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money-making in general is closely connected with these blessings. Laws, rights, personal, civil, religious, and political freedom, which are hardly mentioned even as supplementary inducements, are in fact the main requisites, and are of greater importance than all else in augmenting population and wealth. Instead of this unhappy scattering of German emigrants over all the regions of the earth, let all unite in proceeding in one direction to found a new Germany; and let governments at length comprehend, that hereby they would lose nothing at home, but would really be gainers in numberless respects.

As matters stand, up to the present time, German emigrants find already in the United States about five millions of their countrymen, and a thousand times more rights, more assistance, and more enjoyment, than they can have in uncivilized or wholly unsettled countries.* Their predecessors have shown themselves capable and worthy of joining the great democracy, live in friendly unity with their fellow-citizens of the same great stock, and move restlessly forward hand in hand in the same honorable career.

* Out of 18,980,000 inhabitants, there are (in the year 1844) 4,886,000 Germans. Of these there are : In the state of Pennsylvania 889,000, out of 1,968,000 inhabitants. Ohio

764,000 1,784,000 New York 527,000 2,641,000 Indiana 309,000

783,000 Tennessee 281,000

921,000 Illinois 267,000

633,000 In the city of Philadelphia 81,000 301,000 New York 63,000

364,000 Baltimore 52,000

164,000 Boston 23,000

118,000 St. Louis 19,000

37,000 Cincinnati 17,000

56,000 Brooklyn 14,000

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CHAPTER XV.

POPULATION.

Population-Materialism.

There was a time when the prosperity, riches, worth, and progress of a state were estimated simply according to its population. But views have undergone such a change in several of the states of Europe, that complaints respecting over-population are now the order of the day; individuals regard a numerous family as a misfortune, and governments would be glad to free themselves by mild and even by forcible means from the weight of this pressing evil and increasing danger. The former view was, it is true, a partial one; but the latter, besides participating in this defect, proves the existence of great social diseases, the true and efficient remedy for which is by no means to be found in a diminution of the population. The decrease in the number of the people and the formation of great estates or latifundia in the Roman empire, were certainly no signs of improving or returning health. Every addition to the numbers of mankind is an increase, a blossoming of the intellectual; and to the intellectual is committed the task of finding out and indicating the ways and means for sustaining the corporeal. If this for many reasons is more easily accomplished in America than in other older countries, it may be disputed whether there is any merit in this condition of superiority; but it certainly is a happiness, and a proof of vigorous and pleasing youth.

The history of the world knows no country of equal size where within a brief period the population has increased so regularly

and to such an extent as in the United States. The simple figures are here so eloquent and instructive, that we must present at least a few from the countless mass. The entire population amounted,

in the year 1780, to 2,051,000

1844, “ 18,980,000.*
The vast progress made of late years is exhibited most conspicu-
* And furthermore in the year 1790, to 3,929,000

1800, 5,309,000
1810, 7,239,000
1820, , 9,638,000
1830, 12,858,000
1840, 17,062,000

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6,939,000 women, 386,000 free negroes and people of color, 2,487,000 slaves.

6,174

ously in the immense valley of the Ohio and Mississippi. Thus in fifteen years the population has increased in New England about 221

per cent. the middle states

382 the southern

226 northwestern

5,654 southwestern This difference of increase is owing to very various causes ; such as freedom or slavery, fruitfulness or barrenness of the soil, immigrations and emigrations, &c.

It is only in two states, South Carolina and Mississippi, that the number of slaves exceeds that of the free persons. During the last twenty years, however, the latter have increased faster than the former, which gives rise to pleasing anticipations for the future. The increase between the years 1830 and 1840 was : of the entire population

32.67 per cent. white

34.66 free people of color 20.88 slaves

23.81 entire colored population 23.04 The state of New York numbered, in the year 1702, 20,000 inhabitants

1840, 2,428,000 The state of Kentucky, not discovered till between 1766 and '70, had before 1775 no white inhabitants; in 1840 it had 779,000. The state of Alabamat had in the year 1800, 2,000 inhabitants

1840, 590,000 The state of Ohio had in the year 1790, 3,000 inhabitants

1840, 1,519,000 The population of the several cities has augmented with the Of the entire adult population there are employed, in agriculture

41 manufactures

145 learned professions

261
océan navigation

304
internal do.
mining

1122
Of these there live
in the six New England states

675,000 six middle states (including the District of Columbia) 1,251,000 five southern states (including Florida)

1,073,000 five southwestern states

713,000 eight northwestern states (including Wisconsin and Iowa) 1,085,000 * Furthermore, in the year 1731, it had 50,000 inhabitants

1771,

158,000 1800, 586,000

1830, 1,919,000 † Flint's Mississippi, i. 482; ii. 315. Amer. Almanac for 1844, p. 206. Hinton, ii. 563

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like rapidity.* “ How many inhabitants," asked a traveller, “ does this city contain ?" "Five hundred." 66 How old is it?'' “ Twenty-three months.”+ The population of London increased in 30 years, 70 per cent. ; that of New York, 235 per cent. Sixty years ago there lived on the other side of the Alleghanies fifteen ihousand souls; their number is now five millions.

