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which was consecrated by Themistocles, the other by Conon; they were both dedicated to Venus. In this Harbour there were likewise five porticos, which being contiguous to each other, formed one very large portico, and on that account went by the name of the great portico. Several warehouses and market-places were also erected here. This Harbour, though once so populous, was reduced to a very few houses in the time of Strabo, who flourished under the emperors Augustus and Tiberius, having been burnt by Sylla in the Mithridatic war.

2. Munychia was a promontory not far from Piræus; it extended in the form of a peninsula, and was well fortified by nature, and afterwards strengthened considerably by art, at the instance of Thrasybulus, who here dedicated a temple to Minerva, surnamed Munychia.

3. Phalerum, which belonged to the tribe Antiochus, was distant from the city about four miles and a half. This was the most ancient of the three Harbours.

Of the Citizens, Tribes, &c. of Athens. The inhabitants of Attica were of three sorts, viz. Citizens, Sojourners, and Servants. The Citizens surpassed the others in dignity and power, for they had the government in their hands; but the slaves far exceeded them in number; many slaves being subject to one citizen. The number of Citizens in the time of Cecrops, as stated before, was twenty thousand; in the time of Pericles there were not so many, as appears from Plutarch; and when Demetrius, the Phalerean, was the governor, they exceeded their first number, under Cécrops, by only one thousand, and the slaves four hundred thousand, as appears from a poll instituted at the command of Demetrius. From this it appears, that the increase of the Athenians themselves was very inconsiderable, but that the increased number of its inhabitants, in after ages, was owing to the increase of slaves, or of strangers, who settled themselves in Athens, either for the sake of science or trade. Of these two classes it is probable that there were few or none, in the time of Cecrops, because as an encouragement to strangers to settle at Athens, be allowed them the same privileges as the natives. The thinness of the population of the city, made this step necessary. And there is a very, ancient law noticed by some early writers, by which all foreigners, who intended to live at Athens, were compelled, after a short residence, to be enrolled amongst the free citizens. And for several ages after it was no difficult matter to obtain the freedom of the city; but when the Athenian power grew great, and their glorious actions rendered them famous through all Greece, this privilege was accounted, a very great favour, and granted to none but men of the greatest birth and reputation, or such as had rendered some singular service to the commonwealth : nor could even such as these obtain this high privilege, without considerable difficulty. Menon, the Pharsalian, who had sent the Athenians a supply of two hundred cavalry, in the war against Eon, near Amphipolis, desired it, but was denied. And Perdiccas, king of Macedonia, after having assisted them against the Persians, could obtain nothing more than a bare immunity, from the tribute paid by those who sojourned among them, but no right of suffrage, or any of those privileges common to the freemen. And after Mardonius and the Persians were defeated at Platæa, it was decreed, by an express law, that none. but men eminent for merit, should be admitted into the number of Citizens.

. But this was only a temporary pertinacity, which their success and victory gave rise to; for in time, many worthies, though by no means, equal, either in birth or fortune, to those that have been just mentioned, were enrolled among their citizens; such were Hippocrates the physician, Eurysaces the son of Ajax, with many others, besides the whole city of the Plan tæans, to whom they granted freedom for their signal. services in the Persian war..

But by these grants, though the number of the Citizens may be said to be increased, yet nothing was added to the number of the inhabitants, which remained still the same; because the persons thus admitted, seldom made use of their privilege, and sued for it rather as a title of honour, than for the sake of the advantage to be derived from it..

None but the popular assembly could confer this privilege, whence the Citizens, that were thus admitted, were called Demopoli, or Citizens of the people, to distinguish them from those persons who were free-born. Neither was the first decree of the popular assembly sufficient, but it was necessary that it should be ratified in a second assembly, wherein six thousand Citizens were present; and for fear that any person might be influenced by authority or interest, they gave their votes privately, by casting little stones into urns, placed in their assemblies for that purpose by the Prytanes, who were also obliged to provide a sufficient number of the stones or pebbles for the use of the electors; and till every vote was given, the strangers that petitioned for freedom were not allowed to enter into the place of the assembly. After all, if any one seemed to be unworthy of the honour thus conferred upon him, an appeal might be made to a certain court, which had power to enquire into the lives, conduct and circumstances of the persons objected to, and to deprive such as they found unworthy, by recalling the freedom which had been granted inadvertently by the people. This disgrace fell to the lot of Pytholaus the Thessalian, and Apollonides the Olynthian.

