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J. G. ANALYSIS OF SentenCES. SIR,- In the analysis of sentences, a difficulty, I believe, is experienced by some in committing their knowledge on this subject to paper. The accompanying form, filled in with two examples, will, I think, be acceptable to such, should you approve its publication. -I am, &c.
agreeable companion in a statue."
CORRESPONDENTS' ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.
VENTILATION. SIR, -Observing a second inquiry on the above subject, may I be permitted to offer a few remarks ?
The requisites for efficient ventilation are first, a free admission of air from the floor; and secondly, a distinct passage into the open air above the top of the building. The holes for the admission of air in or near the floor cannot be too numerous: but the exit may be effected by one common fiue. Openiugs into the space between the ceiling and the roof are decidedly objectionable. Hot weather brings down a current of hot air, and cold weather a current of cold air, each accompanied by a cloud of dust. Open windows are almost equally objectionable. They are only useful after the children have left the school, unless they open a considerable amount of space.
In rooms where many persons are assembled, the air should rise perpendicularly. Nature has so tempered man's body as to enable bim to live in a temperature ranging about 200 degrees, but he is not fitted for sudden changes.
Suppose a person to ascend to the upper gallery of a crowded church-at first he finde the heat oppressive, but he soon becomes accustomed to it; presently a trap-door is opened in the ceiling over his head, he feels a cold blast from above, the perspiration is soon condensed into drops upon his face, and it is not difficult to predict that he soon becomes a victim to toothache or some such complaint. Had this hole in the ceiling communicated with a tube rising to the highest part of the building, no such consequences would be likely to follow.
If " An Inquirer" will connect one of his ventilators with a distinct flue, I think he will find a remedy for the evil mentioned. I found a tube nine inches diameter sufficient for a room containing about 100 boys. It was composed of zinc, and rose about ten feet above the ceiling.
The only exceptions to the before mentioned principles are, when there are adjacent buildings rising higher than the school; then the ventilator should have a cover. Covers generally impede the draft; but I adopted a particular form, which obviated that difficulty, and for which I received "honourable mention" at the Exhibition of 1851.
It is only in hot weather that artificial heat is required to assist ventilation. In the case already mentioned, a gas-burner was introduced to the tube, to be used when required. Trusting you will pardon these lengthy remarks, I have, &c.
A MASTER OF THE OLD SCHOOL. SIR, -In reply to " An Inquirer," I beg to say, that I recollect reading two or three years ago of a large room for concerts and assemblies which was ventilated something in the manner suggested by him, except there was no opening at all into the roof. At each end of the room there was a large fireplace, with hollow ornamental pilasters on each side of it, which were taken up near to the ceiling. These were open at the top, and communicated with the space below the fire-grate by a pipe let into the wall. This arrangement was said to act well, and I see no reason why it should not, especially if sliding-doors were provided to cover the front of the ash-pan. Yet if the bottom of the grate should get blocked up with ashes, as is too frequently the case, then the ventilation would be sluggish and slow; but this might be entirely prevented by making a sufficient passage—the brick-work behind the fire, about three feet in length-open at each end-so as to connect the space below the fire-grate with the chimney; the upward draught of which will ensure ventilation. But as the air from without will rush in to restore the equilibrium, it will be necessary to have some management from below for its admission, or else, if it cannot gain an entrance in sufficient quantities in other places, it will descend the chimney in fitful gusts, even in calm weather.
W. P. SIR,—With reference to the inquiry of “Quæsitor" in the last Monthly Paper, I find in the
General Catalogue (1840) of James Bohn, 12 King William Street, Strand, two translations of Grotius De Veritate Religionis Christianæ, each of them costing 78. 6d. The first is anonymous, with the addition of a tract by Bishop Patrick : London, 1700. The second is by Spencer Madan, a well-known writer, also with some supplementary tracts : London, 1814. The latter is more modern, and therefore probably more serviceable.-Yours, &c.
POPULAR HARMONISED BIBLE.
National School, Goudhurst, Cranbrook. MR. EDITOR,—I beg to say that the Popular Harmonised Bible, which was advertised in the Number for May, and notices of which have appeared in several Numbers since, has been paid for by me. The book has not as yet made its appearance, and I should much like to know if it ever will.--I am, &c.
