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the third point, it may be observed that the teacher should always give the religious instruction him self; the reading-lesson in his first class always, and once a-day in every other class, and the arithmetic and geography to the first class. I have much pleasure in being able to state, that in no case did I find a teacher acting on the impression that it was his duty simply to superintend and not to teach. fact says much for the activity and zeal of the teachers in the Liskeard district.
Teaching. This appeared to me to be good in fourteen schools, and fair in five. Very great attention is paid to the religious instruction, and especially to that which has for its basis the Church Catechism. The arithmetic and writing in copy-books in most of the schools are very commendable. It struck me that in the first classes in two or three of the boys' schools it would be a good plan to teach a little mensuration, as a thing likely to be useful to the pupils in after-life. There is a small text-book on the subject for teachers, by the Rev. W. N. Griffin, and an accompanying book of examples for the scholar (price 1d.), published by the National Society, which would probably be found of service in such schools. In a few of the schools a little more attention should be paid to secular reading and geography, that is, to the style of the former and the description of the latter. A child learns reading as he learns many other things, by imitation. Keeping this in mind, I think the teacher should occasionally (say twice a-week) read portions of the secular reading-book to the class, and let his pupils read the same the second time with him after they had got an idea of correct emphasis, punctuation, and pronunciation. How seldom do we hear reading in a distinct and natural tone? In most schools the chil dren appear to sing instead of reading as they would speak. I have uniformly found that where ladies attend to give reading-lessons, the children read in a natural tone of voice and with correct emphasis. I found this to be the case in the Lanreath school especially. This question of good reading is a very important one. It seems to be the tendency of the present day to crowd the time-tables of schools with all kinds of subjects; to teach every thing, in fact, except the classics. If children remained at school to a more advanced age than they do, there would be some show of reason for this course; but the danger is, that such common subjects as reading, writing, spelling, &c., may not be attended to sufficiently. I may here repeat, what I have had occasion to remark before, that the amount of arithmetic, geography, &c., required by children in after-life is (comparatively speaking) very small; but their great want is the art of reading well, and analysing what they read. They require a perfect acquaintance with their own language. Without this they can hardly understand sermons, the language in which the formularies of their Church are expressed, or the books which are professedly written for their use. As regards geography, I think in many of the schools I have seen more attention should be given to the Map of Palestine, and to the practice of tracing voyages on the Map of the World, and pointing out the districts or places famous for particular productions and manufactures.
I was glad to find that a scheme of instruction had been furnished to each school. In most cases I believe it has been followed. In those schools in which it has not been attended to, I would humbly suggest the advantage of at once taking measures to carry it out. Children remain at school so short a time at the present day, that it becomes a matter of necessity to provide some plan by virtue of which the most important parts of each subject may be brought first into the course of teaching.
Most of the schools were provided with secular reading-books and apparatus; where they were wanting, I had simply to mention the fact, and the clergy readily supplied them-too often, I am sorry to say, at their own expense. In fact, in a small living, and where there are no gentry or landowners to assist, the task of supporting a school involves considerable personal sacrifice on the part of the clergy, while at the same time they have perhaps claims on them even more immediate than the one to which I have alluded. I trust that the Depository for the National Society's books and materials recently opened at Liskeard may be the means of introducing improved apparatus into all the schools of the district. The supply of small articles, as slates, reading-books for each class, and such little works as Griffin's Examples in Arithmetic, Songs for Schools, The Geography of England and Wales, will need constant attention. The want of these checks the teacher at every turn, and subverts discipline.
In conclusion, I would observe, that I can report most favourably of the schools generally in the district. In every one I visited I found something to admire. In some there was very little that called for alteration; and it was my desire to change nothing simply for the sake of change. Wherever I went I found the beneficial efforts of the Liskeard Board apparent either in the way of grants or inspection. Of the latter, the teachers seem to speak very favourably; and I have no doubt they look forward to it as a means of testing their yearly work.
I have to return you my sincere thanks for your kind assistance and attention to me during the time I have been engaged in Cornwall. I desire also through you to thank the clergy and teachers in the district for their kind and unreserved communication with me at all times. From the former I have received much kindness personally; and I believe I leave the county after having increased their good feelings towards, and interest in, the venerable Society which I have represented. I am, &c. JOHN FLINT, Organising Master of the Nat. Soc.
The Rev. A. Tatham, Secretaries.
The Rev. R. Martin,
That is to say, when the pastor does not give it.
