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the ultimate aim of every merchant, and of every man who accumulates money.

Thirdly, An entail is a bitter enemy to population. Population depends greatly on the number of land-proprietors. A very small portion of land, managed with skill and industry, affords bread to a numerous family; and the great aim of the frugal proprietor, is to provide a fund for educating his children, and for establishing them in business. A numerous issue, at the same time, is commonly the lot of the temperate and frugal; because luxury and voluptuousness enervate the body, and dry up the sources of procreation. This is no chimera or fond imagination : traverse Europe; compare great capitals with distant provinces ; and it will be found to hold universally, that children abound much more among the industrious poor, than among the luxurious rich. But if division of land into small properties, tend to population; depopulation mutt be the necessary consequence of an entail, the avowed intent of which is to unite many small properties in one great estate ; and consequently, to


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reduce land-proprietors to a small number.

Let us, in the fourth place, take under consideration, the children of landholders with respect to education and industry; for unless men be usefully employ'd, population is of no real advantage to a state. In that respect, great and small estates admit no comparison. Children of great families, accustomed to affluence and lu-, xury, are too proud for business ; and were they even willing, are incapable to drudge at a laborious employment. At the same time, the father's hands being tied up by his entail from affording them fuitable provisions, they become a burden on the family, and on the state, and can do no service to either, but by dying. Yet there are men so blind, or fo callous, as to be fond of entails. Let us try whether a more pleasing scene will have

any effect upon them. Children of small landholders, are from infancy educated in a frugal manner; and they must be induftrious, as they depend on industry for bread. Among that class of men, education has its most powerful influence; and upon that class a nation chicfly relies, for

its skilful artists and manufacturers, for its lawyers, physicians, divines, and even for its generals and statesmen.

And this leads to consider, in the fifth place, the influence that great and small eftates have on manners. Gentlemen of a moderate fortune, connected with their superiors and inferiors, improve society, by spreading kindly affection through the whole members of the state. In such only resides the genuine fpirit of liberty, abhorrent equally of servility to superiors and of tyranny to inferiors. The nature of the British governinent, creates a mutual dependence of the great and finall' on cạch other. The great have favours to Deftow : the small have many more, by their privilege of electing parliament-men; which obliges men of high rank to affect popularity, however little feeling they may have for the good of their fellow creatures. This connection produces good manners at least, between different ranks, and perlaps some degree of cordiality. - Accumulation of land into great eftates, produces opposite manners : when all the land in Scotland' is 'Twallow'd up by a riuniber of grandees, and few gentlemen of the middle

rank are left; even the appearance of poo pularity will vanilh, leaving pride and infolence on the one hand, and abject servility on the other. In a word, the distribution of land into many shares, accords charmingly with the free spirit of the British constitution; but nothing is more repugnant to that spirit, than overgrown estates in land.

In the sixth place, Arts and sciences can never flourish in a country, where all the land is engrossed by a few. Science will never be cultivated by the dispirited tenant, who can scarce procure bread; and still less, if possible, by the infolent landlord, who is too self-sufficient for instruction. There will be no encouragement for arts : great and opulent proprietors, fostering ambitious views, will cling to the feat of government, which is far removed from Scotland; and if vanity make them sometimes display their grandeur at their country-seats, they will be too delicate for any articles of luxury but what are foreign. The arts and sciences being thus banished, Scotland will be deserted by every man of spirit who can find bread elsewhere. VOL, IV.


3 I.

In the feventh place, Such overgrown estates will produce an irregular and dangerous influence with respect to the House of Commons. The parliament-boroughs will be subdued by weight of money ; and with respect to county-elections, it is a chance if there be left in a county as many qualified landholders as to afford a. free choice. In such circumstances, will our constitution be in no danger from the ambitious views of men elevated above others by their vast poffeffions? Is it unlikely, that such men, taking advantage of public discord, will become an united body of ambitious oppressors, overawing their sovereign as well as their fellow-subjects ? Such was the miferable condition of Britain, while the feudal oligarchy subfifted : fuch at present is the miserable condition of Poland : and fuch will be the miserable condition of Scotland, if the legislature do not stretch out a faving hand.

: If the public interest only were to be regarded, entails ought to be destroy'd - root and branch. But a numberlefs bo

dy of substitutes are interested, many of whom would be disinherited, if the tenants in tail had power. To reconcile as


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