THE CRIMEA. SIR, -As a subscriber to your valuable Monthly Paper, I should deem it a special favour if you, or any of your correspondents, would answer the following question : To what quarter of the world does the Crimea belong? Europe or Asia ? In the following works it is given as belonging to Europe : Butler's Geography, pp. 29, 32; Sullivan's Geography, p. 209; Hugo Reid's Geography, pp. 35, 82; Family Tutor's Geography, p. 93, part 132. But in some older works it is given as a peninsula belonging to Asia. For instance, Walker, in his Universal Gazetteer, published in 1807, says, “ the Crimea, or Crim Tartary, is a peninsula of Asia, bounded on the north by part of the district of Taurida (a division of the Russian government of Ekaterinoslav), and on the other parts by the Black Sea and the Sea of Asoph." Fisher, in his Companion, published in 1798, speaking of European Russia, p. 265, says, “Muscovy, or Russia, is bounded on the south by Poland and Crim Tartary.”
To many it may be a matter of indifference to which quarter of the world the Crimea may belong ; but to teachers of our rapidly rising generation I consider it of paramount importance to give them correct ideas, hence I seek information in a quarter where I have the fullest confidence of success.-I
J. P. H. SCHOOL-Sorgs. SIR,—I sincerely thank“ E. English,” and others, for the very pretty School-songs published in the Monthly Paper, particularly the former, as she very kindly responded to my inquiry in your May
Number. I shall feel very greatly obliged to any of the readers of your valuable Paper, if they know of any school-songs suited to the tunes of " Nature's gay day," " Buy a broom," and " Woodman, spare the tree,” if they will, with your kind permission, insert them in your interesting Paper.
I would recommend “ W.J. A. B.” to get Palmer's Church History, price ls. ; also Mangin's Outline of the Constitution and History of the Church, in Questions and Answers, price 4d.-1 remain, &c.
JOHN HORSMAN, “Hob" asks whieh are the best Text-books on the following subjects : " Decimal coinage," "Common things,” “ Popular astronomy," and "School-management;" also a book containing interesting and amusing games for school children while in the play ground.
“ T. S. V." and “T. P." wish to know the name of the publisher of Mr. White's Drawing-Book, referred to by “M. H. B.” in his letter in our last October Number, p. 351.
“ A Schoolmaster" asks for the best work on Book-keeping to introduce into his school.
“Beta" wishes to know what book is published solely on Parsing, containing a selection of sentences parsed.
HEATING SCHOOL ROOMS. SIR-I shall feel obliged by any of your readers, who have it in their power, informing me what is the best mode of heating schoolrooms, otherwise than by stoves or fireplaces placed in the room. There are but few managers and schoolmasters, I believe, who will not condemn these, as likely to engender habits of idleness and disobedience; for what child will not run to the fireplace, as soon as the master's back is turned, if the room is heated by such means only. I might mention that coal, both anthracite and bituminous, I can obtain at a cheap rate.
The rooms which I am about to build will stand thus, at right angles to each other. I should also
ROAD. feel obliged by being informed the best light for a gallery, whether the windows should be on the right or left side of the children's faces.-I am, &c.
Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Associations, ASSOCIATED BODY OF CAURCH SCHOOLMASTERS.—The second annual meeting of this Body was held at Manchester on the 28th and 29th December last. A preliminary meeting took place on the evening of the 27th, at which it was agreed to urge upon the district officers of the Body the importance of adhering strictly to the rules, in order to insure uniformity in every district, and simultaneous action throughout the land. It appeared that thirty local associations were in connection with the Body.
The Associated Body assembled at the Cathedral on the morning of the 28th. There were nearly one hundred teachers from all parts of England present, when a Service was sung and a Sermon preached specially for the occasion. The Dean of Manchester preached the sermon. It is to be printed in compliance with a resolution of the association.
The annual meeting for the election of officers, reading the report, &c., was held on Friday. The report was ordered to be printed and circulated among the members. A resolution was adopted urging the necessity of increased exertions to secure funds for carrying on the objects of the association.
Much good feeling was elicited, and it was considered that this second meeting had been the means of promoting a mutual interest and co-operation among teachers whose spheres of action are necessarily wide apart.
