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the grand points at issue, will be considered no
I make no apology for availing myself of quotations from various authors in the course of my remarks, for they are chiefly taken from writers whose religious creeds embraced the opinions which I have controverted. None of them are taken from professed Universalists, for by most people their testimony would be deemed exceptionable, however well supported by evidence. The testimonies quoted in favor of my opinions, are from men competent to judge, and in high repute as critics and commentators among orthodox people. They are quoted, not to give sanction to my views by the weight and number of their names, but on account of the evidence which they produce.
In the present work, the strongest texts in favor of endless punishment are considered, and attention given them in proportion to the degree of stress laid on them in favor of this doctrine. In some instances, we have referred to our former Inquiry into the words Sheol, Hades, Tartarus, and Gehenna, for an illustration, which the reader will please consult. And in all cases, we hope the texts referred to, but not quoted at length, will be turned to and read, as they confirm or illustrate the sentiments advocated.
The author is deeply sensible, that the sentiments he has advanced are very unpopular, and will be condemned by many without a hearing. He is sorry for such persons on their own account; for this cannot stop the advance of light
and knowledge in the present day, any more than sleeping all day can stop the sun in his course. If what I have advanced be true, it must prevail against all opposition, for great is the truth, and it must prevail. If my sentiments are false, the sooner they are refuted, neglected and forgotten, the better. If this can be done, it no doubt will be done, and to the doing of it we shall add our hearty amen.
NOTICE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
IN this Second Edition, the corrections, alterations and additions which have been made from that of the first, are chiefly verbal, and require no particular specification. So far as the author knows, no person has yet attempted to show to the public that his views are unscriptural; and nothing has occurred to himself, tending to alter, but rather to confirm him in his opinions.
INTO THE SCRIPTURAL DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE DEVIL AND SATAN.
COMMON OPINIONS ENTERTAINED OF THE DEVIL AND SATAN BRIEFLY STATED.
THE opinions entertained of the Devil and Satan are many. We shall give a brief summary of them under the following particulars.
1st. The Unity of the Devil. It is the common opinion, that there is but one being properly called the devil. The unity of God is not more certainly bclieved, than that the Devil or Satan is one. Though God is said by many to be three persons in one being, yet the devil has never been supposed to be more than one person in one being. Dr. Campbell, Dissert. 6. says, "nor can any thing be clearer from Scripture than that, though the demons are innumerable, there is but one devil in the universe."
2d. The Origin of the Devil. The common opinions about this are:-that he was originally, one of the angels of God in heaven. God did not create him a
devil, but he became so, by his own sin and rebellion. It is also believed, that he drew a multitude of the heavenly hosts into rebellion with him, who have shared his fate, are called his angels, and that he has become their chief. His sin is supposed to have been pride; but how, or about what it arose, we have never seen properly defined. Neither is the time ascertained when all this took place; but it must have been before Adam and Eve sinned, as he is said to have been their seducer. Supposing all this to be true, we can answer the long agitated question"whence cometh evil?" It came from heaven. It originated among the holy angels of God. But how it could originate in such a place, and among such holy beings, I must leave for others to explain. Admitting such opinions true, permit me to ask, if sin once originated in such a place and among such beings, why may it not again, yea, often; and why not extend it to all the ransomed of the Lord? Why may they not all finally become devils by sin and rebellion against the Lord? What is the security given that nothing of a like nature shall ever take place again in the universe of God?
3d. His expulsion from heaven and his place of abode since. How long the devil maintained his place in heaven after he sinned, we have never seen stated. All agree, that he was cast out of heaven, but where he was cast to, and where his abode has been since, very various opinions are entertained. Some say he was cast down to hell, and has been there in chains of darkness ever since. Others allege, that his abode is in the air or our atmosphere. The most general opinion is, that he walks about in our world like a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour, and will continue to do so until the consummation of all things. Some have thought that he has his residence in the heart of every wicked man, and is the cause of so
much evil being devised by it. These, with some other opinions have been entertained of the devil's residence since his expulsion from heaven, which we should think at least cannot all be true, and creates a suspicion that they may all be false.
4th. The nature and character of the Devil. The devil is universally believed to be a spirit, and a spirit hath not flesh and bones as we have. God is not more certainly believed to be a good spirit, than he is believed to be an evil and malignant spirit. Not one good quality is supposed to be in his nature or character. On the contrary, every evil, and that in the highest degree, is found in him. He is a perfect compound of all that is evil, and the irreconcileable enemy of God and man. As he is incapable of being made better, it is believed he is so bad that he cannot be made worse. To say a person or thing is as bad as the devil, is saying the worst that can be said concern. ing it.
5th. The extraordinary powers ascribed to him. Many people consider him almost omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent. He is supposed to know the thoughts, words, and actions of all men; that he is in all parts of the world at the same time; and effects things by his power, little inferior to God himself. God is the only being in the universe who is able to control him. He can assume any form, shape, or color; and though an angel of darkness, can transform himself into an angel of light. One would be almost led to think, that he had greatly increased his powers by his sin and rebellion, for no good angel is ever represented as possessing such extraordinary powers as Christians ascribe to the devil. If his powers have been curtailed by his rebellion against God, what must they have been before it?
6th. How the Devil is employed. endless task to enumerate all the
It would be an various work in