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in the paradisaical state, so he shall have the artifice 'to deceive the nations' in this millennial kingdom, to show that no state or condition upon earth is exempted and secured from sinning." I would only add, that it is lust or evil desire "which deceiveth the whole world,” and has been the source of its wars and bloodshed, James 4: 1-4. This is the universal deceiver.
We have now finished our investigation of all the texts in the Bible, where the terms devil and satan are used. Having expressed our own views of the different passages, we leave the candid reader to form his own opinions, and make his own reflections on the subject.
ALL THE TEXTS CONSIDERED, WHERE THE DEVIL IS SUPPOSED TO BE CALLED THE EVIL ONE, THE TEMPTER, THE GREAT DRAGON, THE SERPENT, AND OLD SERPENT, THE PRINCE OF THIS WORLD, THE PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR, AND THE GOD OF THIS World.
THESE names and titles, given to the devil, a supposed fallen angel, will require but a brief consideration, for some of them have been introduced in the preceding sections. Indeed, if devil and satan designate no such being in the Bible, it will be allowed by most people, that he is not to be found in the Bible. But we shall not take this for granted. The devil is then
1st. Supposed to be called, o' poneros, the evil one, or, the wicked one. This word is rendered in the common version, evil, wicked, wickedness, harm, &c.
The sacred writers use it to express evil or wickedness in a variety of ways. Such as evil or unclean spirits, Matth. 12: 45. Acts 19: 12, 13, 15, 16. Luke 7:21. 8: 2. and 11: 26. An evil or unclean spirit is the same as an evil or unclean demon, and have no connexion with our present subject. This word is used to express moral evil, Matth. 5: 37. 1 Thess. 5: 22. 2 Thess. 3: 3. John 17:15. Physical evil, Acts 28: 21. Rev. 16: 2. Matth. 5: 39. The day of persecution is called the evil day, Eph. 6: 13. The heart of man, from whence all evil proceeds, is called "an evil heart of unbelief," Heb. 3: 12. Out of this source proceed evil thoughts, Matth. 9: 4. Luke 11: 29. James 2: 4. Matth. 12: 35. Luke 6: 45. Also, wicked and malicious words, 3 John 5: 10. Matth. 5: 11. Luke 6: 22. Also, evil works or deeds, Matth. 12: 35. Mark 7: 23. Matth. 15: 19. Luke 6: 45. John 3: 19. and 7: 7. James 4: 16. Col. 1: 21. 2 John 5: 11. Acts 28: 21. Rom. 12: 9. 2 Tim. 4: 18. Luke 3: 19. Matth. 7: 17, 18. Men practising wickedness, are hence called evil, or wicked persons, Matth. 12: 39. 16: 4.7: 11. and 12: 34. Luke 11: 13. 2 Tim. 3: 13. Luke 6: 45. 1 Cor. 5: 13. Matth. 5: 45. 13: 49. and 22: 10. Luke 6: 35. Acts 17: 5. 2 Thess. 3: 2. Such wicked persons have an evil conscience, Heb. 10:22. An evil eye, Matth. 6 : 23. and 20: 15. Mark 7: 22. Luke 11: 34. Become evil servants, in various conditions of life, Matth. 18: 32. and 25: 26. Luke 19: 22. And as evil or wickedness prevails, the world or age is said to be evil, Gal. 1: 4. Such is a brief review of all the places where the word poneros occurs, except the following, and are the only passages, where any one can suppose this word designates an evil being or fallen angel.
