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additional expense, or be virtually forced to suffer the loss in some instances of from 107. to 157. annually, for five years at least, by only being permitted to hold a third class, instead of it may be a first class certificate, to which, but for the obnoxious " minute," some of them would have been entitled. This involves great hardship, if not positive injustice, to those who, from inducements previously held out, had been encouraged to apprentice themselves as pupil-teachers. It is no wonder, then, if many of them, finding their just expectations blighted by what may with some reason be considered a breach of faith, become disgusted, and enter into other professions, where they can be better paid for their services. Even in the case of ordinary students, many of them the children of experienced teachers, and some of whom have in their recent Christmas examination been placed as "first class" students, the measure will operate injuriously, and seems not to have been required. In some instances, doubtless, where the previous educational advantages have been of a more limited character, a second year's course of training is highly necessary in order to prepare the individual for the future efficient discharge of his important duties; but surely this circumstance ought not to militate against the interests of those whose character and acquirements may fully justify the expectation of their becoming really competent teachers, without incurring the expense (to say nothing of the loss of time) involved by the more lengthened period of training needed, perhaps, by those of their fellow-students whose opportunities for improvement in early life have not been so extensive as their own.
In one or more of the annual reports of the Minutes of the Committee of Council, an account is furnished of the average expense to the various training schools in which the students are placed incurred by their maintenance and instruction, from which it appears that, even in the case of those who pass a successful examination, the cost considerably exceeds the amount received from themselves and from government on their account. If this be so, it certainly can be no pecuniary advantage to those institutions to have their students compelled, as it were, to remain in residence within them for two years instead of one.
It is earnestly to be wished that, in some way or other, the introduction of Sir J. Pakington's new measure may be instrumental in bringing about a removal of the evils complained of; and that whilst the best means are being devised for supplying the educational wants of the nation, the encouragement justly due to the earnest and deserving teacher may not be lost sight of.
If you think the foregoing remarks not unworthy a place in your very useful periodical, their insertion will oblige.—I am, &c. S. W.
ENCOURAGEMENT TO YOUNG PERSONS TO ENTER TRAINING COLLEGES. SIR,-It seems so desirable to secure for the cause of Christian education the greatest number of persons who appear qualified for the work, that you may perhaps think it worth while to insert the following remarks, calling attention to a late Minute of the Committee of Council on this subject.
When the pupil-teacher system first came into operation, it was feared that almost all other persons would be discouraged from entering on the profession of elementary teachers, because it was thought
1st. That the training colleges would be filled with Queen's Scholars, drawn exclusively from the ranks of pupil-teachers.
2d. That the superior literary qualifications of that class of students would afford small prospect of success for other competitors.
These calculations have not been realised.
1st. The increase of training colleges has been so great, that at Christmas last the Queen's Scholars did not fill half the vacancies.
2d. The desirableness of assisting from the public funds eligible young persons to enter the profession, has been so urgently pressed on the government, that they have opened Queen's Scholarships to those who have not been pupil-teachers, on the following condition:
They must have resided one year in a training college; and at the examination in December be placed in the class-list of merit (being at that time 20 years of age); they will then obtain a Queen's Scholarship, which will enable them to remain free a second year. Some colleges allow the student 87. or 107. during the second year's residence to meet personal expenses.
If any young persons of real piety, possessing fair abilities and aptness to teach, are not able to provide the fee required to secure the first year's training, it will be worth their while to apply to the Principal of one of the training colleges, as in many instances they have it in their power to assist with an exhibition for the first year.-I am, &c.
INQUIRIES BY CORRESPONDENTS.
SIR,-I should feel obliged if any of your correspondents would reply to the following queries, which I offer truly for instruction, and to found my practice upon.-Yours, &c.
A COUNTRY VICAR.
1. In parishes where a night-school for apprentices and ploughboys, and even adults, is found to be utterly impracticable, why should not such be invited to join a class at the Sunday-school, and there learn writing for about thirty minutes, to induce them to come?
2. Could also any one suggest fitting copies for such a class?
3. Would it be desirable to insist on any lesson, either Collect or Catechism, being learnt by heart by such a class?
4. Would any clergyman, where any thing of the kind has been attempted, be so good as to give your readers his view of its usefulness, &c.?
5. As the subject is most important to several large parishes, would clergymen and schoolmasters please give their opinion freely and simply?
SIR,-Will you kindly allow me to trespass on your space, to ask what is the worth of the pupilteacher's indenture of apprenticeship? The reason for this inquiry is the following:
One of my pupil-teachers, immediately on receiving his annual stipend, produced from his father a written intimation that he should leave the school at the expiration of one week from the date of the note.
