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of the want of this practical religious and moral teaching in the schools they visit, as well as of the other?-children taught to read the Bible and learn the Catechism, without knowing any thing of the spirit or application of either ?
I think, then, it may be said of both your correspondents, "These ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone."
One word, in conclusion, to my brother clergy. Would that some of them saw more the importance of giving attention to the religious training in their schools. Surely halfan-hour a day spent in this way would not be labour in vain; nay, would it not rather be sowing that morning-seed which, perchance, in a day of grace may come to maturity. Doubtless, the work would be found difficult at first to interest young minds; but "prayer, preparation, patience, and perseverance," would do much.
"NOTES" ON THE PROPHET MALACHI.
I am, &c.
The exact date of Malachi, the last of the prophets of the Old Testament, is uncertain. Some place it as early as B.C. 520, making him coeval with Haggai and Zechariah; and some as late as the time of Alexander the Great, B.C. 330. But neither of these dates are in accordance with the subject-matter of his prophecy. That he lived some time after Haggai and Zechariah, is clear from ch. i. 7, 10-14; iii. 10, 13, 14; for in these passages he speaks of the temple and its services as being established, and in use; and the following coincidences, with the facts recorded in the book of Nehemiah, will show that he most probably lived in his days, and that he was contemporary with him towards the close of his residence in Judæa, i. e. about the 32d year of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, B.C. 434 (Neh. xiii. 6, 7).
(1.) In ch. i. 8, the prophet speaks of the "governor" of the Jews, i. e. of the ruler of their province under the king of Persia, to whom they were then subject. This was the very office to which Nehemiah was appointed by Artaxerxes, and which he held from the 20th to the 32d year of that king's reign, from в c. 445-434 (Neh. v. 14). This, however, of itself, would not prove him to have been contemporary with Nehemiah ; for Zerubbabel also is called "governor" (Hag. i. 1); and others had been appointed to the same office from the time of Zerubbabel to that of Nehemiah (Neh. v. 15).
But (2) the abuses which Malachi reproves, are exactly those abuses which Nehemiah corrected when he visited Jerusalem in the 32d year of king Artaxerxes. These were the marriages which the Jews had contracted with the strange nations around them, and the profaneness which prevailed among both priests and people in regard of the worship and service of God.
(a) The first of these abuses Malachi reproves in ch. ii. 11-16, protesting indignantly against this intermixture with idolaters. To accomplish their desire, the people had divorced their own wives, to whom they were bound by every holy tie (ver. 14), and whose tears, in consequence of this treatment, covered the altar of the Lord (ver. 13); and they even seem to have defended their adulterous proceedings by the example of their forefather Abraham (ver. 15*). Now this was one of the abuses which Nehemiah corrected in his second visit to Jerusalem (Neb. xiii. 23-30; see also ch. vi. 17, 18). Among the offenders on that occasion is especially mentioned one of the grandsons of Eliashib the high-priest, who had married the daughter of Sanballat the Horonite, and whom therefore Nehemiah "chased from before him," indignant that this sin should have been committed in the family of one who ought to have been the example of holiness to the people. The fact of the priest's having been guilty of this sin is declared by Malachi (ch ii. 12), a verse which is remarkably parallel with Neh. xiii. 28. Again, Malachi calls their wives whom they had repudiated the wives of their covenant (ii. 14). This expression probably refers to that solemn covenant which had been entered into by the whole people in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Neh. ix. x.); one of the points of which was, that they would put an end to this intermarrying with the heathen (Neh. x. 29, 30). This very covenant Nehemiah also charges them with having violated when he reproves this sin (Neh. xiii. 28, 29).
(b.) The second abuse, viz. the profaneness of the people in regard of the worship of God, forms the greatest burden of the prophecy of Malachi. He reproves the priests for their contempt of God's name; for their offering the refuse animals in sacrifice (ch. i. 6
* This seems to be the meaning of this most difficult verse, which has been taken by many eminent commentators to be a kind of dialogue between the people and the prophet. The people, defending their conduct, refer to Abraham's going in to Hagar (Gen. xvi. 4); and say, "Did not one do this very thing, i.e. Abraham, although there was in him excellency of spirit ?" The prophet answers, "And wherefore did that one do it? Not from carnal lust, as yours, but because he was seeking the seed of God, i.e. the promised Messiah (Gen. xiii. 15; xv. 3; xvi. 1, 2). This, therefore, can be no justification of your conduct. Take heed, then, to yourselves, and let none deal treacherously against the wife
of his youth."
