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without light. As a miserable and the christian pastor, are fel. painting compares with a rich low laborers in different parts of landscape of gardens, fields, vil- the same vineyard. As the lages, and temples, so the writ. characters of their charge are ings of men compare with the different, their means are vari. fair page of revelation. The ous ; their object is the same. If Scriptures are among other vol. a religious spirit is necessary in umes as the sun among the stars, the pastor, it is not less indis. as a king among his subjects. pensable in the teacher. They Other volumes are useful, as they both are forming rational minds, unite their influence with the for*glory and immortality. "High book of God. Those studies, is the office; sublime the work which do not harmonize with the of educating youth for heaven. gospel, are like clouds without This noble employment is wor. rain ; blossoms without fruit. thy those, who are imbued with Every book, used in seminaries the divine spirit, who are ani. of science, ought to breathe a re- mated with gospel

philanligious spirit. Here perhaps it thropy, who are themselves heirs would be just to remark, gener

of eternal life. Let vice and in. ally, that the defects of education fidelity never profane the teach. in this country seem rather to er's beart. Such teachers, io. be incidental, than radical. The stead of elevating their charge to proper sciences are taught, but heaven, sacrifice them on the are their relations and connex. threshold of life; instead of ions, and consequences attentive. nourishing them as lambs of the ly deduced ? Youth are taught Redeemer's fold, they poison to understand, but are they the fountains where they drink. taught to think?

Hence parents are bound to A savage may gaze with vacant examine and ascertain the char. wonder at a clock or other curi. acters of those, who educate ous machinery ; but an intelli. their children. Those, who of. gent youth, who is taught the fer themselves as teachers, are influence of the springs, the con. bound to produce satisfactory nexion of the wheels, and the re- evidence of their integrity, skill, lation of the parts to the whole, and fidelity. Will a shepherd will enjoy a more rational admi. employ a wolf to guard his ration of their use, and contriv. flock ? Will

you entrust a ance. So he, that is taught to stranger with the keys of your see God in every science, will treasures ? Dare an irreligious find in every science a devout in. man, assume the charge of im. fluence on his mind.

mortal souls? We see then how necessary is For a moment suppose youre a religious spirit to those who self on the borders of that lake, are teachers of youth. This is which burneth with fire, where consecrated ground. Let us put hope never comes. Listen to off our shoes, suppress all our the cries, which ascend from the unhallowed affections.

fiery deep. Some are cursing The great design of education their God and King ; some are is in unison with the gospel. begging for a drop of water to The preceptor, the professor, cool their parched tongues. Whe is that spirit from the midst of plague and death on the nation ; the darkness, that raises a loud. they are dens of vice and the er voice, his horrors greater than pandemoniums of the world. those of the common damned ? Is he not an irreligious teacher

The Editors do not of youth or children ? A thou. pledge themselves for the cor. sand of his pupils surround him. rectness of every sentiment in They pour their execrations on the above Essay; but they his head ; a thousand tongues

cheerfully submit the whole to exclaim, “O that you had set

the consideration of the candid us pious examples, that you had public. taught us sound principles, that you had led us in the way of life. We trusted in your science; we followed your steps, and we are

For the Panoplist. ruined for ever." What would be the fate of the Praise ye the Lord, mountains and all

hills, fruitful trees and all cedars! mariners should the compass

Psalm cxlviii. prove false, or the pilot betray his trust on

a stormy coast ? A SURVEY of the progressive Should the system of nature be stages of vegetation, from the bud deranged, and the lights of heav. and blossom to the ripened fruit en, unbalanced from their or. and falling leaves, irresistibly im. bits fly,” what could save a fall. pels the mind to the adoration of ing universe ? Not less terrible the Supreme Being as the source to the moral system are the ef. of all good. There is not a mind fects, when the seminaries of so insensible, there is not a heart science are poisoned by the vice so callous, that a view of the ex. or infidelity of their instructors tending branches, of the distend. and students. When the lights ing bud, of the expanding leaf of the country are darkness, how and blossom, but above all, of dismal is that darkness ? Such the ripening fruit, does not swell instructors instead of resembling it with the praises of the Most the Star of Bethlehem, are the High. Well might the great agents of that baleful dragon in apostle to the Gentiles exclaim, the heavens, who tore away a "By the things which are made third part of the stars, and hurl. are clearly seen even his eternal ed them down to the earth. power and godhead.” The in.

