alone could mistake the benefits by meanness, like that of the of this august, and divine religion; greater part of your brethren it would be like despising the bothe pocts; you have not pros. som of our mother. tituted your talents to adulation; I have discharged, my dear do not tarnish them by incredu. Barlow, a very painful task in lity, por by a sort of persecution. censuring, without human res. Placed at the summit of the Ameri. pect, what in your poem, offends can Parnassus, a creditor of glo. christianity. The work being ry, you have sung in beautiful public, I give the same publicity * Vide his works, edit Dupin. v. ä.

to my remonstrance; thus satp. 291, &c.

isfying what is prescribed to me by my principles, my situation, ble friendship. my conscience, and my invaria.

H. GREGOIRE, former Bishop of Blois, Senator, &e. Paris, 15th March, 1809.


An American Biographical and to portray them. Hence not unfre.

Historical Dictionary, con. quently they have no shape nor taining an account of the proportion, no justness of col. Lives, Charucters, and writ. oring, and no semblance of the ings of the most eminent Per. original. How can such unreal sons in North Amerion from beings teach man wisdom? Biog. its first discovery to the pres- raphy comes home to men's busi. ent time, and a Summary of ness and bosoms. It shows what the History of the several Col. kind of beings we are ; what are onies and of the United States. the trials of human life ; by what By William Allen, A.M. Cam. means difficulties may be most bridge, Hilliard and Metcalf, advantageously met, dangers 1809. 8vo. pp. 632. Price $ 3. averted or encountered, and

whatever contributes to the per. No species of composition so fection of the human character happily unites, what was so attained. It furnishes, at the much insisted on by the ancients, same time, the most powerful the useful and the agreeable, as motives to shun the contamina. biography. Useful it can scarce. tion of vice and profligacy, to ly fail to be, if written with truth copy the fairest models of virtue and fidelity, be the merit of the and greatness, and to aspire to execution, in other respects, what eminence in the present period of it may; because it presents to existence, and to future glory, the reader that kind of history, and honor, and immortality, which is, in the most literal sense, Nor can it fail, without an esPhilosophy teaching by Example. sential fault in the writer, to be The lessons of wisdom, derived as agreeable, as it is useful. It from experience, impart real introduces us to an acquaintance knowledge, as distinguished from with men, whose names have those theories, which, however awakened our curiosity, at. pleasant to the individual who tracted our esteem, or excited frames them, impart no benefit our admiration. It shows us to the world. Such knowledge those finer traits of their charac. can no better be obtained from ter, which could not be discerned the imaginary characters of the at a distance. It acquaints us novelist, thau from the Utopian with their private history ; it speculations of the theorist. In makes us companions of their a novel, or romance, characters various fortunes, and spectators appear, not as they exist in real of their exit. It points us to life, but as the writer may chance that world, where the virtues are Vol. II. Nere Series.


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