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tisers thereof, while I conversed with you, and, as faine informeth us, have continued such, so I hope that God, who hath so long preserved you, will preserve you to the end ; and he that hath been your shield in corporal dangers will be so in spiritual.
“ Your great warfare is not yet accomplished : the worms of corruption that breed in us will live, in some measure, till we die ourselves. Your conquest of yourself is yet iinperfect. To fight with yourself you will find the hardest, but most necessary conflict that ever yet you were engaged in, and to overcome yourself, the most honourable and gainful victory. Think not that your greatest trials are all over. Prosperity hath its peculiar temptations, by which it hath foiled many that stood unshaken in the storms of adversity. The tempter, who hath had you on the waves, will now assault you in the calm, and hath his last game to play on the mountain, till nature cause you to descend. Stand this charge, and you win the day.”
Whalley, to whom these faithful admonitions were addressed, was one of the most active of the republican officers in the para liamentary army. He was one of the king's judges, and took a leading part in procuring the resignation of Richard Cromwell. He left England with his son-in-law, Gough, for America, a few days before the Restoration. Landing at Boston they waited on Governor Endicott, and told him who they were. They then took up their residence in that neighbourhood, till a hue and cry followed them from Barbadoes. Then they removed to Newa haven, where they owed their preservation to John Davenport, the minister of the place; who had the courage to preach to the people, when their pursuers arrived, from Isaiah xvi. 3, 4. Though large rewards were offered for them, and Davenport was threatened, as it was known he had harboured them, they were still concealed. Their hiding place was a cave on the top of a rock, a few miles from the town. Here they lurked two or
three years, when they moved to Hadley, where they were concealed by Russel, the minister, fifteen or sixteen years. During their residence in this place, a singular opportunity was afforded one of the fugitives to render momentous assistance to his preservers. During a long war between the English settlers and the Indian chief of Pokanoket, the Indians surprised Hadley in the time of public worship. The men of the town, though in the habit of taking arms with them when they attended divine service, were panic-struck and confounded ; and, in all probability, not a soul of them would have been saved, had not an old and venerable man, whose dress was different from the inhabitants, and whom no one had seen before, suddenly appeared among them. He rallied them, put himself at their head, gave his orders like one accustomed to battle, led them on, routed the enemy, and, when the victory was complete, was no longer to be found. This deliverer, whom the people believed to be an angel, was General Gough! Whalley died at Hadley in 1688, and Gough some time after. The history is not without interest; and the reader will not suppose it is made to do honour to the regicides, when he is informed that the statement is taken from the Quarterly Review. Considering the opinion entertained of Whalley by Baxter, and the latter part of his history, there is reason to regard him as another of those men who, “in evil times,” devoted themselves to the interests of their country, and whose principles and character (though every part of their conduct is not to be vindicated) have long heen most infamously misrepresented.
To return to Baxter. Finding that his Apology had not anŚwered the end for which it was made--the satisfaction of his opponents-in 1655 he published his Confession of Faith,
co Quarterly Review' for November, 1809. vol. ii. p. 32. The story is told by Holmes in his . Annals of America.'
especially concerning the interest of repentance, and sincere obedience to Christ, in our justification and salvation. 4to. The object of the confession, he tells us in his own life, was “to save any more misunderstanding of his Aphorisms, and to declare his suspension of them till he should reprint them;" which he never did. “In my Confession,” he says, “I opened the whole doctrine of Antinomianism, and brought the testimonies of abundance of our divines, who gave as much to other works, beside faith, in justification, as I did.”