It was enacted by Solon, that none should live at Athens, as free-citizens, but such as were banished from their own country, or voluntarily came to reside at Athens with their whole families. This was no doubt intended to exclude such persons as had stronger ties, and greater interest in other places than Athens. The manner of admission, was by a public proclamation, declaring that such a one was incorporated among the Denizens of Athens, and invested with all the honours, privileges, and immunities belonging to them; and had a right to partake of and assist at all their sacred rites and mysteries, except such as were limited to the sacred families, such as the Eumolpidæ, the Cerýces, and Cynidæ, which had certain priesthoods and sacred offices peculiar to themselves. According to the opinion of some, their freemen, or rather freed-men, were excluded from all the priestly offices, of what description soever. This is the more probable, since even the free-born. Athenians then selves were excluded from those offices, which belonged to the sacred families. The freed-men were also excluded from the offices of the nine Archons, which none but free-born Athenians were allowed to execute. These rules were established in order that neither the sacred rites, nor the management of public affairs, should be entrusted to foreigners. These regulations however did not extend to the children of freedmen; they were considered as free-born, and allowed all the privileges of natives. Lastly, the persons thus admitted to the freedom of the city, were received into a certain tribe, or hundred, and so the ceremony ended,

Free-born Athenians were those that had one or both of their parents Athepian. In several of the commonwealths, in early times, those were accounted free by birth that were born of a free woman; but, when the population became more numerous, such only were esteemed free, as were descended from parents, both of whom were free. In Athens, it was decreed by Solon, that none but the children of a lawful marriage, should have a right to inherit their father's estate : and no lawful marriage could take place but where the parties were both free. But this law was afterwards abrogated by the tacit consent of the commonwealth, till the time of Pericles; who, when he flourished in the state, and had sons lawfully begotten, proposed a law, that those only should be deemed true Citizens of Athens, who were born of parents who were both Athenians: and having prevailed with the people to give their consent to it, nearly five

thousand persons were deprived of their freedom, and sold as slaves; and those, who passed this test, and were retained in the government as freemen, that is true-born Athenians, were found, by poll, to be fourteen thousand and forty persons. But Pericles himself afterwards, having lost all bis legitimate sons, succeeded in persuading the Athenians to cancel this law, and to admit his illegitimate sons into the register of his own ward, by his paternal name. The Athenians were more easily induced to this, by the consideration of the severe family losses he had sustained, which they considered as a judgment from the gods, by which his arrogance had been amply punished. .

But this law was again repealed by Aristophon, the orator, after the expulsion of the thirty tyrants, Euclides being Archon; at which time the ancient law was revived, “ That all, whose mothers were not citizens, should be illegitimate." And when those, that were only of the half blood, were invested with the freedom of the city, they were considered as inferior to those who were free-born: and they were distinguished from them in several ways; as für instaüce, those who had but one Athenian parent, were not allowed to exercise themselves in any of the Gymnasia, that were frequented by those whose parents were both Athenians, but in the Cynosarges, a place out of the city. That this was considered a degradation, is evident from the practice of Themistocles, who was but of the half blood of Athens, and therefore to lessen this distinction, used to engage the noble Athenians to go and perform their exercises with him. In the same place there was a court of judicature, where persons, who were suspected of having fraudulently insinuated themselves into the number and privileges of Citizens, were arraigned. This was reputed a very great offence; so that he, who had an action brought against him on this account, was immediately made a close prisoner, and put in chains, before he could be brought before the judges; nor did an acquital before these judges, secure the person from à second trial before the Thesmothete: if any just sus. picion of partiality in the former trial was entertained.

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