To my surprise, I found that the clergyman had consented, some time before, to release him at a fortnight's notice.
I found, on further inquiry, that the alleged reason for giving up school was, that the boy did not earn money enough for his father; and I was informed that the boy's future career would be that of a grocer, to whom he had been apprenticed three months before I had received the slightest intimation of his wish to quit the school.
The boy had successfully passed the third year's examination, and had received a slight admonition to improve in geography by the next year. I presume such warnings are not uncommon.
I do not seek even to reflect on, or to appeal against, this transaction; but a removal to another charge being a matter of course, I am anxious to be assured that, after indefatigable exertion, and no small expense, in behalf of a boy during the greater period of the apprenticeship, I shall not again be subject to such a base return.-I remain, &c. E. P.
"H." wants a book illustrating a pump, door-lock, organ, threshing-machine, &c.
"A Country Schoolmaster" wants a cheap and concise work on British literary characters.
"I. J. G." wants a work from which might be gleaned the principles upon which piano-fortes and organs are tuned.
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL SOCIETY.
Middlesex, being the first of a Series of the Counties of England and Wales. 28 pages, 16mo, paper cover, with a Map, 1s. 4d. a dozen. Contents: Boundaries-Surface-Rivers-Geology and SoilAgriculture-Population-Occupation-Railways-Roads-Canals-Divisions-Cities and Towns.
BY LONGMAN AND CO.
Manual of Arithmetic, forming one of the Scientific Manuals, by Messrs. Galbraith and Haughton. 2d edition, 191 pages, 12mo, cloth boards, 2s. 6d. Contents: Besides the usual subjects comprised in books on arithmetic, The chain rule-Per centage-Decimal currency-Proposed new tariff-FundsPrinciples of Exchange operations, par, course, and arbitration of exchange-Arbitration of merchandise-Tables of British and Foreign money, weights, and measures.
The Liturgical Class-Book: a Series of Lessons on the Book of Common Prayer, by John Jones, author of " Theory and Practice of Notes of Lessons." 100 pages, 12mo, cloth boards. This book contains chapters on the history, and on each separate service, or distinct part, of the Prayer-Book.
Lessons in General Knowledge: an Elementary Reading-Book, being an Introduction to the Principles of Natural Science, First Series, by Robert J. Mann, M.D. 128 pages, 12mo, stiff paper cover, price 1s. Contents: The earth, and its movement-Life-The air-Balloons-Clouds and RainLightning and thunder-Benjamin Franklin-Dew, frost, and snow-The seasons-William BarenyThe Esquimaux-Snow mountains-Mont Blanc-De Saussaure's ascent of it-Mountain-chainsEarthquakes-The earthquake of Lisbon.
The Little Philosopher; or, the Science of Familiar Things, by Thomas Tate, F.R.S.A. Books I., II., III. Each book 85 pages 16mo, with many illustrations, stiff paper cover, price 1s. Contents of Book I. Part 1: The chemistry of familiar things, e. g. brimstone, oil, water, wood, vinegar, salt, lead, chalk, candles, soap, lucifer-matches. Part 2: Mechanics of familiar things-Constructive Mechanics, e. g. a pail, shovel, candlestick, ladder, gate-Centre of gravity of bodies-Laws of motion -Mechanical powers, and pieces of mechanism depending on them. Book II. Part 2 continued: Mechanism of the heavens-Mechanical properties of water-Mechanical properties of the air. Part 3: The physics of familiar things-Light. Book III. Part 3 continued: Heat-The magnet-Electricity -Questions on Parts I., II., and III.
Books, &c. received.
Chronology, in Verse, without Numbers. Price 6d. Robert Theobold, Paternoster Row.
The Boy's First Pen-and-Ink Exercises on the Latin Accidence. Part I. Nouns and Adjectives. Price 6d. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. Lecture on the Method of Teaching Grammar, by James Tilleard. Longman and Co. Price 6d.
Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Associations.
EAST CORNWALL ASSOCIATION.-The usual bi-monthly meeting of this Association was held Saturday, May 4th; the Rev. E. F. Glanville, president, in the chair. The meeting was fully attended by the members; and several of the neighbouring clergy and masters, not members of the Association, were present, notice having been given that a paper would be read by Mr. Flint.
The subject chosen by Mr. Flint for his paper was "The Church teacher in his school, studies, amusements, and in his parish." The paper commenced with observations on the happiness derived in the wane of life from consciousness of having endeavoured to do our duty in that state of life in which the providence of God has placed us.