METROPOLITAN ASSOCIATION, Sanctuary, Westminster.—The annual meeting of this Association was held on Saturday, January 20th. The members attended divine service at Westminster Abbey, after which they proceeded to the Central Schoolroom of the National Society. There were about 60 members present, over whom Mr. Studdle, the late Secretary, was called to preside. The report or the committee for the past year was read, and unanimously adopted. This document, which will be printed and circulated by the committee, gives a very satisfactory account of the state of the Society. It mentions with regret the death of G. Mathison, Esq., one of the Vice-presidents, who upon several occasions, in the earlier stages of the Society's existence, rendered it essential service by his very liberal donations. The members are a!so congratulated in the report upon the Christian tone which
has pervaded their proceedings during the year, and upon the friendly feeling and unanimity which exists among them. Votes of thanks to the patron, president, and vice-presidents, were unanimously carried; also to the National Society for the use of their premises, and to the committee and officers of the Association for the past year.
The annual dinner is to be held at Freemason's Tavern, as will be seen from an advertisement in this Paper, when Lord Ashburton will preside. It is expected that the chairman will be supported by many distinguished friends of education, and that the meeting will be one of a very gratifying character.
BATH DISTRICT CHURCH SCHOOLMASTERS' ASSOCIATION. Tlie anniversary of this Association was celebrated on Friday, ecember 22d, by a soirée held the St. Mark's Schoolroom. The Right Rev. Bishop Cart presided, and was supported by the Rev. T. Woodward, the president of the Association, and by the Revs. J. W. Sproule, H. Minchin, W. Haglewood, G. M. D'Arcy Irvine, M. Brock, T. J. Robinson, and E. Salter. The company numbered nearly 60, and included masters and mistresses from the various parishes in Bath, as well as from those of Weston, Twerton, Combe Down, Midsomer Norton, &c. The room was most tastefully decorated with banners and evergreens, and the entertainment was supplied with every regard to the comfort and enjoyment of the guests. The repast being concluded, and grace sung, the Right Rev. Chairman called on the Secretary to read the report, from which it appeared that the Association was formed in July 1853; but that month being inconvenient for the celebration of the anniversary, it had been postponed to the close of the year. Meetings had been held for the discussion of subjects connected with education, and educational periodicals circulated monthly; but the great object of the Association, the formation of a library, had not been attempted during the first year. The School of Art had afforded the members the means of prosecuting a study of great importance to schoolmasters seeking certificates from the Committee of Council. The Association had lost its patron during the year by the death of the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, but had received the most cordial support of the Right Hon: and Right Rev. Lord Auckland, the present Diocesan, who had kindly become its patron. It had also to regret the loss of another supporter in the resignation of the Hon. and Rev. W. J. Brodrick, the late Rector of Bath; but the kindness of his successor, the Right Rev. Bishop Carr, in presiding on the present occasion, was a sufficient proof of the interest. he took in the Association. The clergy of the various parishes included within the limits of the Association had kindly given their support to it; and it was hoped that when its objects became known more widely the aid of influential laymen would also be secured. The members feeling " that they have as teachers a responsible and important duty to fulfil," and hoping that while endeavouring to train the children of the poorer members of Christ's flock in that path of Christian duty which " has the promise of the life that now is as well as of that which is to come,” they may be cheered by the help of those who have the power, by strengthening the hands of the labourer, to aid the gathering in of that harvest, when He who has gone forth bearing precious seed shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing His sheaves with Him."
The Secretary, Mr. Timm, said, that before sitting down, he wished it to be understood that the members had followed in the steps of other Associations by waiting till their means were sufficient to procure a really suitable educational library. It might be asked what sort of books they wanted, and in reply to this he would say, specimens of all books used in elementary schools which they could procure; so that if any clergyman or schoolmaster were desirous of knowing the character or suitableness of a particular book, he might have th opportunity of examining it himself. The schoolmaster must often see new school-books advertised which it is quite out of his power to procure as an individual, but which might be procured by an Association such as the present.
The Right Rev. Bishop Carr then rose, and expressed the pleasure he felt in meeting so many teachers, and made some remarks on the importance of Christian education.