Koowledge when it ceases to spired psalmist, the Lord of glo. be useful is not knowledge; it ry, and the eloquent Paul of is art, it is cunning, it is guile, Tarsus, taught their followers it bites like a serpent; it stings the tender mercies of heaven to. like an adder. Seminaries, which ward the sons of men by directpervert the benevolent designs ing their attention to the beauty of their founders, ought to as- and riches displayed in the vege. ume other names. They are table kingdom. It has long been pot colleges; they are not shools a subject of astonishment to the of the prophets ; they are not writer, that the rich carpet of seminaries of science, but they nature, beautified by all the tints are baleful meteors, shedding of the dissolving sun-beam, ren.


dered fragrant by every "sweet untaught, should carry with him scented” blossom, and bespread through his book a recollection with the golden harvest, could of all the difficulties he had to be so heedlessly trampled on by surmount in his noviciate. This stupid mortals without attuning Dr. Barton has happily done their minds to a single strain of in his Elements of Botany. la devotion. This astonishment many places to the adept he may ceases on reflecting that untaught seem diffuse : to the student he man is but a barbarian : it is but seems clear without redundancy. a short time since even our phi. There is one excellence in the losophers have been attracted to style of Barton's Elements of Bo. the study of plants. Youth, tany, which, infused into all ele. emphatically styled the flower mentary treatises

science, of life, is the age appropriate to would add much to their utility: the study of botany ; but what it is a precision of language, young man can take comfort in which conveys neither more nor studying a science, in the ele. less than was intended by the men's of which he has not pre. author. The student however, viously been indoctrinated. And who sees much to admire and how can youth be indoctrinated praise, discovers one material* in elements without teachers and defect, which a new edition only elementary books of instruction? can remedy. A work, which has Thanks to the patrons of Har. been well received in America, vard University, New. England which has been reprinted in Engis no longer destitute of an estab. land, and which has been translated lishment for regular botanical

into French under a special or. instruction or of an able profes. der of the empress of Russia, the sor to teach the elements of the public might readily expect, science : Thanks to our coun. would undergo a new edition trymen, Dr. Barton, the stu. enlarged by the author. dent in botany is no looger des.

* The defect alluded to Dr. Barton titude of an elementary guide to apologized for in his preface Vegetable conduct him by simple and easy physiology, or the philosophy of botany, steps to the revels of Flora : a subject highly interesting and truly im.

portant, has not received attention proThe writer of an elementary trea portionate to its merits. tise, whose aim it is to teach the




Calcutta, Nov. 30, 1809.
I RECEIVED yours, sent by favor of
brethren Gordon and Lee, and beg you
will accept my thanks for it, and the vol.
ume which accompanied it. It gives me
great pleasure to receive, at any time, a
letter from you.

The letter which you enclosed, giving an account of the remarkable work of divine grace in a neighboring town, has created much interest here ; and has, I believe, occasioned many thanksgivings to God for his mercy.

Though we cannot boast of any rapid success attending the publication of the word in this country, yet we cannot refrain from rejoicing in the gradual spread of the sacred leaven. The progress of


the kingdom of our Redeemer has been deed, their vernacular languages ; they slow, and, like the growth of vegetables, also form a series of connecting links beinsensible, yet it has been real; and when tween Europeans and the natives of the the present state of the interest of relig- country. The work of God iu Calcutta, ion is compared with its state in any pre has been chiefly among this class of perseding period, at a reasonable distance, sons; and thus a great number who were the difference is evident; and furnishes neglected as the dregs of society, (parus with an occasion to praise God for ticularly the catholic Portugueso,) are what he has accomplished, and to look brought to declare themselves on the side forward to him with earnest expectation of the gospel. I, however, calculating and hope, that he will complete all that upon the future progress of the gospel his promises hold forth to our view. in this country, expect that a goodly

There are now in Bengal, five church- number of persons will be raised up from es constituted, and furnished with pas- these people, who will publish the gospel tors, besides five more places in Bengal among the natives to much greater ad. and Bohon, where the word of God is vantage than Europeans can ever be er. regularly published by evangelical clergy- pected to do, and probably with greater men of the church of England ; and two

Already two of the Armenian more situations where churches are not natives have been called by this church yet formed, occupied by brethren be- to the work of the ministry; and I hope longing to our Mission. In all these in a reasonable time to see others, (be. churches there have been additions dur- sides those called from among the Hin. ing the present year.

doos, of whom there are now three perIn Calcutta, the Lord has done great sons called to the gospel ministry,) enthings for us. We have been enabled to e- gaged in the same glorious cause. rect a decent place of worship,70 feet by 38, The translations of the word of God without including the veranda,or portico, into the Oriental languages, are still gowhich is thirty two* feet wide, through ing forward. The whole Bible is printed the whole length, making the whole in Bengalee. The New Testament in building a square of 70 feet, each side. Sungskrit and Oorissa—the poetical The congregation is increasing; I think books and part of the prophets in Dorissa it amounted, last Lord's day,to nearlytwo --nearly two thirds of the New Testahundred persons. There are now about ment in Hindosthanee--and nearly half fifty persons in this city, who are in full of it in Mahratta The printing is also communion. I think the total of persons going forward in Chinese, and the lan. in all our churches in India, who are in guages of the Seeks. The translations full communion, amounts to about 140. are well advanced in several of these, and

Several collateral circumstances, also, two or three other languages. In short, which can be estimated by those alone we have great reason to bless God that who are on the spot, and are acquainted he has assisted us thus far, and to look with the state of society here, contribute for his support and assistance to the end. much to my encouragement; among I am, very affectionately, yours, others, I might mention the great pro