+ The idea that a teacher was rather a superintendent of monitors than a teacher was at one time very common. A case arises now and then which shows that the idea still lingers. The error is not wilful, I am sure.
Diocese of Oxford.
ANNUAL MEETING OF DIOCESAN INSPECTORS.
The Inspectors, to the number of thirty, met at Cuddesden Palace, on Wednesday, June the 6th, under the presidency of the Lord Bishop of the diocese. After some business of merely local interest, the meeting entered into a very full discussion of the several Education Bills introduced this session by Lord John Russell, Sir John Pakington, and Mr. Milner Gibson. It was unanimously considered that any system of education based upon local rates was in the highest degree objectionable; and petitions were drawn up to Parliament against all three Bills.
The New Reading Series of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge were laid before the meeting. It was suggested as in the highest degree important, that in school reading-books, secular and religious lessons should never be combined in one volume; and a memorial was drawn up to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge on the subject.
The difficulties attending the maintenance of schools in small villages were considered at length, and a memorial to the Committee of Council on Education was drawn up, suggesting some modification of their lordships' regulations with regard to registered teachers.
The importance of inducing certificated masters to make better provision for old age, by the purchase of deferred annuities, was generally felt; and a memorial addressed to the Committee of Council on the subject.
The Principal and Secretary of the Culham Training School laid before the meeting a report of the position and prospects of that Institution.
The Inspectors all dined with the Bishop, and separated on the morning of the 7th.
Committee of Council on Education.
CLASS LIST OF MASTERS AND MISTRESSES
Of Schools connected with the Church of England who have been registered pursuant to Minutes of 2d April and 20th August 1853, after Examination before her Majesty's Inspectors at Easter 1855.
DIVISION I. Teachers of 35 years of age and upwards, to be registered for Capitation Grants, under the Minute of 2d April 1853.
DIVISION II. Teachers of 35 years of age and upwards, to be registered under the Minute of 2d April, and also as qualified for the instruction of Pupil-teachers under the Minute of 20th August 1853.
DIVISION III. Teachers under 35 years of age, to be provisionally registered for the completion of their
Manchester, St. James's N. S.
DIVISION I. Teachers of 35 years of age and upwards, to be registered for Capitation Grants, under the Minute of 2d April 1853.
DIVISION II. Teachers of 35 years of age and upwards, to be registered under the Minute of 2d April, and also as qualified for the instruction of Pupil-teachers, under the Minute of 20th August 1853.
DIVISION III. Teachers under 35 years of age, to be provisionally registered for the completion of their present engagements with Pupil-teachers.
}Bolton, All Saints' N. S.
North Mymms Girls S.
Education of Poor Children Bill.
The following Bill, intituled "An Act to provide for the Education of Children in the Receipt of Out-door Relief," has just been passed by both Houses of Parliament :
Whereas it is expedient that means should be taken to provide education for the young children of poor persons who are relieved out of the workhouse: Be it enacted by the Queen's most excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same
I. That the Guardians of any Union or any Parish in England, wherein the relief to the poor is administered by a Board of Guardians, may, if they deem proper, grant relief for the purpose of enabling any poor person lawfully relieved out of the workhouse to provide education for any child of such person, between the ages of four and sixteen, in any school to be approved of by the said Guardians, for such time and under such conditions as the said Guardians shall see fit.
II. Provided, that the Poor-Law Board may at any time issue their order to regulate the proceedings of the Guardians with reference to the mode, time, or place in or at which such relief shall be given or such education received.
III. Provided also, that it shall not be lawful for the Guardians to impose as a condition of relief that such education shall be given to any child of the person requiring relief.
IV. The cost of the relief so given for the education of any such child shall be charged to the same account as the other relief granted by the said Guardians to the same poor person, and may be given by the said Guardians, and recovered by them as a loan, under the same circumstances and in like manner as such other relief.
V. In the case of any child, of such age as aforesaid, relieved out of the workhouse, which child has been deserted by its parents or surviving parent, or both whose parents are dead, it shall be lawful for such Guardians, in their discretion, and with the like power of regulation on the part of the Poor-Law Board as aforesaid, to grant relief for the purpose of providing education for such child in any such school as aforesaid.
VI. The words used in this Act shall be construed in like manner as the words contained in the Act of the fifth of William the Fourth, chapter Seventy-six, and the several Acts incorporated therewith.
