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the god of counsel; and they instituted games to his honour, which they called. Consualia; at these games the horses and the mules were exempted from labour and crowned with garlands. Tbis sea god was supposed to preside over the training of horses, because it is said he produced that animal by stamping his foot upon the ground, when he contested with Minerva the honour of giving a name to the city of Athens. He was, in the language of mythology, the ruler of the waters; the god of ships and all maritime affairs; and his supreme command could raise the stormy waves, or calm the wildest fury of the tempest; as in the following lines of Virgil, in which he describes the overthrowing of Troy, by Juno, Neptunc and Pallas. ..
“ Where yon rude piles of shattered ramparts rise,
Then, fell proud Ilion's bulwarks, towers and spires; · Then, Troy, thongli raised by Neptune, sunk in fires.”
· Neptune is said to have had the following children; first, Polyphemus, a dreadful giant, who resided in Sicily, and devoured those human beings who were so unfortunate as to fall into his hands; Phorcus, father of the terrible Gorgons: Proteus and Triton. The Tritons were imaginary sea animals, the upper part of whose bodies was supposed to resemble that of a man, the lower part that of a dolphin; the eldest of these was the son of Neptune and Amphitrite. Proteus bad the care of his father's flocks, which consisted of seal calves, and other marine animals. He is represented by the poets as capable of assuming any form at pleasure, even that of a fluid, as wine, water, &c.- - History makes
mention of a Proteus, king of Egypt, who fourished about the time of the Trojan war; he was, as it is said, illustrious for his secresy, wisdom and foresight. His versatility is thus noticed by Homer in the Odyssey.
6 Shouting, we seize the god; our force to evade, is
His various arts he summons to his aid:
Osiris, the representative of the sun, was principally made the sign of such circumstances as were more im mediately connected with the sun's place in his annual orbit; while Isis had the charge of whatever was regulated by lunar periods. Thus, for instance, the Phenicians, and other traders by sea, landed at Pharas, annually, to fetch from thence flax, ox-hides, the oil of Sais, vegetables, corn and provisions of all kinds. The annual return of the fleet was represented by an Osiris carried on a winged horse; the symbol of a ship and its sails ; or by an Osiris, in whose hands they put instead of a sceptre, the mariner's three-pronged instrument, used for striking fishes with.
It is highly probable that the Egyptian traders were apprized of the arrival of the fleet by a sign posted up, on which an Osiris was painted, armed with a harpoon or trident, and that this figure, on account of its office, was called Poseidon, or Neptune, neither of which are Greek, obat Phoenician or Hebrew words; the first of which means, the setting forth of the abundance, the exposing of the provisions, the latter signifies, the motion or the arrival of the fleet. According to Plutarch, the sea coasts were called Neptyn by the Egyptians. Whatever doubt may rest upon this explanation of the words Poseidon and Neptune, seems to be obviated by the following illustration of the word Proteus. According to the legend, this deity fed the Phocæ or Sea-horses, that drew his father's chariot. He numbered them pear the island of Pharos; and he gave them all an equal portion of food. Here then we see that the duties of Proteus were confined to the ports of the Egyptians; that one part of his duty was to number, or take an account of the sea-horses of his father Neptune, that is, the ships lying at anchornear Neptyn, or the sea shore; thence called the horses of Neptune, or the horses of the sea shore. I have before said, that the Phoenicians called their ships their horses, and represented them in painting and sculpture under that figure. The giving an equal portion of food to each of these horses, is merely an allegorical way of saying, he gave to each vessel its proper freight.' Again it is said of Proteus, that when any body approached him, he changed into a man, a woman, a ewe, a horse, a liquor, or any other figure that he pleased to assume.'
...We are by this time too well'acquainted with Horus not to discover him in this his Grecian disguise, and we perceive him here assuming different characters, as occasion requires. He first announces the arrival of the fleet, giviug notice to those officers, whose business it was to repair to the port, and take a proper account of the number of vessels, and to see to the loading of each; we then imagine him attached to each vessel, bearing the symbol of the principal articles of her freight, whether' slaves, or manufactures, or choice liquors.