In the remarks on the "teacher in his school," the attention of the teachers was drawn to those points in teaching and discipline which tend so materially to the efficiency and tone of the school; especial notice was taken of the power that 'silence' has in producing order; and a time-table exhibited, arranged with special attention to quietness in the school, by having half the school at silent work. The importance of giving a distinctive character to religious instruction, by not allowing the children to take places, and by the demeanour of the master while the lesson is being given, was ably commented on; in connection with this, the necessity of teaching private prayers to the children, and the benefit resulting from the clergyman questioning the children privately on the subject, being an indirect means of drawing the attention of the parents to the subject, was noticed.
Useful hints on teaching reading, writing, arithmetic, &c., and also "common things," not in the general acceptation of the phrase, but the making out a bill, keeping accounts, writing a letter, &c., were thrown out, together with remarks on the beneficial effect of the master himself being a pattern of punctuality and cleanliness.
In the remarks on the amusements of the teacher, allusion was made to the isolation of village teachers. The clergy were especially addressed to endeavour to remedy this, by making (as far as circumstances will permit) a companion of their schoolmaster in their visits to their parishioners; a course which would not only raise the position of the master in the estimation of the parishioners, but would tend to elevate his tone of thought, and produce and strengthen that union of opinions and sympathies between the master and the clergyman so essential to the well-being of the school; at the same time, he reminded the teachers that the beauties of nature are spread by a beneficent Hand for the admiration of all, and that the study of them is a source of continual and refined amusement.
The example a teacher should set in his parish, by being obliging to his neighbours, a pattern of neatness in his person and family, by avoiding debt, and above all by being a regular communicant, concludes a most interesting and practical paper. Mr. Flint was listened to throughout his paper with the greatest attention, and all present were highly pleased and interested with the able manner the subject had been brought before them.
An animated discussion followed on several subjects introduced in the paper. It was resolved that a petition to parliament against the principle of a school-rate should be adopted by the Association. The Rev. R. Hobhouse proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Flint for his able paper. The meeting then broke up, after spending one of the pleasantest afternoons since its formation.
The following is the petition referred to:
To the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in Parliament assembled.
The humble petition of the members of the East Cornwall Church Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Association,
Sheweth, That your petitioners are informed that there are three Bills now before your honourable House, or about to be introduced into it, professing as their object "to bring a good school within the reach of every door." That, while your petitioners heartily concur in desiring such a result, they learn with pain and alarm that the aforesaid Bills have adopted the principle of establishing and supporting schools by means of a compulsory rate. That your petitioners humbly submit that such a principle, considering the present state of this country as regards religion and education, is unjust, inexpedient, and opposed to the best interests of religion.
That it is unjust as regards those individuals and societies who have been disinterestedly labouring in the cause of education, and who will now be under the necessity of sacrificing their distinctive principles, or of giving up their important work; while those who are in the condition of trustees and managers will be placed in additional difficulties, in consequence of engagements into which they have entered. That, as regards the rate-payers, it is unjust that a minority should be taxed for an education which they believe to be unsound, and that such injustice will be greatly aggravated in the case of those who are already supporting a school in accordance with their own principles.
That it is inexpedient, inasmuch as there already exist means and machinery for the religious education of the people, which, however inadequate at present, have been and are becoming daily more extended and efficient, and might, with the aid of government given as at present, but with greater liberality and consideration of local wants, be indefinitely extended, while the aid so given would be no snare to the conscience of any religious denomination receiving it. To substitute for such a system, which is working well, another, the success of which is at least doubtful, your petitioners submit to be inexpedient.
Lastly, your petitioners consider a compulsory rate, under existing circumstances, to be opposed to the best interests of religion, inasmuch as it must lead to one of three things, either, 1st, No teaching of religion at all; or 2dly, Such indistinct teaching of it as all serious persons must consider defective; or 3dly, Such doctrinal teaching as may be opposed to the religious belief of many, possibly the larger number, of the parents who send their children to the school, and who, if true to their own principles, must withdraw them from such instruction.
Your petitioners therefore implore your honourable House not to pass any Bills, whatever their merits in other respects may be, which adopt so injurious a principle; but to extend the benefits of a
religious education as widely as possible, by more liberal grants through the Committee of Council, to meet individual exertions and to remedy great local destitutions.
And your petitioners will ever pray, &c. &c.
