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manship came from the East, 289. Performers in that
way in the 13th century at the Byzantine court, ibid.
Romans taught elephants to walk on a rope, 291. Syba-
rites taught their horses to dance, 292. Wildman's ex-
hibition with bees, 293. Persons born without arms or
hands, their dexterity with their feet, 294. Person of this
kind sent to Augustus by an Indian king, 295. Puppets,
296. Marionettes, or neurospasta of the ancients, 297, 298.
Antiquity of automata, 300. Tripods of Vulcan, 301.
Moving statues of Dædalus, ibid. Pigeon of Archytas,
303. Wooden eagle and iron fly of Regiomontanus, 304.
Automata of Vaucanson and Du Moulin, 305–307; of
De Gennes, 308. Speaking machines, 309-313. Chinese
shadows, 314.

Julius duke of Brunswick fond of mineralogy, 79. Forbade
the exportation of zinc, 87.

K.

Kentman and son, their plant impressions, 459.

Kircher proposed putting a small waggon in motion by
means of quicksilver, 302.

Kirchmayer made known the luminous property of sparry
fluor, 222.

Kleist, Von, dean of the cathedral of Camin, first made the
experiment of the Leyden flask, 521.

Konia, a substance used by the ancients for washing, 230.
Kunkel gives the earliest account of the method of preparing
marbled paper, 504.

L.

Lamps, reverberating, by whom invented, 388.

Lana philosophica, 74.

Lanaria, plant so called by the Calabrian peasants, 241.

Lanarii, explanation of that term, 251.

Lapidary's wheel known to the ancients, 208.

Lapis calaminaris, 75.

Latinus Tancredus gives the first account of mixing saltpetre

with snow to produce cold, 346.

Laudati (abbé) let out torches and lanterns for hire at Paris,

385.

Lawson, Dr., his experiments to obtain zinc, 88.

Leaf-skeletons, 414. Anatomy of plants began to be studied
about the beginning of the last century, ibid. One great
help towards that study was the art of reducing leaves,
fruit, and roots to skeletons, 415. Method by which this

419.

is done, ibid. Leaf-skeletons first made by Severin, pro-
fessor of anatomy at Naples, 416. Made also by Gabriel
Clauder, 418. Insects employed for this purpose by Ruysch,
When he first published an account of his process,
420. These skeletons prepared by others, 422. Figures of
leaf-skeletons published by Seligmann, 424. History of the
art of raising trees from leaves, 425-428.

Leather snuff-boxes, 507. A collection of snuff-boxes would
serve to illustrate the history of some of the arts, ibid.
Leather snuff-boxes invented at Edinburgh by Thomas
Clarke, 508. Leather prepared in a very singular way by
the Calmucks, 509.

Lehmann, inventor of glass-cutting, 209.

Lemnius, Levinus, some account of him, 263.
Lending-houses, history of them, 11. Ancient princes lent
money to the poor without interest, 13. Their example
followed in modern Italy, 14. Tabernae argentaria of the
Romans different from lending-houses, 18. Public loans
at Florence and other cities in the 14th century, 19. Bar-
nabas Interamnensis first proposed to establish a lending-
house, 21. The establishment of lending-houses opposed
by the Dominicans, 23. Bernardinus Tomitano preached
in favour of lending-houses, 27. Chronological account
of the establishment of lending-houses in different parts of
Italy, 28-33. Dispute respecting the legality of them,
34. Confirmed at the council of the Lateran, 35. Lend-
ing-houses established in the 16th century, 37. Banco de'
poveri at Naples, 38. Origin of the name Mons pietatis,
39. Account of the oldest public loans, 41. First lending-
house in Germany, 44. Lombards in the Netherlands, 45.
Mont de pieté at Paris, 50.

Lepidoti, whether our carp, 139.

Leyden flask, 520. Description of it, ibid. By whom in-
vented, 521. Unsuccessful attempts made to perform the
experiment at Dantzic, ibid. Performed by Muschen-
broek, 522. Made known to the Royal Society of London,
ibid. Name of the Leyden flask given to the apparatus,
ibid. Some idea of it entertained by Gray, in the year
1735, 523:

Leyden, riots there on account of a weaving machine,

494.

Life-rents, origin of them, 48.

Light-magnets, what kind of stones so called, 220.

Lighting of streets, 376. Streets of Rome not lighted, 377.
Contrary opinion of Meursius, ibid. Passage of Libanius
seems to show that the streets of Antioch were lighted,
379. Cæsarea not lighted, 380. Antiquity of illumi-
nations on joyful occasions, 382. When the streets of

Paris began to be lighted, 384. Reverberating lamps in-
vented, 388. First account of lighting the streets of
London, 389. Lighting at Amsterdam and the Hague,
392, 393. At Copenhagen, 393. Streets of Rome have no
lights but those placed before the images of saints, ibid.
Lighting of streets at Philadelphia, Hamburgh, Berlin,
394, 395. At Vienna and other cities, 395–397.
Lily of the Scripture, what supposed to have been, 5.
Limonadiers at Paris, when formed into a company, 353.
Lint-molen, Dutch name for the ribbon-loom, 496.

Liquori of the Italians, when introduced into France, 352.
Lombard, origin of the name, 46.

London, when its streets began to be lighted, 389.

L'Isle des Hermaphrodites, some account of that satirical
work, 336-338.

M.