Matth. 6: 13. "Deliver us from the evil." See also Luke 11: 4. where the same language is used. Some have said, this expression means, "deliver us
from the evil one," thereby meaning the devil, a fallen angel. But the word one does not occur in the original, is not even in the common version, nor does the scope of the passage require it. Such a mode of establishing this doctrine, does not require a serious refutation. In Matth. 13: 19. the phrase "wicked one" occurs, but the word one is in italic, which might be omitted, or the word person substituted in its place. But as it has been shown in the last section, that this phrase is synonimous to devil and satan, and has no reference to a fallen angel, it requires no further notice here. The same remarks apply to Matth. 13: 38. which has been sufficiently considered already. The expressions "the tares are the children of the wicked," and "the good seed are the children of the kingdom," are explained by the quotation from professor Stuart on John 8: 44. above. "Children of the wicked one," simply means "wicked children" or, "children of wickedness." The Improved Version in a note on this passage says, "sons of the evil one," are wicked men. Such in the Old Testament are called sons of Belial, or worthlessness, i.e. worthless men, 1 Sam. 2: 12. 1 Kings 21: 10. See 2 Cor. 6: 15. In 1 John 2: 13, 14. the phrase "wicked one," is used twice. The word one is not put in italic type, but ought to have been, for there is no reason for this alteration. See also Eph. 6: 16. 1 John 3: 12. and 5: 18, 19. where the wicked, or evil one, or thing, is also mentioned. The context of these passages show, that the word thing, might be substituted for the word one. Take the last passage for an example. The wicked one or thing, which toucheth or rather hurteth not those who are born of God, is that from which they keep themselves, and this is sin, for it is said, "whosoever is born of God sinneth not," verse 18. This is confirmed from verse 19. for John adds, 66 we know that we are of God, and the whole
world lieth in wickedness, or sin; or, simply evil. See on all these passages, our remarks on the passages where the devil and satan are mentioned, and which are synonimous terms with evil or wicked one. I shall only add from Wakefield on Matth. 5: 37. "The evil one. So I render again, verse 39, and in other places; as our translators rightly render below. Nearly in the same manner, 13: 19. and elsewhere, the wicked one. Whatever is calculated to seduce men to sin, is represented by the sacred writers under the figure of a living agent, called the evil one-the adversary-the enemy the devil, and satan.”
2d. The devil, a fallen angel, is also supposed to be called "o peiradzon, the tempter." This word is rendered to tempt, to try, to prove. The following are all the places where it occurs in the New Testament. James 1: 13, 14. Gal. 6: 1. Rev. 2: 10. Acts 15: 10. 2 Cor. 13: 5. 1 Cor. 7: 5. Heb. 11: 17. John 6: 6. 1 Thess. 3: 5. Acts 5: 9. Rev. 3: 10. 1 Cor. 10: 13. Matth. 22: 18. Mark 12: 15. Luke 20:23. Heb. 2: 18. Mark 1: 13. Luke 4: 2. Matth. 16: 1. and 19: 3. Mark 8:11. and 10: 2. Luke 11: 16. John 8: 6. Matth. 4: 1. and 22: 35. Heb. 4: 15. We have given book, chapter and verse, that the reader may consult the passages and see, if in any one of them, the tempter mentioned, refers to such a being. The following are the only places from which such a thing could be supposed.
Matth. 4: 3. Mark 1: 13. and Luke 4: 2, 13. have already been noticed in considering our Lord's temptation and require no further attention. If the devil and satan, do.not refer to a fallen angel, the tempter cannot, for it is allowed these terms are used as names for the same thing. In 1 Thess. 3: 5. it is said "For this cause when I could no longer forbear, I sent to know your faith, lest by some means the tempter have tempted you and our labor be in vain."
What tempter did the apostle refer to? Answer, we have seen from various passages, that the principle of evil, or sensual desire, is the tempter, and is called the devil and satan. Indeed this is the foundation of all the other senses in which these words are used. This principle, operated in every possible way, in the opposers of Christianity, whom Paul calls satan, chap. 2: 18. noticed, sect. 5. the Thessalonians were called to suffer persecution from them, chap. 3: 3, 4. They were also liable to be influenced by the principle of evil or sensual desire. Anxious for their steadfastness in the faith, the apostle expresses his fear, lest by some means the tempter had tempted them, and his labor prove vain. This view is confirmed, from verses 6, 7. where we are informed what relieved the apostle's anxiety of mind. It was not that a fallen angel had not succeeded in tempting them, but merely that their faith and charity continued.
3d. The devil, a fallen angel, is also supposed to be called "the dragon" and "the great red dragon," Rev. chaps. 12. 13. 16. 20. But sufficient has been said on these passages in the last section to which we refer the reader.
4th. The devil, a fallen angel, is also believed, to be called "the serpent," and "that old serpent." We have noticed Gen. 3. sufficiently in Section 2. Where the phrase, "that old serpent" occurs, has also been considered, Sect. 7. The only other text relative to this subject, is 2 Cor. 11: 3. "But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity which is in Christ." See some remarks on this passage Sect. 2. What I would observe further here is-1st. Had Paul believed, as a great many do now, that a fallen angel or wicked