W. CAREY. portion, of those persons, to whom the gospel has been effectual, who are usually included under the general term, « Portugueso.”. Some of these persons spring from the illicit connexion of Eu. ropeans with the native women; others In consequence of a serious war, which are the descendants of Portuguese, more

had broken out at Otaheite, the greater or less intermixed with people of other part of the missionaries had thought it nations by marriage, or illicit connex

necessary to retire to the neighboring ions. A great number of those who are

island of Huaheine, where they had been

Four the illegitimate offspring of Europeans, received in a friendly manner. have had a decent education, and some

missionaries had been left at Otaheite, of them a liberal one; those descended but were expected soon to follow the from the Portuguese, are in general ig

others. The war, it was thought, would norant, and their education has either end in the total overthrow of Pomarre's

Ch. Obser. Jan, been very confined, or altogether neglect- government. ed; they are also mostly of the Roman Catholic persuasion. All these persons are well acquainted with the current lan. guages of the country—they being, in

* I speak by guess about the width of A MISSION has been established rach part, but know the whole to be 70 among the Namaquas, which is said to

proceed favorably; and the surrounding Vol. II. New Series.



3 Z


tribes have expressed a great desire to hear tains 900 houses built chiefly of stone and the gospel. The missionaries' congrega- lime. The greater part of the people tion has increased to upwards of 700. Be- are free; and at the same time a number sides these, nany, who are obliged for the of villages are at the disposal of chiefs. sake of their cattle to live near the water, The whole population is computed at two some occasionally to hear the word of hundred thousand. The country is said God, or one of the missionaries goes to to be very healthy, and abounds in wood them to instruct themand their children; of every kind The Sonnas are professed for which reason, the missionaries ob- christians. They believe in one God and serve, we want help in our labors, for in Jesus Christ, as their only Savior and we have a large field before us. Ibid.

King. They pray that God would bless them for Christ's sake, they baptize their children 4 or 5 days after they are born by washing them all over the body. In their churches they have images, some

of which they say were produced by the KARASS stands on the east side of the

power of God in a miraculous way In largest of the five mountains, called Besh- one church they have the image of a taw, in about 43 degrees north latitude, horse. When they swear they wish that and 61 degrees east longitude from Lon- they may be turned to the left at the day don The missionary settlement is sur, of judgment should their oath be false. rounded with two double fences with a. They observe fasts and kill cattle to feed ditch between, and the whole defended the poor, when they repent of their sins. by a guard of six Cossacks. In conse- They observe the Sabbath in a religious quence of being thus secured, it has not

way, and have a number of priests who suffered such losses frona bands of robbers

are allowed to marry: this season (1809) as in former years. in their churches they have a number

At present there are ten dwelling of large books, which the priests read, houses or distinct families in the settle- but do not pretend to explain. The ser. ment, and the number of inhabitants

vices consist mostly in singing and prayer. young and old, that properly belong to The priests wear long garments, richly it, forty three souls. The double fences

ornamented with gold and silver When include a piece of ground about 270 feet they pray, they look toward heaven with square on the declivity of the east side of uplifted hands. They look on the presone of the Beshtaw mountains, the gar- ervation of christianity among them as a dens and other inclosures are pretty ex- miracle It is evident the Sonnas are tensive Little or no grain has yet been Greek christians, and they probably once sown. The chief articles raised are po- belonged to the Georgian church. The taloes, tobacco, cabbages, green peas, &c. Sonna country is very fruitful. The men Agricultural labor in this climate is se. and women eat together and both wear vere for the constitutions of Englishmen. Jong hair. Some of them keep slaves, They are unable to support the fatigue, but the greater part of them disapprove which it requires, for any length of time, of the practice, and dread lest it should without bringing on weakness and dis- bring calamities upon their nation. They

As there are few good tradesmen inoculate their children with the small on the lines of Caucasus, and as the Rus

pox on the crown of their head. sians and Tartars are able to bear fatigue Other tribes are the Abazas, and Abawithout inconvenience, the missionaries zichs, formerly christians, but now chief. áre likely to support theinselves by me. ly Mohammedans. The Lesgiz also are chanical trades. Watch mending would

a numerous tribe. Ch. Ob. Feb. be a very profitable business, because there are plenty of watches in the country anıl but few to keep them in repair. There is not a watch maker in the whole When we consider, say the missionacountry except an Armenian, and he

ries in their Journal, March, 1809, the knows nothing of the business.

number of children gathered from among As good potters' clay is found near the heathen; the number of adults, that Karass, pottery would prove very advan. have been baptized ; the printing and tageous A hátter likewise wonid do ex- circulating of a vast number of tracts, tremely well, as the materials for mak

and pai ticularly of the gospel by Mating fine hats can easily be procured. thew in the native language; the inquiry

About 7 days journey from Karass lies that prevails, and the suspicions of the the Ebse or Sonna country, through truth of Mohammedism, that have been which runs the Ager discharging itself excited; the alarm of the chiefs ; the into the Black Sea This country con- apparent disposition of whole nations to tains upwards of 50 villages, some of receive the christian religion, produce which are considerable towns. Latli con. ed by our conversation and the reading


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