The size of the different states increases from Rhode Island, containing 1340 English square miles, to Virginia, which contains 64,000; and their population from that of Delaware, amounting to 78,000, to that of New York, which numbers 2,428,000. In Michigan and Missouri, there are from five to seven persons to a square mile; and in Massachusetts, about one hundred. Even when the United States shall number two hundred millions of inhabitants, they will not be as thickly settled as Massachusetts is at present; consequently the prospects are well founded of a rapid increase for many years to come.

In Mexico, amidst great natural advantages, the population increases but very slowly. I The reasons, says Mühlenpfordt (i. 198), are to be found in the operations of the restrictive policy with which Spain oppressed her colonies in the civil wars, pro

* The inhabitants of the following cities numbered,

1790. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 1844. Baltimore

15,000 26,000 46,000 62,000 80,000 102,000 164,000 Boston

18,000 24,000 33,000 43,000 61,000 93,000 118,000 Cincinnati

750 2,300 10,000 25,000 46,000 56,000 Louisville

800 1,357

4,000 10,000 21,000 St. Louis

5,000 16,000 19,000 Mobile

1,500 3,000 12,000 New York

33,000 60,000 96,000 123,000 203,000 312,000 364,000 Brooklyn (suburb)

. 67,000 Philadelphia 45,000 30,000 96,000 119,000 167,000 228,000 301,000 Buffalo

in the year 1825, 2,300 18,000 In the year 1840 the population of the following cities was:

Albany 33,000
Charleston 29,000
Washington 23,000
Providence 23,000
Pittsburgh 21,000
Lowell 20,000
Rochester 20,000

Richmond
About one eighth of the population live in cities of over 2000 inhabitants.

Reed, i. 114. Chevalier, Voyes de Communication, i. 13, 83. | In Mexico, whose population is estimated at between nine and ten millions, the several classes of inhabitants bear an entirely different proportion to one another from what they do in the United States. There are reckoned (Kennedy's Texas, i. 7) to be :

Pure Europeans

from 10 to 20,000 Creoles

1,000,000 Mestizoes

2,000,000 Mulattoes

400,000 Negroes

100,000 Indians

3 to 4,000,000 Samboes

2,000,000

20,000, &c.

scriptions, celibacy of the priesthood, the numerous convents, the neglect of children, epidemic diseases, &c.

Notwithstanding the prevalence of the yellow fever in many of the sea-port towns, and the unhealthiness of swampy or too thickly wooded regions, the average duration of life in the United States seems to be not lower than that of Europe.

Rapidly as the number of inhabitants increases, it can still be maintained with certainty, that the growth of capital far outstrips that of the population; and nowhere has such ocular demonstration been afforded as in America of the proverb, Mens agitat molem.

That which in this tendency is termed materialism and mechanism, has not shown itself as obstinate, presumptuous, intolerant, dangerous, and cruel, as fanatical spiritualism and mysticism; hence on both sides it is necessary to separate the gold from the dross. The spiritual developes itself in the mass in proportion as it becomes master of the material, and satisfies the indispensable outward wants and aims in a shorter time and with better and easier means. Thus mechanism liberates the mind, procures leisure, and releases from mere corporeal exertion; not however to resign itself to luxurious indolence, but to begin labor in higher and nobler paths.

The more the North Americans acquire the mastery over nature, the more powerful become their minds. Nature has been far more prodigal of her gifts to the South Americans; but they, often despising so-called material industry, have made no progress in the path either of outward or inward improvement. Men must not only be counted; we must also examine into what they accomplish, and how much the result of their exertions is worth. To such an investigation let the foregoing remarks serve as a clue.

CHAPTER XVI.

AGRICULTURE.

Grain, Horticulture, Culture of the Vine-Sugar, Rice, Silk, Tobacco, Cotton

Produce and Improvements. In a country of such great extent and diversified climate as the United States, the working of the soil must be very various, and of such a kind that a judgment and estimation of the process without the closest observation of local and personal peculiarities,

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