[The Committee of the National Society are thankful for any communication likely to assist SchoolManagers and Teachers, or otherwise promote the work of Church Education; but they do not necessarily hold themselves responsible for the opinions of the Editor's correspondents.]
To the Editor of the National Society's Monthly Paper.
NOTES OF A LESSON ON THE "ARK OF THE COVENANT."
I. Description of the Ark.
(a) Name.-Sometimes called "the Ark of the Tabernacle," "Ark of the Covenant," "Árk of the Testimony.' Give reasons for each appellation.
(b) Size.-In shape like a box, or chest, being in depth 1 cubit, breadth 1 cubit, and in length 2 cubits. Explain the term cubit. The Ark was made of shittim wood, and overlaid with gold.
(c) Contents.-It contained "the two tables of
stone," a pot of manna, Aaron's rod
(which blossomed). Some say these were placed in the Ark, others near the Ark. (d) Position.-Placed in the most Holy Place.
The lid was called the Mercy Seat,
and on each side of it was a cherubim, and between them the "Shechinah." Explain the terms used in this division.
II. The History of the Ark.
It was made at the time of the building of the Tabernacle, by God's command. The first miracle connected with the Ark is the dividing the Jordan (Josh. iii.). Briefly allude to the facts connected with the Ark, &c. It was taken around the walls of Jericho, once per day for six days, but on the seventh day seven times. It was taken to Gilgal, where it remained six and a half years. 1444. It was now removed to Shiloh (Josh. xviii. 1). 1141. When the Israelites went to battle with the Philistines, they took it into their camp (1 Sam. iv. 11). The Israelites were defeated, and the Philistines took the Ark with them. It remained in their possession for seven months. It was taken by them to Ashdod; the idol Dagon fell down before it. It was now passed from Gath to Ekron, and was returned to the Israelites at Bethshemech. Now give the reason why returned. It is removed to Kirjath-jeraim. During Saul's reign it was at Nob, but was afterwards returned to Kirjath-jeraim. 1043. Taken from there by David in a new cart to the house of Obed-edim, from thence to Jerusalem. On the journey, Uzzah was struck dead for having touched the Ark. The providence of God would have prevented the Ark from falling, and Uzzah was not a Levite. The Ark was finally placed in Solomon's Temple (2 Chron. v. 2). It was profaned by the wicked kings of Judah. The priests now carried it from place to place. In the reign of Josiah it was ordered to be replaced. It was found wanting in the Second Temple, being lost in the destruction of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar. KINGSDON.
N.B. The places mentioned, to be pointed out on the map.
NOTES OF A LESSON ON CORK.
I. Description, qualities, &c.—Light, very buoyant, specific gravity one-fourth that of water; dry, soft, compressible, elastic. Appears porous; not so in reality, the pores not communicating with each other. Bark of a tree
"The cork-tree's furrowed rind."
II. The tree.-Botanical name, quercus suber. Species of oak, evergreen; principal forest-tree where oaks are wanting; sometimes, therefore, "king of the forest."
III. Localities of cultivation.-Native of the warmer regions of the temperate zones. Cultivated in Italy, Spain, South France, Algeria, &c.; in forests, sometimes in parks. Grown occasionally in England as a curiosity.
IV. Preparation.-Stripped from the tree when fifteen years old; allowed eight years to recover; process then repeated. A tree will bear this ten or eleven times. Procured in long strips, in thickness some two or three inches. Slit vertically and horizontally at top and bottom of the trunk; stripped off with a peculiarly shaped knife; sometimes after the incisions left to shed itself. Soaked in water; dried and partly scorched, hence black appearance of outside-this renders it more imporous, closing the pores; flattened under heavy weights while heated; packed in bales; exported.
V. Uses.-Applications varied, important, and numerous; among others as: (1.) Corks.-Liquids formerly kept in casks and jars, stopped with clay, pitch, plaster of Paris, and similar substances. Afterwards drawn into bottles; the necks stopped with pieces of bark-" corks." Made by cork-cutters in most cities and towns of the kingdom; cut into slips; cleverly rounded with a sharp knife.
(2.) In construction of life-boats, &c.-Floats of cork used by fishermen in very ancient times, as by the Romans. Much cork used in a life-boat; the gunwales (edges) lined on both sides to the depth of two feet, and seats filled, thus rendered extremely buoyant. In making life-belts, cloaks, capes, and jackets.
(3.) In hats.-Cut into thin veneers, foundation of hats; very light. Veneers extremely thin; have been printed upon.
