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casions, which we call illuminations, that practice seems to be of great antiquity. Of this kind was a particular festival of the Egyptians,* during which lamps were placed before all the houses throughout the country, and kept burning the whole night. During that festival of the Jews, called festum encœniorum, the feast of the Dedication of the Temple, which, according to common opinion, was celebrated in December, and continued eight days, a number of lamps were lighted before each of their houses. A passage in Eschylus shows that such illuminations were used also in Greece. At Rome, the forum was lighted when games were exhibited in the night-time; § and Caligula, on a like occasion, caused the whole city to be lighted. | As Cicero was returning home late at night, after Catiline's conspiracy had been defeated, lamps and torches were lighted in all the streets, in honour of that great orator. T The emperor Constantine caused the whole city of Constantinople to be illuminated with lamps and

* It was called by the Greeks Auxponasa. Herodot. lib. ii. сар. 62.

Et accendere mos est in eis lumina tempore vespertino, ad ostium domorum. Gemara Babylonica, ad tit. Sabbath. c. ii. p. 21. § Romanis ludis forum olim ornatum lucernis. Nonius, p. 206. Scenicos ludos et assidue et varii generis multifariam fecit; quondam étiam et nocturnos accensis tota urbe luminibus. Suet. Vitu Calig. c. 18,

Plut. in Vita Ciceronis.

wax candles on Easter eve.* The fathers of the first century frequently inveigh against the Christians because, to please the heathens, they often illuminated their houses, on idolatrous festivals, in a more elegant manner than they. sidered as a species of idolatry. † That the houses of the ancients were illuminated on birth-days, by suspending lamps from chains, is too well known to require any proof.

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Sacram autem vigiliam in, diurnum splendorem convertebat, accensis tota urbe cereorum quibusdam columnis per eos quibus id operis erat injunctum. Lampades quoque accensæ cuncta passim loca illustrabant, adeo ut hæc mystica vigilia quovis vel splendidis simo die splendidior redderetur. Euseb. Pamphili Lib. iv. de vita Constantini, cap. 22. Cant. 1720. fol. p. 637. Compare with the above Greg. Nazianzeni Orat. 19, and Orat. 2. p. 676, where the author alludes to the festival of Easter. I imagined that I should meet with some orders respecting illuminations in Constantine's book De ceremoniis aule Byzantine; but I was not so fortunate as to find any. Reiske says, in his Annotations, p. 93, a: De illuminationibus et ignibus artificialibus veterum annotavi quædam ad p. 351, ubi de hilariis triumphalibus egi; but these notes were unfortunately never printed.

Plures jam invenies ethnicorum fores sine lucernis et laureis quam Christianorum. Tertullian. de idololatria, cap. xv. p. 523, See also his Apologet. cap. 35. p. 178. In both places La Cerda quotes similar passages from other writers. In Concilio Eliberitano, cap. 37, it was decreed prohibendum etiam ne lucernas publice accendant. See also Joh. Ciampini Vetera monumenta, in quibus musiva opera illustrantur. Romæ 1690. 2 vol. fol. i. p. 90. where, on a piece of mosaic work, said to be of the fifth century, some lamps are represented hanging over a door.

J. Lipsii Electa, lib. ii. cap. 3, in the edition of his works, Antwerp 1637, 3 vol. fol. p. 234. Kippingii Antiquit. Rom. Lugd. Bat. 1713. 8vo. p. 189.

Of modern cities, Paris, as far as I have been able to learn, was the first that followed the example of the ancients by lighting its streets. As this city, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, was much infested with street robbers and incendiaries, the inhabitants were, from time to time, ordered to keep lights burning, after nine in the evening, before the windows of all the houses which fronted the street. This order was issued in the year 1524, and renewed in 1526 and 1553;* but in the month of October 1558, fallots were erected at the corners of the streets, or, when the street was so long that it could not be lighted by one, three were erected in three different parts of it. These lights had, in a certain measure, a resemblance to those used in some mines; for we are told, in the Grand Vocabulaire, François,† that Falot is a large vase filled with pitch, rosin, and other combustibles, employed in the king's palace and houses of princes to light the courts. At that period there were in Paris 912 streets; so that the number of lights then used must have been less than 2736. ‡

In the month of November, the same year,

This order may be seen in that large and elegant work, entitled, Histoire de la Ville de Paris, composée par D. Michel Felibien, reveue, augmentée et mise à jour par D. Guy-Alexis Lobineau, Paris 1725. Five large volumes in folio, with many plates. See vol. ii. pp. 951, 977, and vol. iv. pp. 648, 676, 764.

↑ Paris 1770. x. p. 265.

Felibien, iv. p. 785.

these lights were changed for lanterns of the like kind as those used at present.* The lighting of the streets of Paris continued, however, for a long time to be very imperfect, till the abbé Laudati, an Italian of the Caraffa family, conceived the idea of letting out torches and lanterns for hire. In the month of March 1662, he obtained an exclusive privilege to this establishment for twenty years; and he undertook to erect, at certain places, not only in Paris, but also in other cities of the kingdom, booths or posts where any person might hire a link or lantern, or, on paying a certain sum, might be attended through the streets by a man bearing a light. He was authorised to receive from every one who hired a lantern to a coach, five sous, for a quarter of an hour; and from every foot-passenger three sous. To prevent all disputes in regard to time, it was ordered that a regulated hour-glass should be carried along with each lantern.†

In 1667, however, the lighting of the city of Paris was put on that footing on which it is at present. At the same time the police was greatly improved, and it afterwards served as a pattern to most of the other cities in Europe. Affairs of judicature and those respecting the public police,

Felibien, iv. p. 786. The order says: que au lieu des fallots ardens seront mises lanternes ardentes et allumantes.-

+ Felibien, v. p. 191. where the order may be seen in which porte-lanternes and porte-flambeaux à louage are mentioned.

VOL. III.

2 C

instead of being committed, as before, to one magistrate, called the Lieutenant civil du prevost de Paris, were, by a royal edict of the month of March in the above year, divided between two persons. One of them, who had the management of judicial affairs, retained the old title; and the other, who superintended the police, had that of Lieutenant du prevost de Paris pour la police, or Lieutenant général de police. The first lieutenant of police was Nicholas de Reynie, a man who, according to the praises bestowed on him by French. writers, formed an epoch in the history of modern police. In the History of Paris, so often already quoted, he is called an enlightened, upright, and vigilant magistrate, as zealous for the service of the king as for the good of the public, and who succeeded so well in this new office that we may say, adds the author, it is to him, more than to any other, that we are indebted for the good order which prevails at present in Paris. The first useful regulation by which La Reynie rendered a service to the police, was that for improving the (guet) night watch, and the lighting of the streets.* I can find no complete account of the changes he introduced; but four years after, that is, on the 23d of May, 1671,† an order was made that the lanterns every year should be lighted from the

* See Code de la Police, par M. D., troisieme edit. Paris 1761, Svo. t. i. p. 228.

Felibien, t. v. p. 213.

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