14); for their neglect of the covenant under which they were appointed (ii. 5, 6); for their ignorance, and neglect in teaching the people (ver. 7); and for their godlessness, whereby contempt was brought on the Name of God (ver. 8). He reproves the people for their adultery (ii. 11-16); for their infidelity (ii. 17, iii. 13-15); for their robbing God, in withholding from the priests and Levites their appointed tithes (iii. 8-11); and for various other sins then rife among them (iii. 5-7); while the few faithful ones seem to have been utterly contemned (iii. 15-18; iv. 2, 3). He also declares, that in consequence of the iniquities both of priests and of people, God had punished them with dearth and scarcity (ii. 2, 3: iii. 10, 11). Now among the abuses which Nehemiah reformed on his second visit to Jerusalem was, that of withholding from the Levites their appointed portions (Neh. xiii. 10-14); and it may be that the ready compliance of the people with his orders in this matter resulted from the prophesying of Malachi, who promised that, on their reformation, the dearth under which they had been long suffering should be removed (Mal. iii. 10, 11). The existence of this dearth is incidentally mentioned in the book of Nehemiah (ch. v. 3) as early as the year B.C. 445; and its severity was such, that many of the people had been forced to mortgage their property for the purchase of corn.
All these coincidences make it highly probable that Malachi prophesied towards the latter end of the governorship of Nehemiah, i. e. about 434.
It remains to notice the most remarkable of his provhecies relative to the Christian dispensation. The future spread of Christ's kingdom throughout the world is foretold in ch. i. 11; to which prophecy our Lord may be thought to have referred in John iy. 21-23. The future coming of Christ at the day of judgment, and its awful consequences, are predicted in ch. iii. 1-5, iv. 1-3; iii. 1-5 had its accomplishment also in the presentation of Christ in the Temple (Luke ii. 22-38); and in those two most remarkable visits in which He purged the temple from its pollutions (John ii. 13-17; Matt. xxi. 12, 13.)
The coming of John the Baptist is foretold in ch. iii. 1; iv. 5, 6. (See Matt. xi. 10; Mark i. 2; Luke vii. 27; Matt. xvii. 10-13; Luke i. 17, 76). It is much to be observed, that the very last word of ancient prophecy should point to him who was the first prophet of the New Testament-the immediate forerunner of Christ. "Its last light was mingled with the rising beams of the Sun of Righteousness. Resigning its charge to the personal precursor of Christ, it expired with the Gospel upon its tongue."*
ON SCHOOL BANKS.
A COUNTRY VICAR.
N. S. Narberth.
SIR, -Permit me, as a subscriber to your periodical, to say a few words on School Banks, a notice of which appeared in the Number for July by "A Schoolmaster."
In the first place, let me remark, that all your correspondent said with reference to the utility of such a scheme I perfectly coincide with. There is no doubt either that— where it can be made practicable, and I think few schools will form exceptions-it will greatly assist the teacher in furthering the great work he has undertaken. No one, I am sure, who reflects, is unconscious of the great evils arising from the mismanagement of little incomes among our cottagers. I would beg all who have any thing to do with the moral training of the rising generation to give this a fair trial.
In the next place, let me add, that in my school of between eighty and ninety boys a bank was started nearly nine months ago, and is working admirably. Upwards of forty boys now belong to it, depositing upon an average about 6s. weekly, each boy paying from d. to 6d. ; there are some who exceed this. Lately a bank, similar to the boys, was started in the girls' school; and if I may judge from present appearances, will succeed. The conditions under which the children deposit their money are similar to those of "A Schoolmaster's." There is this difference, however, that whereas my boys are content with the interest given by the Savings' Bank, his are in receipt of five per cent; but I hope to be able to remedy this by means of subscriptions to the general fund, raised from persons in the neighbourhood who take an interest in education.
Hoping you will be able to find space for these remarks,—I remain, &c. C. S.
Queen Herd, Halifax.
SIR,-A correspondent in your last Monthly Paper, who styles himself" A Schoolmaster," very good-naturedly suggests to his fellow-brethren the idea of a School Bank, in order to prevent, if possible, the little pocket-money which the children receive from various sources being spent on some useless toy or sweetmeat." The suggestion is good, and evidently well meant. As "A Schoolmaster" is evidently a new subscriber, I
• Davison on Prophecy, p. 47.
beg to refer him to my letter in the Monthly Paper for 1853, p. 245, from which he will see that his idea is not a new one, as he seems to think. A proof of the success of the plan there sketched may be found in the fact, that my quarterly bills have lately been nearly 101. The plan, I believe, is duly appreciated both by scholars and parents. Hoping you will give this a corner in your next Monthly Paper, I am,
HOW TO ATTACH OUR OLD SCHOLARS TO THE CHURCH.
