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This senate shall give an account of its administration, and the members who have faithfully discharged their duty to the public, shall be rewarded with crowns.
Laws respecting Magistrates.
None shall be magistrates but such as have competent estates: the election of magistrates shall be by beans. Solon.
It shall be punishable by death to pass two votes for the same candidate. .
The archons shall be created by the people. . No magistrates shall bear the same office twice, nor enter on two several offices during the same year.
All magistrates that are elected by suffrages, surveyors of public works, and they who have any authority in the city upwards of thirty days, with those who preside over the courts of judicature, shall not enter on their respective offices, till they have undergone the accustomed examination; and, after the expiration of those offices, they shall give an account of the discharge of their trust, before the Scribe and Logistæ, as other magistrates are obliged to do.
Such as have not made up their accounts, shall.expend none of their money in sacred uses, nor make wills, nor shall they have licence to travel, to bear any other office, or have the honour of a crown conferred upon them.
It is death for any one indebted to the public exchequer, to be invested with a public trust.
It is death to usurp the government.
Let him be outlawed who shall continue in his magistracy after the dissolution of democratical government: and it shall be lawful for any one to kill such a person, and to seize his goods.
This decree was made by the senate and Athenian state, the tribe Æantes being Prytanes, Cleogenes clerk, Boethus chief president, and Demophantes its engrosser. The date of this decree is from the election of the senate of five hundred, and runs thus: “ If any one meditates the ruin of the commonwealth, or continues to bear any office after its subversion, let that man be considered as an enemy to the state, and dispatched out of the way; let all his goods, save a tenth to Minerva, be exposed to sale; and he that kills him and all his assistants shall be blameless herein, and free from the guilt of his death. All Athenians likewise in their several tribes are obliged by oath to attempt the killing of that man, who shall appear in the least to countenance the crimes herein denounced.” ..
“I will endeavour with my own hands, to kill that man who shall dissolve the Athenian republic, or after its subversion, shall bear any office, and he shall be reputed by me, wholly free from guilt, in respect of the gods or dænions, who shall take away his life or encourage another so to do: farther, in the distribution of his goods I will pass my vote that the slayer shall have hall, and he that in the attempt shall have the misfortune to Jose his own life, shall have the same respect paid to his memory by me, as that paid to Harmodius and Aristogiton, together with his posterity.”
. All oaths that shall be taken in time of war, or in any other juncture, shall, if inconsistent with the Athenian constitution, be deemed to be null and void.
Whoever casts scurrilous abuses on a magistrate, while discharging the duties of his office, shall be fined. I here pass by some legal forms that have been already cited, and proceed to . .
Laws concerning those who have deserved well of
the Commonwealth. '
No person shall be entertained in the Prytanium oftener than once.
He who shall be invited, and refuse to come, shall be fined.
No one of the wealthy citizens, except he be of the kindred of Harmodius and Aristogiton, or an Archon, shall claim immunity from serving in publie offices: from this time forward the people shall not gratify any one with this exemption; and he who supplicates for it shall be infamous, together with all his house and family. This law was enacted by Leptines, in the first year of the 106th Olympiad, and abrogated the year following, at the instance of Demosthenes.
Honours conferred by the people shall stand good, provided the person so dignified prove on after exainigation to be worthy of them, or otherwise they shall be null and void.
Laws relating to the Gymnasia.
No school shall be open before sun-rising, nor kept open after sun-set.
None, except the school-master's sons and nephews, and daughters' husbands, shall be permitted to enter any school, if beyond the customary age for sending youth thither, whilst the lads are in it. To the breach of this law the penalty of death is annexed.
No school-master shall give any adult person liberty to be present at Mercury's festival: if he transgress herein, and do not thrust out any adult intruding there,
he shall suffer the penalty of the law enacted against the corruption of free-born children.
Let all Choragi elected by the people be above forty years of age.
The design of these laws is obvious.
Laws relating to Physicians.
All free-born women have liberty to learn and practise , physic.
Let no one teach philosophy. This law was made under the dominion of the thirty tyrants and abrogated on their expulsion.
Laws relating to Witnesses.
The evidence of those persons who are declared in-' famous shall not be taken.
Both plaintiff and defendant are obliged to answer: each others questions, but their answers shall not pass for evidence.
There shall be no constraint for friends and acquaintance, if contrary to their wills, to bear witness against one another.
Evidence shall be given in writing.
Eye-witnesses shall write down what they know and read it.
That witness who declines giving his evidence shall be fined a drachm.
Miscellaneous Laws, A thousand talents are to be laid by annually for the defending of Attica against foreign invasion, which
money, if any person propose to lay out on any other design, he shall suffer death.
If there be a public well within the space of a Hippicum, any one may make use of it; but otherwise each person shall dig one for himself. One of Solon's laws to prevent contention about water, which was very scarce in Attica. He that digs a well ten fathoms deep, and finds no water, may twice a day draw six vessels of water, called Choes, from his neighbour's well. Solon.
Let him who digs a ditch, or makes a trench nigh another's laud, leave so much distance from his neighbour as the depth of the ditch or trench. Solon.
If any one makes' a hedge near his neighbour's ground, let him not pass his neighbour's land-mark. If he builds a wall, he is to leave one foot between him and his neighbour; if a house, two feet. Solon.
He who builds a house in a field, shall have it a bow shot from his neighbour. Solon.
He who keeps a hive of bees, must place it three hundred feet from his neighbour's. Solon.
Olive and fig trees must be planted nine feet from another's ground; other trees, five. Solon. The reason of this is said to be that the trees here specified spread their roots wider than others.
If any one plucks up any of the sacred olive trees at Athens, besides the two yearly allowed, to be used at the public festivals or funerals, he shall pay a hundred drachms for every one thus unlawfully pulled up: the tenth part of this fine shall be due to Minerva. The offender shall also pay the same to the prosecutor.
Men shall not be allowed to purchase as much land as they please. This is one of Solon's laws, intended to prevent individuals from growing too great and powerful.
All wild, extravagant spendthrifts, who lavishly run out the estates left them by their fathers, or others, shall be deemed infamous. Solon.
Any one who brings in a he wolf shall receive five drachms; and for a she wolf one. In Solon's time, by