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5. Mention some of the uses of school-registers. Which of them should be kept by the principa teacher; and which by the pupil-teacher or other assistants?

6. Mention the successive steps by which young children should be taught to read.

7. What do you understand by the individual and simultaneous methods of teaching? Should either be followed exclusively? How may they be combined?

8. Describe the manner in which you have been instructed in the art of teaching.

9. Mention by name the text-books which you have used in pursuing your own studies. Did you buy them at the full price, or how otherwise did you procure the use of them? What were the general regulations for the supply of books in your school!

10. What lessons should children be required to learn out of school? What are the difficulties in the way of their doing so? How may they be overcome?

11. What are notes of a lesson? In what manner have you been instructed to prepare and use


12. Write two sets of notes of a lesson on one of the following subjects, the first for a junior, and the second for a senior class in a school: Iron; the horse; obedience to parents; truthfulness.



N.B. At the end of each answer let each candidate name the text-book (if any) which she has used. 1. What do you understand by domestic economy? What instruction have you received in it?

2. Why is great care necessary with respect to the ventilation of a room? Write out a few practical rules on the subject.

3. What is the cause of bread becoming heavy? How may it be prevented from doing so?

4. What are the effects of roasting, boiling, and stewing upon meat? Which process is the most economical? Why?

5. How do you boil potatoes? Give reasons for the time you allow.

6. Which is best, an earthenware teapot or a metal one? Why?

7. What makes water hard or soft? Which is the best for washing clothes in? Why? Which is the most wholesome to drink?

8. How would you treat a bruise, a burn, or a cut?

9. Give directions for making a bed.


Candidates are not permitted to answer questions in more than one of the three sections into which this paper is divided. No marks will be given for papers in which this direction is not observed.

EUCLID. (First Section.)

1. If two angles of a triangle be equal to each other, the sides also which subtend, or are opposite to, the equal angles, shall be equal to one another.

2. Draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight line of an unlimited length, from a given point without it.

3. If a side of any triangle be produced, the exterior angle is equal to the two interior and opposite angles; and the three interior angles of every triangle are together equal to two right angles.

4. Equal triangles upon the same base and upon the same side of it are between the same parallels. A line drawn through the middle points of two sides of a triangle will be parallel to the third side. 5. If a straight line be divided into any two parts, the square of the whole line is equal to the squares of the two parts, together with twice the rectangle contained by the parts.

6. In every triangle, the square of the side subtending either of the acute angles is less than the squares of the sides containing that angle by twice the rectangle contained by either of these sides, and the straight line intercepted between the acute angle, and the perpendicular let fall upon it from the opposite angle.

7. If a point be taken within a circle, from which there fall more than two equal straight lines to the circumference, that point is the centre of the circle.

8. Draw a straight line from a given point, either without or in the circumference, which shall touch a given circle.

9. The angles in the same segment of a circle are equal to one another.

10. If two straight lines cut one another within a circle, the rectangle contained by the segments of one of them is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other.

ALGEBRA. (Second Section.)

1. Simplify a-[b+c-{d+b−(c+2b−a+d)}]


2. If x=- show that (x+a) (x+b)+(c−x) (a+x)=ac.

3. If 2a=x+y+z, 2b=−x+y+z, 2c=x-y+z, and 2 d=x+y-z, show that a2+b2+c2+d? = x2+ y2+x2.

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6. A is twice as old as B, and in eleven years their ages will be in the ratio of 5 to 3; find their ages at present.

7. If 3 ounces and 160 grains cost 127. 9s. 7d., and 1 ounce and 80 grains cost 47. 108. 104d.; how many grains are there in an ounce?


1. Find the area of a room 14 feet 6 inches wide and 20 feet 9 inches long: (1.) By cross multiplication. (2.) By reducing the sides either to inches or to feet and fractions of a foot.

2. Give the rule for finding the area of a triangle when the sides are known.

3. If the sides of a triangle be 6 and 8 inches long, what must be the length of the third side that the triangle may be the greatest possible?

4. A uniform heavy rod, 12 feet long and 6 lbs. in weight, rests horizontally upon two props, which are respectively 3 and 4 feet from the ends of the rod; find the pressure upon each prop.

5. What force acting parallel to the plane would be required to support a weight of 2 tons upon a smooth inclined plane, the height of which is 15 feet and the length 25 feet? and what amount of work will raise the weight from the bottom to the top of the plane?

6. What is meant by friction and the coefficient of friction? If the friction be just sufficent to support the weight in the last question, what must be its coefficient?