Madder, 254. Description of that plant, ibid. Was known
to the ancients, 255. Called varantia in the middle ages,
258. Its property of colouring the bones of animals
which feed on it, how discovered, 259. Other plants pos-
sess the same property, ibid. Lemnius the oldest writer
who speaks of coloured bones, 263.

Mahomet IV fond of the ranunculus, 10.

Mandate for appointing a book-censor, copy of the oldest,

101.

Mandirola first made known the method of raising trees from
leaves, 425.

Mantua, duke of, said to have had a powder which would
convert water into ice instantaneously, even in summer,
345.

Marbled paper, 500.

Marcasita aurea, zinc, 84. Marcasita pallida, 88.

Marionettes, 298.

Marius Simon, 476.

Marschalk, Nicholas, account of him, 148.

Marigold, French and African, history of, 5.

Mascal, Leonard, brought the first carp to England, 147.

Mechanics, their want of confidence in the learned, 448.
Medea destroyed Creusa by means of naphtha, 275.
Melted copper held in the naked hand, instance of, 277.
Mensarii, bankers, 18.

Mensa numulariæ of the ancients, ibid.

Metals distinguishable by the smell, 164. Origin of the che-
mical characters by which they are represented, 60. Their
nomination after the gods, 53.

Meyer, Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, some account of him,

318.

Microscope, solar, by whom invented, 269.

Mirrors, 154. The oldest were of metal, 155. Known in the
time of Moses, ibid. Not mentioned by Homer, 159.
What metals are properest for making them, 161. Greater
part of the ancient mirrors made of silver, 162. Mirrors
of copper, brass, and gold, 166. Ancient mirrors, how
cleaned, 168. Chemical examination of the metal of an
ancient mirror, 171. Mirrors made of stones, 173; of
the obsidian stone or Icelandic agate, 174; of phengites,
ibid.; of an emerald, 176; of rubies, 178. Mirrors of the
native Americans, 179. Mirrors of glass made at Sidon,
181. Mention of glass mirrors supposed to occur in Sto-
bæus, 187. Glass mirrors covered on the back with tin,
mentioned in the problems of Alexander of Aphrodisias,
190. Passage of Isidore quoted in support of the anti-
quity of glass mirrors, 192. Mirrors in the 12th century,
194. The first certain mention of glass mirrors in the 13th
century, 195. Manner in which the oldest glass mirrors
were made, 196. Process for silvering mirrors at Mu-
rano, described by Porta, 201. Venetian mirrors much
esteemed till the end of the 17th century, 202. Establish-
ment of glass-houses in France, 203. Invention of casting
glass plates for mirrors, 204. Advantage and disadvan-
tages of this invention, 205. Abandoned for the old me-

thod of blowing, 207.

Mithras, his mysteries, 54.

Mons pietatis, origin of the name, 39. Montes fidei, religionis,
farinæ, &c. 42.

Du Moulin, account of his automata, 306.

Muller, John, his artificial eagle and iron-fly, 304.

Muschenbroek fell upon the experiment of the Leyden flask,

522.

Musket, whence derived, 438.

N.

Naples, lending-house there, 37.

Naphtha, Alexander the Great astonished at the effects of it,
275.

Nautical Almanack, when first published, 485.

Nero, observations on the emerald which he used to assist him
to see the combats of the gladiators, 176.
Nessus, blood of, supposed to have been naphtha, 275.
Neurobata, 287.

Neurospasta, puppets, 298.

Nicht, furnace-nicht, origin of the name, 74.
Night-watch, 397. Watchmen among the ancients, 398.
When calling out the hours began to be practised, 399.
Rich people among the Greeks and Romans kept servants
whose business was to announce certain periods of the
day, 400. Methods of watching usual in time of war, 401.
Ancient watchmen carried bells, 402. Night-watching
established very early at Paris, 404. Watchmen established
at Berlin, 405. Montagne's account of the night-watch-
men in Germany, ibid. Watchmen stationed on steeples
and towers, 407. Steeple-watchmen not suffered to have
their wives with them, lest the churches should be pro-
faned, 409. Watchmen posted on towers, among the Chi-
nese, 410. Steeple-watchmen in Germany often mentioned
in the 14th and 15th centuries, 412. Watchmen in times
of feudal alarm, 413.

Nitrum or litrum, employed by the ancients for washing, 231.
Noelli a performer on the pantaleon, 519.

Nosce te ipsum, a book so called, some account of, 99.
Von Nostiz first introduced carp into Prussia, 149.
Numularii, 18.

Nuremberg, lending-house there, 45.

0.

Obsidian stone of the ancients was vitrified lava, 174.

Oil and wine jars, how cleaned, 231. 247.

Oid lant, name given to urine by the cloth-manufacturers,
235.

Oleum lentiscinum used by the ancients for making a kind of
ointment, 228.

Oracles, in what manner they spoke, 311.

Ordeal, trial by, a juggling trick of the priests, 278. Account
of it, 279.

Oribatæ, 287.

Ox-eyes, a kind of small mirrors, 200.

Oxe, Peter, brought the first cray-fish and carp to Denmark,
149.

P.

Panni nativi coloris explained, 256.

Pantaleon, description of it, 510. Piano-forte invented by
Cristofoli of Padua, 511. Invention disputed by Christo-
pher Gottlob Schröter, ibid. Damping apparatus, how
applied, 512. Silbermann, John Henry, a celebrated

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