(4.) For models.-Good imitation of ruins, decayed walls, &c. Models of castles, churches, remarkable ruins made of it; very beautiful and valuable.
(5.) Soles of boots, &c.-Good preservative from damp; protection to the feet. Used in this manner by the Chinese as well as ourselves. In artificial limbs, cork-legs, &c. Burnt cork made into Spanish black.
(6.) Foreign uses. By the Spaniards and Portuguese very extensively applied to numerous useful purposes. Made into bee-hives, baskets, plates, cups, tubs, and other domestic utensils. Cover the roofs with it instead of slates or tiles. Lining for damp
(7.) In Kamptulicon.-A compound of cork and caoutchouc; a good sheeting for ships of war; great elasticity; causes the balls to rebound, W. J. L.
NOTES OF A LECTURE AT AN EVENING SCHOOL.
National School, Burwash, Sussex. SIR, We have an evening school at Burwash for adults, conducted by the rector, curate, and voluntary aid; and although it is not required of me, yet I have felt a pleasure in contributing my mite towards the improvement of those attending it. I know that in several neighbouring parishes there are also evening schools, and I am tempted to send to you the following notes of a lesson on a Voyage to Australia, which I gave for half an hour on four evenings to a large class of men and boys, and which seemed to please, and I hope instruct; thinking it may be a hint for similar lessons in country villages, by which natural history and geography may be made to go hand in hand. 1. Describe Australia, and give its history.
2. Show the facility of obtaining employment there.
7 3. Motives for emigrating; sort of persons who should do so.
4. A young man having heard and thought over the above reasons, resolves to emigrate.
5. We follow him to London, accompany him to the dock, view the ship, take a berth, go on board, drop down the river, take a pilot, voyage down the Channel, send pilot ashore.
6. The young man now tells his own story, speaks in the third person. Tells us of the address of the captain to all the emigrants, describes the captain, the last view of land:
"The sailor sighs as sinks his native shore,
And climbs the mast to feast his eyes once more."
7. Bay of Biscay, appearance of petrel; gives natural history, and superstitious opinions of sailors respecting the same :
"A thousand miles from land are we,
Tossing about on the roaring sea;
And amidst the flashing and feathery foam,
The stormy petrel finds a home," &c.
8. First appearance of a shark; gives natural history, and anecdotes of its swiftness, voracity, and size.
9. Distant view of the island of Madeira; describes its climate and productions. 10. Water-logged ship seen, boat sent to it, crew rescued; explains "water-logged;" the ship laden with timber, which by the roll of the sea starts a plank,
11. Appearance of icebergs; explains how they came into the Atlantic Ocean, so far from the place of formation.
12. Sees a whale spouting among the ice; gives its natural history, and relates anecdotes of capture, &c.
13. Appearance of captain on deck, sudden order to prepare for a storm, sailors cannot perceive any symptoms, shows how the captain could; explains tube of mercury in his cabin,-something similar to barometer in farm-houses.
14. Describes storm at sea, the awful appearance of the lightning, the roll of the thunder; refers to Psalm cvii., "They that go down," &c.; shows that those who in fine weather were used to call on God, now can do so in perfect confidence.
15. Subsiding of the storm; a ship discovered on fire, boat sent, crew rescued, finds that she was fired by the lightning; explains how it is that his own ship escaped a similar fate, fitted with a lightning-conductor; explains the term, and Franklin's experiments.
16. Having so many extra passengers, are obliged to touch at the Cape of Good Hope. Shows that it would have been much better to have gone a great deal farther to the south-west in order to bring the wind on the beam, when bearing up for Australia; shows this from a track laid plainly down on a map.
17. Describes the Cape of Good Hope, early history and present condition; gives an account of its natural productions, remarkable sheep, &c. 18. Sees some flying-fish; explains.
19. Sees a dolphin, catches one, watches its dying hues.
20. Death of a sailor, funeral at sea, refers to Revelation xx. 13, " And the sea gave up the dead which were in it." Describes the character of a sailor, warm-hearted, brave; describes their songs, patriotic, modest, containing no allusions to cause a blush of shame when sung; sings Dibdin's song of "Tom Bowling," shows how different it is from many songs sung by country men and country boys; shows that God meant us to sing, but did not mean us to sing indecent or improper songs.
21. Passes the islands of Amsterdam and St. Paul's, relates that many sad shipwrecks have happened in their vicinity.
22. Arrives at Kangaroo Island, lands, finds employment.-Yours, &c.