VALE OF AYLESBURY ASSOCIATION.-This Association held their monthly meeting in the Aylesbury National School on Saturday, May 5th; and it was attended by a large number of the clergy and school-teachers of the district. The Rev. A. Newdigate presided till the arrival of Archdeacon Bickersteth, who had been detained at another meeting. A very valuable paper was then read by the Rev. P. T. Ouvry on "Industrial schools." By the reading of this paper, and the discussion which followed upon it, the meeting came generally to the conclusion, that it is practicable, in many instances, to attach to our National schools an acre or two of land, or some of the commonest implements of the mechanic, such as a small forge, or a carpenter's bench, &c., so that the children may receive a proper course both of bodily and mental training, and thereby foster in them a spirit of industry and ingenuity collateral with their other studies.
The meeting were also unanimously of opinion, that the introduction of industrial labour into our schools-such labour being remunerative to the children so employed-would be one mode of remedying that great and ever-prevailing defect in our present system of education, viz. the very early age at which the children are removed from school.
Some conversation next took place in reference to the various educational Bills now before Parliament; and opinions were expressed generally opposed to the rating principle, on account of its manifest tendency to check voluntary effort. The principle of a free education was also objected to, (1st) as giving an eleemosynary character to instruction, and so weakening the proper responsibility of parents towards their children, (2) as having failed where the experiment has been tried. The meeting concluded, as it had been begun, with the reading of prayers.
SHOREHAM AND SOUTH MALLING DEANERIES ASSOCIATION.-The second report of this Association states, that owing to deaths, removals, &c., the number of members has decreased. It appears that the Archbishop of Canterbury has become the patron of the Association; that papers of an educational character have been read, and discussions taken place upon the following subjects: "Teaching reading"-"Teaching writing"-"Late comers"-" Teaching arithmetic"-" Provident habits""Sunday-schools"-" Communicating religious instruction to children"-"Teaching the Church Catechism"-"The office of the teacher considered with relation to its responsibilities and privileges." The average attendance at the monthly meetings has been fourteen. The rules have been revised so as to admit schoolmistresses to the benefits of membership. The report also acknowledges liberal contributions to the singing fund; and states, that drawing sheets have been obtained for the use of members from the Society of Arts.
WEST KENT ASSOCIATION.-The report of this Association states, that owing to a want of funds, the services of Robert Beattie, Esq., who had been engaged to give weekly lectures, had been discontinued; that through the instrumentality of John Meadows White, Esq., 47 volumes had been put in possession of the Association as a nucleus for a library; that the patronage of the Rev. W. H. Brookfield had been obtained; that the Association has been disappointed of the reading of several papers. The following subjects, however, have received very careful consideration: 1. "Method"2. "Suggestions for an elementary course of instruction"-3. "Suggestions for a course of Biblical instruction"-4. "Suggestions for improving the reading in National and Parochial schools"--5. "Suggestions for preserving order in church"-6. "Suggestions for teaching geography"-7. "Suggestions for the prevention of late comers."
The report further states, that owing to several removals and a death the number of members is less than last year. A suggestion is made that the schools be closed half-a-day once a month, in order that the teachers may have the opportunity of attending the meetings of the Association.
ISLE OF ELY ASSOCIATION.-Under this title another Association for the mutual improvement of Schoolmasters has just been formed. A series of rules have been adopted; and the meetings are to be held quarterly, owing to the members residing so far apart, and it being thought better to have a few good meetings than several of an inferior character during the year. The Rev. W. B. Hopkins, vicar of Wisbeach, St. Peter and St. Paul, and one of the vice-presidents of the Association, delivered the inaugural address at the first annual meeting of the Association on the 14th April last. The address has been published, and may be had of Bell, Fleet Street. The Association already numbers thirteen honorary members, and ten others, schoolmasters.
WARWICK AND LEAMINGTON ASSOCIATION.-The seventh anniversary of this Association was held at Warwick on Tuesday, the 8th May. The members attended divine service at St. Mary's Church, and the Rev. W. Staunton preached the anniversary sermon.
Shortly after two o'clock the members and friends of the Association assembled to the number of about sixty at the Warwick Hotel, where dinner was prepared for them.
The chairman, the Rev. Canon Pilkington, announced that the prize had been awarded to Mr. Robert Baker, of Leamington, for his catechetical lecture from the motto, "Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things unseen;" and then proceeded to propose the usual loyal toasts, and others having reference to the Association, which were cordially responded to, and followed with "God save the Queen," &c.
Mr. Baker, the honorary secretary, read the report; from which it appeared, that although the inclement weather had somewhat retarded the action of the Association, the meetings had, on the whole, been well attended, and characterised by kind and brotherly feelings. Discussions on various subjects had been held; and among others, on "The treatment of late boys"-" How to deal with truants""On rewards and punishments"-"On the difference between education and instruction"-" On the various methods of teaching"-" Reading"-"The Church Catechism"-" Writing"-" Arithmetic""Spelling"-" Dictation," &c.