[The Committee of the National Society are thankful for any communication likely to assist SchoolManagers and Teachers, or otherwise promote the work of Church Education; but they do not necessarily hold themselves responsible for the opinions of the Editor's correspondents.]

To the Editor of the National Society's Monthly Paper.


Ps. c. 1, &c. Why so many allusions to the temple in the Psalms? see Ps. ii. 6 iii. 4; v. 7, &c. We must understand the purpose of the temple. It was indeed " a house of prayer" (Matt. xxi. 13; Acts iii. 1, &c.), but also much more than this, being the shrine of the ark, which was the pledge of God's presence among His people.

The ark was a chest of wood and gold, described in Exod. xxv, containing the tables of the law, &c, (see Heb. ix. 4), with two cherubims of gold bending over it, and above it hung the shekinah, a cloud of glory, Rom. ix. 4.

This glory first descended on the tabernacle in the wilderness (Exod. xl. 34), abode there continually (Lev. xvi. 2), and entered with the ark into Solomon's temple, 1 Kings viii. 11.

This glory was in some special way "the dwelling-place of God," although, as Solomon felt, heaven cannot contain Him, 1 Kings viii. 27.

What was the purpose of this presence? would it not lower their notions of God's omnipresence? It did not see Solomon's words, and Is. lxvi. 1. For they were taught also that God made heaven and earth. It is hard to worship him who is invisible, hard especially in those gross times. Therefore this visible sign was given in mercy to keep them from idolatry, to help them to remember God.

See, then, what is meant by "the house of God." "Solomon built Him an house," Acts vii. 47, i. e. the temple was to be "His dwelling," Ps. lxxvi 2; Exod. xxv. 8; "His holy habitation," Ps. lxviii. 5; "the dwelling-place of His name," lxxiv. 8 ; " Here will I rest for ever," cxxxii. 15; "God is in the midst of Zion,” xlvi. 5.

The shekinah being "the presence of God," the ark beneath is called "his footstool," xcix. 5; cxxxii. 7 (see 1 Chron. xxviii. 2); and the golden plate upon the ark" His mercy seat," Ps. xxviii. 2. And he is said "to sit upon the cherubims," lxxx. 1; "to sit between the cherubims," xcix. 1.

From this we learn how Jerusalem was so frequently in an Israelite's thoughts, cxxxvii. 5, and so highly honoured by him. To him it was "the hill of the Lord,' xxiv. 3; "the city of the great King," "the city of our God," xlviii. 1, 2; "the holy city," "the holy hills," ii. 6; iii. 4; lxxxvii. 1.

To lose the ark was to lose God, 1 Sam. iv. 22. To be banished from Zion was to be banished from God. Four Psalms at least are the lament of one thus banished, viz. Psalms lxxxiv., xlii., xliii., xxvii.

Hence we see the reason of the three annual pilgrimages to the tabernacle enjoined upon every Israelite, that they might be continually reminded of God, Exod. xxiii. 17. For to enter the temple was "to enter his presence," xlii. 2; "to appear before God,' lxxxiv. 7; and hence there could be but one temple, many synagogues or houses of prayer, but only one house of the one God, Deut. xii. 11.

And when absent from Jerusalem, they turned towards the temple, i.e. towards this presence, in their prayers, 1 Kings viii. 38; Jonah ii. 4; Dan. vi. 10; Ps. v. 7; xxviii. 2. Prayers are said to be heard there, Ps. iii. 4. At the entrance of the holy place their sacrifices were offered. They speak of blessings as coming from it, salvation or deliverauce "out of Zion,” xiv. 11; " help from the sanctuary," xx. 2; "the hills from whence

cometh my help," cxxi. 1. "The plenteousness of thy house," xxxvi. 8, refers not to heaven, as we at first suppose, but to the temple. So also "the pleasures of thy house," lxv. 4.

To this presence of God in Israel the miracles in the wilderness are attributed in Ps. cxiv. This is the grand idea of the Psalm; see also lxviii. 7; lxxvii. 16.

The temple was therefore built not so much for man to worship in, as for God to dwell in, for the comfort of His people. The ark hidden in the holy of holies was the centre of the temple, and the temple was the centre of Israel. Owing to this, the thought of the temple so often enters into the Psalms.

But while this is their first sense, these passages have a second meaning not less true. That visible presence in Zion was a type both of the indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the Church of Christ (see 1 Cor. iii. 16:"Know ye not that ye are the temple of God), and also of "the presence of God" in heaven into which Christ has entered, see Heb. ix. 24. In one or the other of these senses each of the above passages is used by the ChrisH. T.


