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of Russia uses a method for converting, her Pagan subjects of Kamskatka, no less agreeable than effectual; which is, to exempt from taxes for ten years, such of them as profess the Christian religion. This practice may be political; but it tends not to advance religion, and is destructive of morality. Terror, on the other hand, may be equally effectual, but is not altogether fo agreeable. The people of Rum, one of the Hebrides, were Papists till the beginning of the present century, when in one day they were all profelyted to the Protestant faith. Maclean of Coll, their chieftain, went to the island with a protestant minifter, and ordered all the inhabitants to appear on Sunday at public worship. They came, but refused to hear a Protestant minifter. The chieftain reasoned with them: but finding that his reasonings made no impression, he laid hold of the most forward; and having made a deep impression on him with his cane, push'd him into the church. The rest followed like meek lambs; and from that day have continued firm Protestants. The Protestantism of Rum is


styled by their Popish neighbours, the faith of the yellow stick.

To apply any means for making proselytes, other than fair reasoning, appears to me a strange perversion. Can God be pleased with using rewards or punishments, or can any rational man justify them? What then should move any one to put them in practice? I should be utterly at a loss to answer the question, but. for a fact mentioned more than once above, that the rude and illiterate judge by fight only not by reflection. They lay weight on the external visible act, without thinking of intention, which is not visible. in truth, the bulk of mankind rest

upon the external profession of religion: they never think of the heart, nor consider how that stands affected. What else is it but the external act merely, that inoves the Romiih miffionaries to baptize the infants of favages even at the moment of expiring ? which they prosecute with much pious ardour. Their zeal merits applause, but not their judgement. Can any

rational person seriously believe, that the dipping a favage or an infant in water, will make either of them a Chri


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stian, or that the want of this ceremony will precipitate thein into hell? The Lithuanians, before their conversion to Christianity, worshipped serpents, every fami . ly entertaining one as a household god. Sigisinundus, in his commentaries of Mufa: covy, reports the following incident. A converted Christian having persuaded a neighbour to follow his example, and in token of his conversion to kill his serpent, was furprised at his next visit, to find his convert in the deepest melancholy, bitterly lamenting that he had murdered his god, and that the most dreadful calamities would befal him. Was this person a Christian more than nominally? At the end of the last century when Kempfer was in Japan, there remained but about fifty Japan Christians, who were locked up in prison for life. These poor people knew no more of the Christian religion, but the names of our Saviour and of the Virgin Mary; and yet so zealous Christians were they, as rather to die miserably in jail, than to renounce the name of Christ, and be ser at liberty. The inhabitants of the island Annaboa in the gulf of Guinea have been converted by the Portuguese to ChriVol. IV.


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stianity. No more is required of them, as Bosman observes, but to repeat a Pater nofter and Ave Maria, confess to the priest, and bring offerings to him.

I cannot with fatisfaction conclude this. sketch, without congratulating my present countrymen of Britain, upon their knowledge of the intimate connection that true religion has with morality. May the importance of that connection, always at heart, excite us to govern every action of our lives by the united principles of morality and religion :-- what a happy people would we be !


A P P E N D I X.

Sketches concerning SCOTLAND.



Scotch Entails considered in Moral and Pom

litical views.

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AN is by nature a hoarding animal; and to secure what is ac

quired by honest industry, the sense of property is made a branch of human nature (a). During the infancy of nations, when artificial wants are unknown, the hoarding appetite makes no figure. The use of money produced a great alteration in the human heart. Money having at command the goods of fortune, introduced inequality of rank, luxury, and artificial wants without end.

(a) Book 1. sketch 2.

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