Mr. C. Crowden, after reading the balance-sheet, called the attention of the meeting to the fact, that a somewhat similar Association existed many years ago in Bath, and that one of its members, on being appointed to a London school, did not rest satistied till he had set on foot a society that had since grown to be one of great importance, viz. the Metropolitan Schoolmasters' Association.
The Rev. M. Brock next spoke to the importance of the teacher exhibiting in his daily life and intercourse with his pupils the fruit of the principles which he was inculcating upon them.
The Rev. T. Woodward enforced the necessity of the teacher entering upon his work as one from which he might derive pleasure, and not pursuing it as a mere service of drudgery.
Bishop Carr then vacated the chair, and the rest of the clergy having retired, the meeting resolved itself into one of social intercourse, after which the members separated much pleased with the evening's proceedings.
LEEDS ASSOCIATION,—The eighth annual meeting and dinner of this, one of the oldest: Associations in England, was held on Thursday, December 21st, 1854, at the Royal Hotel, Brygate, Leeds. Mr. James Bolton, of Horsforth School, filled the chair, and Mr. John Thackery, of St. Paul's School, Leeds, the vice-chair. Mr. Thomas Holmes, the secretary, read the report for the past year. It spoke of the flourishing and prosperous condition of the Association, and the united feelings which have been exhibited by all the members in carrying out the objects for which it was established. The income has covered the expenditure, and left a small surplus in hand. The report further alluded to the isolated position of teachers, and the many benefits that they may derive from associations in a mutual, intellectual, and professional point of view, and also the advantages that may accrue to the church from her teachers uniting on the grounds of their most holy faith. During the past year assistant masters have been admitted to the benefits of the Association, and it is in contemplation to admit mistresses as members; new rules have been printed for the use of the members. A useful and well-timed paper on “Education as it is, and as it ought to be," which was read by Mr. J. H. Lyne before the County Association at its annual meeting, will shortly be issued from the press for general circulation. Mr. Thomas Holmes, of Roundhay School, Leeds, was elected secretary, and Mr. George Tinker, of Little London School, Leeds, treasurer for the ensuing year. During the past year the following papers have been rea discussed at the monthly meetings, which are held alternately at St. Peter's and St. George's schools.
“On instinct," by Mr. J. H. Lyne; "On school organisation," by Mr. J. W. Booth; "The early stages of the British constitution," by Mr. Thomas Holmes; ". On the training of pupil-teachers, with especial reference to school management," by Mr. G. Carr; “Education and educators since the Reformation," by Mr. G. Tinker; "The early history of the East," by Mr. Campkin; “Mahomet and Mahometanism," by Mr. Bulson; “The life and times of Thomas A'Becket," by Mr. E. Spencer;
“The best means of maintaining authority, and yet securing the sympathy and affection of the children," by Mr. John Thackeray.
After disposing of the official business, the remainder of the evening was spent in discussing the subject of popular education, several patriotic toasts were given, and at intervals glees and songs were sung, and sentiments exchanged, which contributed to make the evening pass in a profitable and happy way.
YORK CHURCH SCHOOLMASTERS' ASSOCIATION. — The members of this Association held their annual meeting for the transaction of business on Saturday, January 13th, when the following report was read, and unanimously adopted :
“ On presenting a report of the proceedings of this Association for the past year, the committee would, in the first place, congratulate its members upon the amount of success which has attended their efforts during that time. When this Association was established three years ago, it declared its object to be the ' mutual improvement of its members' in all those practical subjects which continually demand the attention of the teacher. During the year now brought to a close it has endeavoured to carry out its object by holding monthly meetings at the Manor School, at which papers have been read of an instructive and interesting character; these papers have exhibited much thought and careful elaboration on the part of the writers, and have contributed, in no small degree, to the advantages which have been found to result from these meetings. The papers, generally, have occupied three quarters of an hour, and have been followed by an hour's discussion on the subject of the paper. These discussions have been lively and animated; and have served to elicit much valuable information. During their continuance the members have always manifested a desire to communicate the results of their experience, and have expressed that generous sympathy and brotherly feeling, which ought to exist amongst members of a profession so honourable, and yet so responsible. These meetings are always looked forward to with much interest; some of the members even come 12 miles, without the luxury of steam, to attend them. The objects of such Associations only require to be known and tested in order to be appreciated. Still, it is to be feared that there are many teachers in this locality who are ignorant of the existence of such an Association; the committee would therefore urge upon the members the desirability of making known the objects of the Association as widely as possible amongst the teachers in this district. Since the last annual meeting the Association has enlarged its sphere of usefulness by inviting the mistresses of Church schools to become members and attend its meetings : all the mistresses in York have attended them regularly, and have taken a lively interest in the proceedings. As their work is identical with that of the master in training the rising generation, we may hope that they will continue to derive both pleasure and profit from meeting those who can sympathise with them in their difficulties, as well as encourage them in their duties. The members have often been joined at their meetings by teachers from other localities; and the committee feel induced to add, that they will always be glad to see any of their fellow-teachers, and to have the benefit of their opinions on the subject under consideration.