I. Names, &c.


1. That portion of England now called Cumberland was inhabited, previous to the Roman invasion, by the tribe called Brigantes, the largest and most powerful of all the nations then in Britain.

2. This county was situated within the Roman province of Maxima Cæsariensis. 3. After the departure of the Romans, a tribe of Britons called the Cumbri, who inhabited this district, established themselves into an independent kingdom called Cumbria, but how long it lasted is not known.

4. It was subdued by the Angles of the kingdom of Deira; and when this kingdom was, in A.D. 617, united to that of Bernicia under the name of the kingdom of Northumbria, Cumberland was, of course, included in that kingdom.

5. When England was divided into counties, this district received the name of Cumberland from the Cumbri.

6. Cumberland, therefore, means the land of the Cumbri.

7. In this county, and in Northumberland, Alfred the Great settled great numbers of Danes whom he had conquered. They made an insurrection, and were put down by Edmund I., about A.D. 946, when he gave this county to Malcolm King of Scotland, on the condition that he should pay him homage for it, and protect the north of England from invasion by the Danes.

8. This county, on account of its wild and uncultivated state, was not included in the survey of England which was ordered by William I.

II. Physical Notes.

1. Boundaries.

a. On the north by Scotland and the Solway Firth.
b. On the east by Northumberland and Durham.
c. On the south by Westmoreland and Lancashire.
d. On the west by the Irish Sea.

The Pennine Range of mountains forms the boundary between this county and
Northumberland. Ulleswater and the river Emont form the boundary be-
tween Cumberland and Westmoreland. On the top of a hill near the road
leading from Keswick into Lancashire are three stones, placed about a foot
from each other, which nevertheless are in three different counties, namely,
Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire. They bear the name of Shire

2. Extent. Nearly 80 miles in length, and 40 in breadth. The circumference about 220 miles.

3. Area.-1,001,273 acres; 1564 square miles.

4. It is a maritime county.

5. Cape.-St. Bee's Head.

6. Mountains:

a. Part of Pennine Range, in the east.

b. The Cumbrian group, in the midland district.

The Cumbrian group is separated from the Peuine Range by the valley of the River Eden. In this county are situated the highest mountains in the country. Among them are the following:

a. In the Pennine Range.

Crossfell, in the south-east corner of the county, 2900 feet high.

b. In the Cumbrian Group:

a' Scafell, in south-west part of the county, the highest mountain in England, 3166 feet high.

B' Bowfell, near Scafell.

Skiddaw, in the middle of the county, 3022 feet high.

Saddleback, near Skiddaw, 2787 feet high.

Fell is the Danish word for 'hill.' The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway crosses the Pennine Range at an elevation of about 450 feet. The hills of the Pennine Range, for the most part, have a regular outline, and are destitute of trees, which gives them a desolate and uninteresting appearance. They are mostly covered with a thin peat soil. The Cumbrian group have a very different appearance; they are generally steep and rugged, and mostly well covered with trees, so that with the lakes which are situated among them they make this one of the most beautiful districts in England. From the top of Skiddaw a person may see into Scotland. On the top of this mountain the cold is so great as to prevent vegetation. This mountain is the haunt of numerous birds of prey, eagles, &c.

7. Rivers.-1. Eden; 2. Peterill, left-hand tributary to the Eden; 3. Caldew, lefthand tributary to the Eden; 4. Line; 5. Esk; 6. Derwent; and 7. Cocker, lefthand tributary to the Derwent.

The Eden, by the Romans, was called Ituna. It rises in the Pennine Range on the borders of Yorkshire, and flows through Westmoreland, and enters Cumberland near Penrith. It flows in a north-western direction, and falls into the Solway Firth. This river abounds with salmon, and a fish called char. The Derwent rises in Scafell, flows through the lake Derwentwater, and with a rapid course, first in a north western direction, and afterwards in a western one, comes to the Irish Sea. This river also supplies salmon. 8. Lakes. This county contains more lakes than any other county in England. The chief are, Derwentwater, or Keswick Lake; 2. Ulleswater; 3. Ennerdale Water; and 4. Wast Water.

Derwentwater is a most romantic piece of scenery. It has five islands, which add much to the beauty of the scene; it is subject to violent agitations, and often without any apparent cause; it discharges its water by the river Derwent. The lakes of Cumberland are much resorted to by travellers.

9. Climate.--Rather cold, but not unhealthy.

Although sharp and bleak, yet, on account of the shelter afforded by the mountains, it is not so piercing as might have been expected.

10. Soil.-Mostly poor.

The general character of this county is that of bleak mountains, austere wastes, and barren moors. Nearly one-half is uncultivated, of which about threefourths is unfit for cultivation. Most of the other is meadow-land.

