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all ages,

THat there exist beings, one or many,

powerful above the human race, is a proposition universally admitted as true, in

and among all nations. I boldly call it universal, notwithstanding what is reported of some großš savages; for reports that contradict what is acknowledged to be general among men, require more able vouchers than a few illiterate voyagers. Among many favage tribes, there are no words but for objects of external sense : is it surprising, that such people are incapable to express their religious perceptions, or any perception of internal sense ? and from their filence can it be fairly presumed, that they have no such perception *?


* In the language even of Peru, there is not a word for expressing an abstract idea, such as time, endurance, Space, existence, substance, matter, body, It is no less defective in exprefling moral ideas, such

The conviction that men have of superior powers in every country where there are words to express it, is so well vouched, that in fair reasoning it ought to be taken for granted among the few tribes where language is deficient. Even the groffest idolatry affords evidence of that conviction. No nation can be so brutish as to worship a stock or a stone, merely as such: the visible object is always imagined to be connected with some invisible power; and the worship paid to the former, is as representing the latter, or as in some manner connected with it. Every family among the ancient Lithuanians, entertained a real serpent as a household god; and the same practice is at present universal among the negroes in the kingdom of Whidah : it is not the serpent that is worshipped, but some deity imagined to refide in it. The ancient Egyptians were not idiots, to pay divine honours to a bull or a cat,

as virtue, justice, gratitude, liberty. Thie Yameos, a tribe on the river Oroonoko described by Condamine, use the word poettarraroincouroac to express the number three, and have no word for a greater number. The Brasilian language is nearly as barren,


as such : the divine honours were paid to a deity, as residing in these animals. The sun is to man a familiar object: being frequently obscured by clouds, and totally eclipsed during night, a savage naturally conceives it to be a great fire, sometimes flaming bright, sometimes obscured, and sometimes extinguished. Whence then sun-worship, once universal among favages ? Plainly from the same cause: it is not properly the sun that is worshipped, but a deity who is supposed to dwell in that luminary

Taking it then for granted, that our conviction of superior powers has been long universal, the important question is, From what cause it proceeds. A convictian fo universal and so permanent, cannot proceed from chance; but must have a cause operating constantly and invariably upon all men in all ages. Philofophers, who believe the world to be eternal and self-existent, and imagine it to be the only deity tho' without intelligence, endeavour to account for our conviction of superior powers, from the terror that thunder and other elementary convulsions raise in favages; and thence conclude that

such belief is no evidence of a deity. Thus Lucretius,

Præterea, cui non animus formidine divum Contrahitur? cui non conripunt membra pavore, Fulminis horribili cum plaga torrida tellus Contremit, et magnum percurrunt murmura

cælum * (a)?

And Petronius Arbiter,

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Primus in orbe deos fecit timor : ardua cælo
Fulmina quum caderent discusfaque mænia flam-

Atque ictus flagraret Athos t.

It will readily be yielded to these gentlemen,

that savages, grossly ignorant of causes and effects, are apt to take fright at every unusual appearance, and to think that some malignant being is the cause.

* What man can boast that firm undaunted soul, That hears, unmov'd, when thunder shakes the

pole ; Nor shrinks with fear of an offended pow'r, When lightnings flash, and storms and tempests

roar ?

+ When dread convulsions rock'd the lab'ring earth,

And livid clouds first gave the thunder birth,
Instinctive fear within the human breast
The first ideas of a God impress’d.

(a) Lib. 5. VOL.IV.



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And if they mean only, that the first per-
ception of deity among savages is occa-
fioned by fear, I heartily subscribe to their
opinion. But if they mean, that such
perceptions proceed from fear solely, with-
out having any other cause, I wish to be
informed from what source is derived the
belief we have of benevolent deities. Fear
cannot be the source: and it will be seen
anon, that tho' malevolent deities were
first recognised among savages, yet that
in the progress of fociety, the existence of
benevolent deities was universally believed.
The fact is certain ; and therefore fear is
not the sole cause of our believing the ex-
istence of superior beings.

It is beside to me evident, that the be-
lief even of malevolent deities, once uni-

all the tribes of men, cannot
be accounted for from fear folely. I ob-
serve, first, That there are inany men, to
whom an eclipse, an earthquake, and e-
ven thunder, are unknown: Egypt in
particular, tho' the country of supersti-
tion, is little or not at all acquainted with
the two latter ; and in Peru, tho’ its go-
vernment was a theocracy, thunder is not
known. Nor do such appearances strike


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