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good engraving, was published in 1742, by Linnæus,* who in 1737 gave to that genus the name by which they are known at present.† Sweert, Bauhin, and Rudbeck, are evidently mistaken in assigning the East Indies as the original country of this plant; and Broke, ‡ who was not a botanist, but only a florist, is equally wrong in making it a native of the Levant. Tovar received it from South America, where it was found by Plumier and Barrere, and at a later period by Thiery de Menonville also.§ At first it was classed with the narcissus, and it was afterwards called lilio-narcissus, because its flower resembled that of the lily, and its roots those of the narcissus. It was named flos-Jacobæus, because some imagined that they discovered in it a likeness to the badge of the knights of the order of St. James in Spain, whose founder, in the fourteenth century, could not indeed have been acquainted with this beautiful amaryllis.

Another species of this genus is the Guernsey lily, amaryllis Sarniensis, which in the magnificence of its flower is not inferior to the former. This plant was brought from Japan, where it was found

⚫ Abhandlungen der Schwedischen Akademie, iv. p. 116. Hortus Cliffort, p. 135.

Beobachtungen von einigen blumen. Leipzig 1769, 8vo..

§ Barrere, Hist. naturelle de la France Equinoxiale, spec. 8. Traité de la culture du Nopal, par Thiery de Menonville. Au Cap-François 1787, 8vo.

by Kæmpfer, and also by Thunberg,† during his travels some years ago in that country. It was first cultivated in the beginning of the seventeenth century in the garden of John Morin, at Paris, where it blowed, for the first time, on the 7th of October 1634. It was then made known by Jacob Cornutus, under the name of narcissus Japonicus flore rutilo. After this it was again noticed by John Ray§ an Englishman, in 1665, who called it the Guernsey lily, which name it still very properly bears. A ship returning from Japan was wrecked on the coast of Guernsey, and a number of the bulbs of this plant, which were on board, being cast on shore, took root in that sandy soil. As they soon increased and produced beautiful flowers, they were observed by the inhabitants, and engaged the attention of Mr. Hatton, the governor's son, whose botanical knowledge is highly spoken of by Ray, and who sent roots of them to several of his friends who were fond of cultivating curious

* Amœnitat. exoticæ, p. 872.

+ Flora Japonica, p. 132. The author says that the Japanese consider the bulbs as poisonous.

Inter omnes narcissos, qui hactenus invisi apud nos extiterunt, prima, ut arbitror, auctoritas nobilissimo huic generi debetur, quod paucis abhinc annis ex Japonia allatum, strenui admodum et nullis sumptibus parcentis viri Johannis Morini cultura, tandem in florem prosiluit septimo mensis Octobris, anno Dom. 1634. Jac. Cornuti Canadensium plantarum aliarumque nondum editarum historia. Paris 1635, 4to. p. 157.

§ A complete Florilege, furnished with all the requisites belong. ing to a florist. London 1665, fol. lib. i. cap. 10, p. 74.

plants. Of this elegant flower Dr. Douglass gave a description and figure in a small treatise published in 1725,† which is quoted by Linnæus in his Bibliotheca, but not by Haller.

Of the numerous genus of the ranunculus, florists, to speak in a botanical sense, have obtained a thousand different kinds; for, according to the manner in which they are distinguished by gardeners, the varieties are infinite and increase almost every summer, as those with half-full flowers bear seed which produces plants that from time to time divide themselves into new kinds that exhibit greater or uncommon beauties. The principal part of them, however, and those most esteemed were brought to us from the Levant. Some were carried from that part of the world so early as in the time of the Crusades ;

* Ejus radices ex Japonia allatæ, et ex nave naufraga, Batavica an Anglica incertum, ejectæ in littus arenosum insula Guernsey;— ibi, inquam, bulbi incuria projecti in littus arenosum, inter sparta maritima, et vento fortiore arenam eo pellente, qua demum prædicti bulbi tecti post aliquot annos summa cum admiratione flores rutilos amplos et elegantes sponte dedere. Hoc flore detecto, aliquot annis postea radices plurimas communicavit botanicis et elegantium florum cultoribus dominus Carolus Hatton, filius natu secundus nobilissimi viri Christophori Hatton, baronis de Hatton, et insula Guernsey prædictæ gubernatoris. Rob. Morisoni Plantarum historia, pars secunda, Oxonii 1680, fol. sect. 4, p. 367.

+ Lilium Sarniense, or a Description of the Guernsey lily. To which is added the botanical dissection of the coffee-berry. By Dr. James Douglass, London 1725, fol. Linnæi Bibliotheca botanica. Halæ 1747, 8vo. p. 32.

Miller's Gärtner-Lexicon, iii. p. 761.

but most of them have been introduced into Europe from Constantinople since the end of the sixteenth century, particularly the Persian ranunculus,* the varieties of which, if I am not mistaken, hold at present the first rank. Clusius describes both the single and the full flowers as new rarities. This flower was in the highest repute during the time of Mahomet IV. His Grand Vizir, Cara Mustapha, well known by his hatred against the Christians and the siege of Vienna in 1683, wishing to turn the Sultan's thoughts to some milder amusement than that of the chase, for which he had a strong passion, diverted his attention to flowers; and, as he remarked that the Emperor preferred the ranunculus to all others, he wrote to the different Pachas thoughout the whole kingdom to send him seeds or roots of the most beautiful kinds. The Pachas of Candia, Cyprus, Aleppo, and Rhodes paid most regard to this request; and the elegant flowers. which they transmitted to court were shut up in the Seraglio as unfortunate offerings to the voluptuousness of the Sultan, till some of them, by the force of money, were at length freed from their imprisonment. The ambassadors from the European courts, in particular, made it their business to procure roots of as many kinds as they

* Ranunculus Asiaticus Linnæi.
+ Histor. plant. rar. i. p. 241.

could, which they sent to their different sovereigns. Marseilles, which at that period carried on the greatest trade to the Levant; received on this account these flowers very early, and a person there, of the name of Malaval, is said to have contributed very much to disperse them all over Europe.*



Ir appears singular to us, at present, that it should have been once considered unlawful to receive interest for lent money; but this circumstance will excite no wonder when the reason of it is fully explained. The different occupations by which one can maintain a family without robbery and without war, were at early periods neither so numerous nor so productive as in modern times; those who borrowed money required it only for immediate use, to relieve their necessities or to procure the conveniencies of life; and those who advanced it to such indigent persons did so either through benevolence or friendship. The

* Tournefort, Voyage du Levant, vol. ii. Traité des re15. p. noncules (par D'Ardene), Paris 1746, 8vo.; and an extract from it in Hamburg. magazin, i. p. 596. Pluche, Schauplatz der natur, i.

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