The report further stated, that from various causes the assistance of two lecturers only had been secured during the year. The lectures given were, "The self-supporting principle," by H. L. Smith, Esq.; and the other, on "The history of poetry," by the Rev. H. Hill. Papers on the following subjects have been read by members of the Association: "On the evils of war"-" On school organisation"-" On early English history"—" On the employment of a schoolmaster's leisure”-“ On punish
ments"-"On the Prophet Jonah"-" On the second table of the moral law"-" On music"-" On the necessity of good reading, and the means by which the same may be secured."
Some account of a district meeting at Leamington of the Associated Body of Church School Teachers is given; and also. of certain prizes for the best essays on the following subjects: "The third division of the Apostles Creed"-" The fitness of the time of our Saviour's first coming." The prizes, in both cases, were awarded to Mr. R. Baker, of Leamington. It appears that the funds of the Association are in a satisfactory state, and that the addition of new members has more than made up for loss by removals, &c. The Association now numbers twenty-six members.
The proposal of the several toasts called forth many suitable addresses, and the proceedings were much enlivened by music and singing.
TESTIMONIALS.-To Mr. READ, late Master of the Reigate National School, a Time-piece, by
To Mr. J. TAYLOR, of the National School, Whitefield, near Manchester, a copy of the Messiah, by the Members of his Singing Class.
To Miss BOURNER, a Self-explanatory Bible, by the Pupil-teachers and Children of Sudbury School.
To Mr. F. C. LONG, on leaving St. Barnabas' School, Pimlico, a Bronze Inkstand, &c., by the Pupil-teachers and Choristers; also a Papier-maché Writing-Case and Envelope-Box, by the Rev. G. R. Portal, Warden of the Resident Boys.
To Mr. G. D. Hiscox, of Inkberrow National Schools, Fireplace Ornaments, by Miss Gray. To Miss SHRUBB, on resigning Cobham National School, after Twenty-five years' Service, Sundry Works, a Silver Spoon, and Church Service, by the Lady Subscribers and Girls of the School.
To Mr. TERRY, on resigning the Cobham National School, after Nine years' Service, a Pair of Silver Salt Spoons, by the Boys of the School.
To Mr. WILLIAM MYERS, on resigning the Mastership of the Hebrew School of the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, after Thirteen years' Service, a Papier-maché Inkstand, by the Boys of the School.
Mr. H. GLASSCODINE, from Tenterden, to Yarmouth National School, Isle
Mr. G. F. VARTY, from Tenterden Union School, to Tenterden National School.
Miss S. J. MERRELL, late Assistant Teacher in Inkberrow National School, to be Assistant Mistress at Old Park School, Salop.
Miss SARAH EVANS, late Pupil-teacher at the Mold National School, to be Mistress of the Infant School, Ruthin.
Mr. CHARLES CAYZER, from Limehouse, to All Saints National School, Poplar.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
We cannot undertake to notice anonymous communications, nor to insert letters or information received after the 20th. The name and address of our correspondents should always be sent, though not necessarily for publication.
"A Subscriber." The period of training is usually longer than three or six months; but you had better procure the Church Education Directory, which will give you particulars of all the training institutions.
"E. C. W. P.," "R. M.," declined with thanks.
"Long Row" should address his inquiry to the Secretary of the Committee of Council on Education, Downing Street.
"W. F. Mee." The Reverend the Principal of the Diocesan Training School, Winchester, would very likely give you the information you want. See page 126 of this Number.
"A Schoolmaster." The Capitation Grant is made in aid of the expenses of the school, and not particularly for the salaries of the teachers.
"J. E. A." See p. 205 of Monthly Paper, vol. for 1854, for the best mode of colouring black-boards. "Alexia." The Society has no prescribed form. The signature would hold good for longer than a year, provided there be nothing in the agreement to the contrary. You are entitled to due notice when your services are no longer required.
"E. E. G.," received.
"A Pupil-Teacher." (1.) Unless there is any agreement to the contrary, we conclude you are not bound to exceed your term. (2.) Yes, you can compete.
"E. T." We think you have been too severe on our correspondent's well-intentioned answer to your inquiry, and therefore we do not insert your reply.
The Durham Board Report, &c., in our next.
The Chester Board Report received.
"Homo." It is contrary to the practice of the Society to interfere even indirectly.
Notes of Lessons on the County of Durham, and certain Letters not noticed above, are in type, and we hope may appear in our next.