11. Minerals.-Cumberland is rich in minerals.

a. In the south of the county the mountains furnish copper.

b. In the south-eastern part lead is produced in large quantities.

c. Coal abounds in the western parts of the county.

d. Blacklead is procured chiefly from the hills and mountains in the centre of the county. This county produces the best blacklead in the world.

III. Political Notes.

1. Divisions:

a. Parliamentary.-Two; eastern and western.

b. Local. Five wards, viz. 1. Allerdale above Derwent; 2. Allerdale below Derwent; 3. Leath; 4. Cumberland; and 5. Eskdale.

2. Number of Houses. -a. Inhabited, 36,733; b. Uninhabited, 1545; c. Building, 239 total, 38,517.

3. Population. ·

In 1851, 195,492, being 96,244 males and 99,248 females; 125 to a square mile. This is one of the least populous counties in England.

4. Diocese. In that of Carlisle, in the province of York.

5. Circuit.-In the Northern Circuit.

6. Railways.

a. Newcastle and Carlisle, between those towns.

b. Carlisle and Maryport, between those towns.

c. Maryport and Whitehaven, a continuation of the former by the sea-coast.

d. Whitehaven and Furness, an extension of the last into Lancashire.

e. Lancaster and Carlisle, between those towns.

7. Parliamentary Boroughs.-a. Carlisle; b. Cockermouth; c. Whitehaven.

8. Other Towns.-a. Workington ; b. Penrith ; c. Keswick; d. Egremont; e. Alston; f. Brampton.

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9. Members of Parliament.-In all nine.

a. For the eastern division of the county
b. For the western division of the county
c. For the city of Carlisle

d. For the town of Cockermouth

e. For the town of Whitehaven

IV. Principal Towns.

1. Carlisle.


a. On the River Eden, near the confluence of the Peterill and Caldew, and the Eden.

b. The British name of this city was Caer Luil, from the British word Caer, meaning a city or town, and Luil, the name of a petty prince to whom it belonged, or perhaps by whom it was founded.

c. Carlisle means "the city of Luil."

d. The Romans called it Luguvallium. It was one of their stations.

e. Its present name is derived from its British one.

f. It is the largest town in Cumberland, and the county town.

g. Historical Events. - Being a border town, and the chief on the western side of the country, it has been the scene of many events.

a' Destroyed by Picts and Scots.

B' Rebuilt by Egfrid, king of Northumbria, about A.D. 680.

Destroyed by the Danes about A.D. 800.

Again rebuilt, and fortified, and peopled by William Rufus.

Made a bishopric by Henry I. in A.D. 1133, the first bishop being Athelwold.

Taken by Edward I, and a parliament held in it A.D. 1306.

Nearly all destroyed by fire in A.D. 1386.

n' It was besieged and taken by the Scots in A.D. 1645.

'Charles Stuart, the young Pretender, besieged and took Carlisle A.D. 1745,

and then proclaimed his father as king of England.

✔ It was retaken in the same year by the Duke of Cumberland.

h. The Picts' Wall. This is the principal antiquity in the county. For an account thereof, see Monthly Paper, p. 61.

i. Carlisle possesses a salmon fishery in the River Eden.

k. Manufactures of cotton, hats, nails, ropes, whips, &c.
7. Population in 1851, 26,310.

2. Whitehaven.

a. Stands on the sea-coast, near St. Bee's Head.

b. Takes its name from the white cliffs on the shore.

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In A.D. 1566 it contained only six houses.

d. Very extensive coal mines: they extend a long way under the Irish Sea, and are about 140 fathoms deep.

e. This town, next to Newcastle, is considered the chief seaport for coals in England.

f. Exports coals to Ireland and parts of Scotland.

g. Population in 1851, 18,916.

3. Penrith.

a. This town is said to derive its name from the colour of the earth in its neighbourhood, and of the stone of which it was built, viz. red; Penrith in the British language meaning 'red-hill.'

b. This town was claimed by the Scots; but the English disputing their right to it, it was twice destroyed by fire: 1st, in the reign of Edward III.; 2dly, in the time of Richard II.

c. There are extensive caves dug out of the solid rock in the neighbourhood of Penrith.

d. Population in 1851, 6668.

4. Workington.

a. Near the mouth of the Derwent, on the coast.

b. Exports large quantities of coals, principally to Ireland.

c. At this place Mary Queen of Scots landed when she was compelled to seek refuge in England, A.D. 1568.

d. Population in 1851, 5837.

5. Keswick.

a. On the banks of Derwent Water, surrounded with mountains.

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