DEAR SIR,-The question at the head of this letter is one of the utmost importance to the clergy and churchmen generally; and, as I have become acquainted with a simple and practical solution of it, I beg to communicate it to you for the information of your numerous readers.
The National Society's College at Battersea has supplied many first-rate teachers, men who really know what to do and how to do it, combined with good common sense. One of this class, at present at the head of an important institution in Lancashire, has originated a Brotherly Society." He called a meeting of the old scholars; and I find from the newspaper report that a large number attended, ranging between the ages of fifteen and ninety years. It would occupy too much of your space to go fully into the details of his plans, and therefore I will only observe, that the objects of the Society are threefold: 1st. To promote friendship and brotherly feeling among old scholars. 2d. To visit boys on leaving school, and to see that they regularly attend church; to encourage or admonish them, and to make grants for clothing, &c. 3d. To form classes, and organise popular lectures for the winter months.
I may remark, that the Society asks no one for assistance; they raise their little fund amongst themselves, and therefore literally carry out our Lord's injunction, "Bear ye one another's burdens." The rules are carefully drawn up, and nothing but unmixed good can possibly result from its formation.
If any of your readers feel interested in the matter, and would like further information, I feel confident that a letter addressed to Mr. Bowes, Blue Coat Hospital, Warrington, would receive polite attention. CLERICUS.
CAUTION AS TO DATE OF APPOINTMENTS. SIR,-Will you allow me to correct a slight mistake of your correspondent from St. Mary's Church, near Torquay. He has omitted to notice that the Committee of Council pay certificated teachers for a portion of a year, at the commencement of an engagement, though not at its close. Hence no necessity lies upon teachers to know "when the government-year of the school, which they are about to take, commences.' Thus, if a teacher enters upon his new duties at Midsummer, and the school-year commences October 1st, he will receive, at the close of the first year, an augmentation and gratuity for three months, i. e. from July 1st to October 1st.
I may add, that this rule, as involving a possible sacrifice of income at the close of an engagement, only applies to the case of augmentation. A teacher is paid fragmentary portions of his gratuity for the instruction of pupil-teachers, both at the commencement and at the close of his engagement.-Yours, &c.
Harvest Home.-Air: "Lucy Neale."
A LITTLE child is sleeping
Among the golden wheat,
A faithful dog, with shaggy coat,
Is watching at his feet;
The gleaners pick the scatter'd ears,
The waggons go and come,
And merry voices fill the air
With "Happy Harvest-Home."
Happy Harvest-Home, happy Harvest-Home;
The merry voices fill the air with Happy Harvest-Home.
With knapsack on his shoulder,
And courage in his face,
A soldier leaves that harvest-field,
In other scenes to mingle,
In other lands to roam;
Yet oft amid the battle's din
He hears that Harvest-Home.
Happy Harvest-Home, happy Harvest-Home;
Yes, oft amid the battle's din he hears that Harvest-Home.
The harvest-moon is shining
Upon a soldier's bed,
And on his weeping mother's breast
"Oh, mother, I am dying;
Sweet music bids me come;
The angel reapers call me hence
With their sweet Harvest-Home!
Happy Harvest-Home, happy Harvest-Home;
The angel reapers call me hence to happy Harvest-Home!"
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
We have received several books and pamphlets, but are obliged to defer our notice of them till
CORRESPONDENTS' ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.
"W. M." recommends to "J. F." an Elementary Catechism, by the Rev. H. Stretton. It may be had for 1d. at J. Masters, Aldersgate Street. And says,
"G. L." may get a good work on Mapping at Fullarton's, Newgate Street, by Jamieson, for 2s. 6d., or Mr. W. Hughes' for 5s. "J B." recommends " J. F." a Catechism by Rev. H. Kemp (Hope and Co., Marlborough Street).
INQUIRIES BY CORRESPONDENTS.