This remark places before us one peculiarity in Baxter's system. He regarded faith not merely as the sine qua non of a sinner's justification, but as what was imputed for righteousness; and included in this faith what he considered sincere obedience to Christ as a Lord or Lawgiver. Yet he had his own way of explaining this phraseology consistently with his strong and repeated declaration that “faith itself doth not merit our pardon or justit.cation, nor justify us as a work, nor as faith ;" that “no works of the regenerate, internal or external, are to join with Christ's sufferings and merits, as any part á satisfaction to God's justice for our sins ; no, not the least rært for the least sin;" and that “ neither faith, love, repentance, xor any works of ours, are true, efficient causes of our remission or justification, either principal or instrumental.” He declares 3. the most solemn manner, “I do heartily approve of the whorter catechism of the Assembly, and of all therein contained : and I take it for the best catechism I ever yet saw.” “I have perused,” he says, “all the articles of the Synod of Dort, and unfeignedly honour them, as containing sound and moderate doctrine ; and there is nothing that I have observed in it all, that my judgment doth contradict, if I be allowed these few expositions.” These expositions do not affect any of the leading points. He says: “In the very article of perseverance, which some are pleased to quarrel with me about, I subscribe to the Synod;" “yea," he adds, " in the article of the extent of redemption, wherein I am most suspected and accused, I do subscribe to the Synod of Dort, without any exception, limitation, or exposition, of any word, as doubtful and obscure.”
As every man ought to be allowed to be the expositor of his own sentiments, let no man after this, question or deny the Calvinism of Richard Baxter. He was as much a Calvinist as thousands who then, or who now, bear the name without suspicion. He indeed used language liable to be misunderstood, as do all who are disposed to be too refined or metaphysical on moral subjects. His very efforts at precision in the use of words and phrases, involved him in controversy, which, by a more general mode of speaking, he would have avoided. He was open and honest; what other men swallowed in a mass, he divided, analysed, and explained, often to a troublesome extent. Yet his very scrupulosity in holding and explaining his sentiments, compels us to respect him : while his supreme regard for the honour of God, the holiness of his government, ana the claims of his law, entitles him to our highest approbation. The man who could write the following passage, cannot be regarded as holding either narrow or obscure views of the divine moral gove . ment; or of the system of redemption which that moral g . vernment embraces and develops.
“As is the moon with the stars unto the expanded firm ment; as are the well-ordered cities with their ornaments qu'il fortifications to the woods and wilderness, such is the church :) the rest of the world. The felicity of the church is in the lose of God, and its blessed influence, whose face is that sun which doth enlighten and enliven it. If earth and sin had not caused a separation and eclipse, the world and the church would have been the same, and this church would have enjoyed an uninterrupted day-light. It is the earth that moveth and turneth from this sun, and not the sun's receding from the earth, that brings our night. It is not God, but man, that lost his goodness; nor is it necessary to our reparation, that a change be made on him,
but on us. Christ came not into the world to make God better, but to make us better; nor did he die to make him more disposed to do good, but to dispose us to receive it. His purpose was not actually to change the mind of God, nor to incline him to have mercy who before was disinclined, but to make the pardon of man's sin a thing convenient for the righteous and holy Governor of the world to bestow, without any impeachment of the honour of his wisdom, holiness, or justice; yea, to the more eminent glorifying of them all.
“Two things are requisite to make man amiable in the eyes of God, and a fit object for the Most Holy to take pleasure in: one is, his suitableness to the holiness of God's nature ; the other respecteth his governing justice. We must, in this life, see God in the glass of the creature, and especially in man that beareth his image. Were we holy, he would love us as a holy God: and were we innocent, he would encourage us as a righteous and bounteous Governor. But as there is no particular governing justice, without that universal natural justice which it pre-supposeth and floweth from, so can there be no such thing as innocency in us as subjects, which floweth not from a holiness of our natures as men. We must be good, before we can live as the good. In both these respects, man was amiable in the eyes of his Maker, till sin depraved him, and deprived him of both. To both these must the Saviour again restore him: and this is the work that he came into the world to do, even to seek and to save that which was doubly lost, and to destroy that twofold work of the devil, who hath drawn us to be both unholy and guilty, .
“ As in the fall, the natural real evil was antecedent to the relative guilt; so is it in the good conferred in the reparation. We must, in order of nature, be first turned by repentance unto God, through faith in the Redeemer, and then receive the remission of our sins. As it was man himself that was the subject of that twofold unrighteousness, so it is man himself that must be restored to that twofold righteousness which he lost, that is,