The Association has great cause for being thankful for the excellent spirit which has always pervaded its meetings. With such objects in view, and such unexceptionable means of obtaining them, it is to be hoped that the Association will continue to extend its usefulness, and to diffuse amongst teachers in this district whatever may tend to improve either themselves or their schools.
Papers on the following subjects have been read during the year 1854: “The British Colonies," “On teaching Scripture History,” “The River system of Yorkshire," “ The improvement of the mind,” “Popular Astronomy,” “The professional position of the teacher,” “ Irspection and its results," " Physics," “Punctuality and regularity of attendance.”
EAST CORNWALL ASSOCIATION.-The second meeting of this Association was held on January 13th. Rules for the management of the library and circulating of books and periodicals were drawn up and agreed to; after which a very able and interesting paper on “ Teaching reading" was read by Mr. Skewis, of St. Stephen's. The Hon. G. M. Fortescue has kindly consented to become the patron of the Association,
TESTIMONIALS.-To Mr. W. EASTON, on leaving Beverley, a Time-piece and Purse of Sovereigns, by the Children and Friends of the St. Mary's School.
To Miss Lucy CASWELL, on her resigning the charge of the Salisbury National School, a Timepiece, with suitable Inscription, by the Committee, and a Work-box by the Children.
To Mrs. REID, a Moderator Table Lamp, by her two Pupil-teachers, at St. Mary's School, St. George's in the East.
To Mr. Bower, Two Works, by the Boys of the Blue-Coat School, Bridgnorth.
To Mr. Thomas STANHOPE, on leaving the National School, Thurlaston, after Eleven Years' Ser. vices a Silver Watch, a Pair of Electro-plated Candlesticks, Snuffers, and Tray, and a Papier Maché Inkstand.
To Mr. T. P. Howe, Fourteen Years Master of Christ's Hospital School, Ipswich, a Silver Tea.pot and Cream Ewer, by a number of his present and former Scholars.
To Mr. HENRY SLOCOMBE, Milton's Poetical Works, on completing his Apprenticeship in the North Petherton School.
To RICHARD SHARP, several Volumes of Books and a Silver Pencil-case, on terminating his Apprenticeship in the St. Mary's School, Southampton.
To Mr. Thomas BROWN, Blackie's Imperial Dictionary, presented on behalf of the Clergy and Teachers of St. George's Sunday Schools, Chorley.
To WILLIAM WILDING, on leaving St. John's School, Latham, for St. Mark's College, a Bible and Church Service, by the Teachers and Boys of the School.
To Mr. John Wilson, Bagster's Pocket Bible and a Purse of Money, on resigning, after Fourteen Years' Service, the Mastership of Holy Trinity School, Runcorn.
To Mr. John TURNER, Nineveh and its Palaces, by the Pupil-teachers and Scholars of St. Andrew's School, Ancoats, Manchester.
To JOHN JENNINGS, Trench's Parables and Miracles and Cruden's Concordance, on completing his term of Apprenticeship in the St. Peter's National School, Worcester.
To Rev.J.J. SLADE, on resigning the Curacy of St. Leonard's, Bilston, a Dinner and Tea Service of Silver Plate, by the Sunday School Teachers and Congregation, also a Rosewood Writing Desk, by the Children of the Schools.