"T. W." would be glad if any of his fellow-labourers could give him a few good rules for working land under the following circumstances: A short time ago our rector rented a field adjoining the school for the purpose of providing a playground for the children. A part of it has been converted into gardens, and is worked by eight of the elder boys, each having about 200 square yards. Implements, manure, and seed for planting were found by the rector, so that the boys have been at no expense save labour. Query, Should the boys have the whole of the crop; if not, what portion? What should be done in case a boy leaves school before the crop is reaped!
"C. H." wants a cheap and useful work on Domestic Economy.
"E. J. K." wants a work illustrating the Steam-engine, Flour-mill, Organ, Door-lock, Threshingmachine; also a work on Decimal Coinage.
"E." calls attention to a statement in July Number of this Paper, p. 150, under the History of the Ark: "Uzzah was not a Levite." "E." says the best commentators hold that he was a Levite, but not a priest; and "E." is desirous of knowing whether any fresh light has been thrown on the subject to warrant the assertion referred to.
Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Associations.
SURREY ASSOCIATION.-The second annual meeting of this Association was held, by special invitation of the Bishop of Winchester, at Farnham, on the 19th July last. The Bishop presided on the occasion, and was supported by the High Sheriff of the county, and many of the clergy and gentry. There were also forty-six Masters and Mistresses present on the occasion. Prayers having been read in the Castle Chapel, the company proceeded to the Girls' Schoolroom, where the Bishop took the chair, and addressed the meeting at some length. His Lordship, among other remarks, said,
"In meeting you here this day, I do not regard you merely as schoolmasters, but as those who take a deep moral interest in your respective spheres; and in that point of view especially, and with that consideration uppermost in my mind, I bid you heartily welcome, and hold out to each and all the hand of fellowship. I have said, that each county of the diocese possesses an association which links together those who have one common object in life. Now with regard to the sister-county of Hampshire and this, some little geographical difficulties have occurred; for, although Farnham is in Surrey, I have had letters addressed to me Farnham, Hampshire.' I rejoice that we have this day with us Mr. Midwinter, of the Hampshire Association; and as we have a Midwinter in Surrey as well as one in Hampshire, it shows the unity of our proceedings, and commends itself to the minds of all." The Right Rev. Chairman having stated that Mr. Midwinter had come at his invitation, read a short extract descriptive of the Hampshire Association, and went on to say: "My reason for reading this to you was not merely to give you a little information, but to throw out a suggestion which I have not hitherto mentioned to any one. I leave it to your consideration, and I do not ask for any determination respecting it at present. I think it would add considerable interest, and be in many ways of much usefulness, if occasional Prize Essays were proposed in Surrey.... One of the great advantages to which I look from these Associations is self-improvement. Nor, in using these words, do I confine them to schoolmasters; but I unite them with the clergy of Surrey, and especially mean to unite the bishop. I feel that great self-improvement may be derived from associating with you; and the advantage I shall derive is this: I shall acquire a knowledge of the details of the work-a knowledge of the plans carried on in this or that part of the country; and with respect to ourselves, much self-improvement may be derived from an interchange of thoughts with each other. The duties which the school-teacher, whatever grade he occupies, has to perform, are of so onerous, responsible, difficult, and delicate a kind as to demand our best attention. . . . I need scarcely say, that the teacher should possess the power of self-government. This is a most difficult lesson to learn. I know of none more difficult. His temper and patience are tried; he finds something within which rises up against that without, unless he be schooled by self-discipline; but whether with regard to the higher acquisitions of knowledge or the science of common things, unless he can govern himself, he will be a very inefficient teacher. I look at the schoolmaster in a very high point of view. I look upon him as the individual who gives the intellectual tone to the school.... There must be a sympathy between you and the minds intrusted to you; and they are intrusted to you to make them not merely useful men, but Christian souls. Unless
we are taught of God and have a sense of the value of the gospel ourselves, we cannot implant a due sense of it in children; and we ought to show love, tenderness, and forbearance from the highest motives and in every way in our power."
Mr. Read, Honorary Secretary, read the report.
The Committee expressed their gratitude to his Lordship (the patron) for the deep interest he had evinced in the objects of the Association. It stated that the number of members connected with the Association at Reigate was twenty-eight, being an increase of nine during the past year.
The following members had contributed papers, which had been read and discussed at the monthly meeting: Mr. Hyde, on "The undesigned coincidences of Holy Scripture;" Mr. Denner, on "Light;" Mr. Gale, on "Teaching reading;" Mr. Kelly, on "Punishments in connection with School discipline;" and Mr. Brough, on "Rewards, in connection with School discipline."