; The word Proteus, seems derived from the oriental word Poret, which is by some translated abundance; the change is effected in the usual way, by adding the termination eus, and transposing the letters or, thus forming Prot-eus. We have an instance of such transposition, in the Greek word teren, of which is formed the Latin word tener.
Phorcus, the father of the Gorgons, seems to be made the son of Neptune, by some misapprehension of the meaning of the word Phorcoth, which means the flowers
of trees—the blossom; the Greek invariably substituting os or us, for the oriental ending in oth iu those years in which there were no blossoms there could be no fruit, and the gorgous, or crushing wheels, could not be called into action ; but the blossoms, as the harbingers of fruit, might be said to give activity to the wheels or gorgons, if not existence; hence the propriety of the allegory, which makes Phorcus the father of the Gorgons, and the predecessor of Medusha, or the crushing of the olives. ,
To this pretended deity, the Greeks assigned the empire of the infernal regions: he was the third son of Saturn and Ops. His principal vames were Dis, Hades, Urgus, from the Latin word to impel, aud Februus, which signified the purifications wbich were practised in funeral rites; he was also called Orcus, Quietus, and Summunus. His wife was Proserpine, the daughter of Ceres.
I have said that Osiris, according to the different attributes which he bore, was at one time deemned a celestial, at another an earthly, and lastly an infernal deity. This we shall see verified in Pluto, who notwithstanding the contrast which he makes with Jupiter Osiris, the god of heaven, is still Osiris. With a barpoon, or fish spear in bis hand, he was the god of ocean; and with the symbols of a funeral, he becomes Pelouta or Pluto, the god of the infernal regions. By this name' given to the funeral Osiris, a name which signifies deliverance, the ancient Egyptians intimated, that to the just, death was a deliverance from evil. This Osiris, who announced the anniversary of funerals, had his own particular history, and of Pluto, the symbol of the deliverance of the just, was made a god, who presided over the abodes of the dead. , ,
The history of Pluto will be still further illustrated by a view of the funeral ceremonies of the Egyptians,
as they are given to us by Diodorus Siculus, who also describes very exactly the burial place of Memphis, the largest and the most frequented of any. According to this highly esteemed writer, the common burying place of the Egyptians was on the other side of the lake called Acherusia. The dead person was brought to the shores of that lake, and to the foot of a tribunal consisting of several judges, who enquired into the life and conversation of the deceased. If he had not paid his debts, his body was delivered to his creditors, to oblige his relations to redeem it from tbeir hands, by collecting among themselves the sum due. When it appeared that he had not faithfully observed the laws, his body was left unburied, and suffered to rot above ground, which the word Tareh, or by reduplication Tartareh, which means corruption, seems to imply.
Diodorus informs us, that there was near a town not far from Memphis, a leaky vessel, into which the spirits of these outcasts incessantly poured Nile water; this could signify nothing but endless tortures and remorses. This circumstance gives room to think that the place where these unburied bodies were thrown, was set round with frightful representations, as that of a man tied to a wheel incessantly turning; of another, who was perpetually gnawed by a vulture; and of one who rolls a stone up a hill, which when near the top, rolls down again, and he is compelled to repeat his labour.
When no accuser appeared, or be, who deposed against the deceased, was convicted of falsehood, then they ceased to lament the dead person, and pronounced his eulogy; the chief topics of which were, his excel.lent education, his respect for religion, his equity, moderation, and other virtues. His birth was considered as of no importance, or as a circumstance that conferred no merit on him. All the assistants applauded these praises, and congratulated the deceased on account of his being ready to enjoy eternal repose with the virtuous. There was on the shore of the lake a severe and incorruptible waterman, who, by order of the judges, and on