The discussions were conducted by the Rev James Cecil Wynter, President, who not only gave valuable assistance upon those occasions, but devoted a great amount of time periodically to the instruction of those who are studying the Greek, Latin, and French languages.
Several valuable works have been presented to the library by Mr. Martin, the Rev. J. N. Harrison, and Mr. Lovell. The committee have purchased twelve volumes, and also a model of the common pump, with the view of favouring the nucleus of a collection of school apparatus to illustrate the science of Common things." The library at Reigate contains 118 vols., &c. Mr. Baker (Treasurer) read the accounts, which showed a balance in favour of the Association of 167. odd. It was agreed that the report be received, printed, and adopted.
Mr. Utterton explained why a branch Association had not yet been formed at Farnham. He added, that Mr. Deudney, who would probably be the next teacher there, and who had received first-rate testimonials, would, no doubt, interest and exert himself in the matter.
Mr. George (of Guildford) read the report of the Guildford branch, which stated that it possessed twenty-one members, that various papers had been read, and that it had a balance in hand of 8s. 6d. This report was adopted.
Mr. Swindle read the report of the Dorking and South-East Stoke Branch, which was also adopted. The re-election of the officers who had served during the past year, and the election of the members of the committee for the ensuing year, then took place. It was agreed that secretaries of branches be ex-officio members of the general committee.
It was then agreed that the next anniversary meeting should be at Guildford. A vote of thanks to the Bishop concluded this portion of the day's proceedings. After thanking the meeting, and pronouncing the benediction, his Lordship invited the company to the Castle, where a repast had been prepared. Previously, however, to partaking of his Lordship's hospitality, the company enjoyed the pleasure of a walk through the Castle grounds.
Dinner was served in the large hall of the Castle, and the entertainment elicited many remarks well suited to the occasion; and, among others, the following from the Rev. J. Welstead S. Powell:
"Among the many gatherings for kindred purposes which the courteous hospitality of the Bishop of Winchester had often assembled in that noble apartment, the one on the present occasion might be considered not the least remarkable. On some occasions it had been filled, at great anniversaries of religious Societies, by men who were eminent in the annals of missionary labour. There were other seasons when it witnessed the assembly of younger men, just about to he commissioned for the work of the ministry, and receiving in this place words of counsel which often gave a wholesome and a heavenly direction to the whole of their subsequent ministerial course. And hardly inferior might the present assembly be thought, when it was remembered that we had among us the teachers of more than sixty schools out of the two hundred and sixty parishes of the county. The toast which he had been directed by the Bishop of Winchester to propose, was The health of the guests whom we have now the pleasure of seeing. In proposing it, he said that it gave him the more pleasure to do so, since it afforded him the opportunity of thus publicly acknowledging the kindness and courtesy of the High Sheriff on an occasion of no small importance to the interests of education. On one of the occasions when he met the school teachers of his neighbourhood, one of them read a paper on 'the Encouragements and discouragements of the schoolmaster.' Among the latter he mentioned, that he had seen in the papers a report of an agricultural meeting at which rewards were distributed to deserving farm lads, whose term of service being compared with their ages, would show that some of them must have left school at eight years of age. Now he, Mr. Powell, ventured to recommend to the High Sheriff the adoption of a rule, long acted upon in a similar society at Kingston, that lads so rewarded should produce a character for not less than two years' good conduct in the school to which they belonged. It also, he said, gave him great satisfaction to see among their guests, one (Mr. Penrhyn) with whom he had for some years been associated in the endeavour to promote a well-organised benefit society, to replace those unsatisfactory clubs, which, as he knew, from some instances in his own parish, often came to an end when those who had belonged to them for years were too old to be admitted into other similar institutions. He was glad, therefore, to press upon the teachers present the importance of urging upon their scholars to enrol themselves, as soon as they were of an age to do so, in some such well established benefit society, which might afford them those many advantages which such an institution was calculated to produce. He was glad also to remind his friends present of the vast importance of their work. That their business was not merely to communicate knowledge, however important, but rather to educate, to implant sound principle, to bring it to bear upon the habits, thoughts, and characters of their scholars; that thus, under the blessing of God, they may have the comfort of guiding the children in the knowledge and enjoyment of God, remembering the distinction so well drawn by our own inimitable Cowper, who says all that he says with a wisdom, a power, and a pathos peculiarly his own:
'Knowledge and wisdom, far from being one,
The mere materials with which wisdom builds,
The following communication has been made to the Association on the subject of the prizes: