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3. Explain what is meant by latent heat; and give experiments illustrative of the disappearance of heat in the conversion of solids into liquids, and of liquids into vapours; and conversely.
SECT. IV. Describe the laws of equivalent proportions by a series of compounds in one of the following substances: 1. Nitrogen. 2. Sulphur. 3: Iron.
SECT. V.-Describe a process by which one of the following chemical substances may be disengaged, and explain by a diagram or by a chemical equation the changes which take place in the act of disengaging it: 1. Hydrogen. 2. Nitric Acid. 3. Phosphorus.
SECT. VI.-Describe experiments illustrative of the chemical properties of one of the following substances: 1. Oxygen. 2. Carbonic Acid. 3. Chlorine.
Write the first line of your first answer as a specimen of copy-setting in large-hand, and the first line in your second answer as a specimen of copy-setting in small-hand.
SECT. I.-Write a theme on one of the following subjects: 1. The example of the teacher, however good in other respects, is of little avail unless love be the chief feature in it. 2. Other things, besides the gravity of the offence, are to be taken into account in the punishment of a child. 3. The teacher should be what the children ought to be.
SECT. II.-1. Show, by an example, how you would teach boys to write out a sum in the rule of three.
2. Show, by an example, how a sum in subtraction of decimals should be written out so as to show the reason of every step in the working of it.
3. Explain fully the method you would adopt in teaching book-keeping, and give examples of entries in the different books you would use.
SECT. III.-1. By what steps may a child best be led to form for itself the idea of a country from a map?
2. The working man's geography has been described as the knowledge of things in other countries of like kind with those familiar to him in his own. Give the outline of a lesson in geography according to this idea of it.
SECT. IV.-1. Show, by means of a diagram and an example, what you think the best method of using the black-board in teaching history.
2. What are the advantages of teaching history by centuries? Give the abstract of a lesson on some century of English History.
3. The working man's history has been described as "the knowledge of things in former times of like kind with those familiar to him in his own." Give the outline of an historical lesson according to this idea of it.
SECT. V.-Write the abstract of a lesson on one of the following subjects:-From the 4th Reading Lesson Book of the Irish Commissioners, Sections I. and IV.: 1. On the Nature and Habits of Quadrupeds; 2. On Rich and Poor; 3. On Capital. From the 4th Reading Lesson Book of the British and Foreign School Society: 1. On the Crusades; 2. On Rain and Snow; 3. On Mollusca. From M'Culloch's "Course of Reading:" 1. On Iron; 2. On Sulphur; 3. On Nitre.
SECT. VI.-1. Describe a group of desks and benches.
2. Describe a gallery.
3. Describe what has been called the tripartite arrangement of a school.
4. Write out a few simple rules, with concise reasons for each, such as might be hung up in a schoolroom, about ventilation.
Translate into English literally
Multas ad res perutiles Xenophontis libri sunt; quos legite, quæso, studiosè, ut facitis. Quàm copiosè ab eo agricultura laudatur in eo libro qui est de tuenda re familiari, qui Economicus inscribitur! Atque, ut intelligatis nihil ei tam regale videri quàm studium agri colendi, Socrates in eo libro loquitur (is made to say in conversation) cum Critobulo, Cyrum minorem, regem Persarum, præstantem ingenio atque imperii gloriâ, cùm Lysander Lacedæmonius, vir summæ virtutis, vénisset ad eum Sardis, eique dona a sociis adtulisset, et cæteris in rebus communem (civil) ergo Lysandrum atque humanum fuisse, et ei quemdam conseptum (enclosed) agrum diligenter consitum ostendisse: cùm autem admiraretur Lysander et proceritates (height) arborum, et directos in quincuncem ordines, et humum subactam atque puram, et suavitatem odorum qui afflarentur e floribus, Cyrum respondisse: Atqui ego omnia ista (neuter plural used as substantive) sum dimensus: mei sunt ordines, mea descriptio; multæ etiam istarum arborum meâ manu sunt satæ."
SECT. I.-1. Parse each of the words printed in italic, as regards both accidence and syntax. SECT. II.-1. Give the derivation of each of the following words: studiosè, copiosè, agricultura, familiaris, regalis, ingenium, virtus, communis, humanus, quincunx.
2. Find illustrations from the foregoing passage for each of the following rules: (a) The accusative case followed by the infinitive mood. (b) Copulative conjunctions unite like cases, moods, and tenses. (c) The name of a place in the accusative after a verb signifying motion. (d) When the accusative and dative follow the same verb, the accusative expresses the more immediate object of the action denoted by the verb.
SECT. III.-1. "Mei sunt ordines: multæ istarum arborum meâ manu sunt satæ." Analyse each of these sentences into subject and predicate; and state the different relations of the possessive pronoun as shown by your analysis in each case.
2. Find instances in the foregoing passage which show the force of the following words in composition, and explain the full meaning of each compound; per, in, præ, ad, con, sub, de, di.
3. Find instances, as above, to illustrate the difference of meaning between in followed by the accusative and by the ablative respectively.
SECT. IV.-1. State the principal difference between the Latin and English language as regards the order of words in a sentence. Which language has the greater liberty? Why?
2. Render the following sentences into Latin: "You are like your master." "His mind is free from terror." "This house is 100 feet wide." "While Augustus was emperor, the temple of Janus was closed." "On that day the king, who had reigned ten years, died."
3. Write a short account of the reasons which led to the preservation of the Latin language after the fall of the Roman empire; and mention some of the principal effects of its use in modern times.
Translate into English, literally
"Primus equi labor est animos atque arma videre
20 Ille volat, simul arva fugâ, simul æquora verrens.'
SECT. I.-1. What names have been given to the metre in which these lines are written? Account for each of those names.
2. What feet are admissible in this metre?
Give an example of each foot from the passage. Mark
the scansion of the first three lines, noting the quantity over each syllable.
3. Give as many as you can recollect of the rules for ascertaining whether a syllable is long or short in Latin.
SECT. II.-1. What English metre has been employed as equivalent to the Latin metre in which the above passage is written? Give a line of that English metre. Of what sort of feet, and of how many of them, is it composed?
2. What English poets are best known as translators of classic works? Name the works so translated, and the age in which the poets lived.
3. Can you refer to any passage in another book upon the same subject as the foregoing. Write out as much of that other passage as you can recollect.
SECT. III.-1. What is meant by blank verse? Name English poets who have so written. How do modern times differ from ancient as regards this peculiarity? Can you account at all for the difference?
2. Explain, as you would to pupil-teachers, the fundamental distinctions between prose and poetry. 3. Look at lines 7 and 10. Why is the last syllable in audiat short, and in incipiat long? Can you find any other termination in the same two lines which illustrate the same rule? Pick out lines which exemplify the elision of the final syllable when a word ends with the letter m. Is the fifth foot of this metre distinguished by any peculiarity from the others?
SECT. IV.-1. Look at the word est in the first line: write out, in a column, the several nominative cases to it. Look at the sixth line: what are the antecedents to the pronoun hæc?
2. Parse (accidence and syntax) each of the following words: Bellantum (line 2), stabulo (1. 3), plause (1.5), depulsus (1. 6), exactis (1.9), volumina (1. 11), aperta (1. 13), segetes (1. 17).
3. Pick out from the passage: (a) Different forms of the copulative conjunction. (b) Adverb of place used to signify time. (c) Ablative case expressing the instrument (that by which something is done). (d) Same word used in different senses.
DRAWING. The papers on this subject are the same as those set to Female Students, some account of which is given at p. 11 in the January Number.
[The Committee of the National Society are thankful for any communication likely to assist SchoolManagers and Teachers, or otherwise promote the work of Church Education; but they do not necessarily hold themselves responsible for the opinions of the Editor's correspondents.]
To the Editor of the National Society's Monthly Paper.
NOTES ON OUR LORD'S MIRACLES.
VI. The Stilling of the Tempest. (Mark iv. 35-41; see also Matt. viii. 23-27, and Luke viii. 22-25.)
Our Lord, a man like ourselves, grew tired with long travel (John iv. 6), faint from want of food (Matt. iv. 2), fatigued by over-exertion. This day He has been speaking to a large multitude on the shore of the lake, probably the seven parables of Matt. xiii., from a boat (v. 1), as before (Luke v. 3), from "the small ship" probably which waited upon Him (Mark iii. 9). Weary and longing for quiet, He bids His disciples, as evening comes on, to take Him in the ship across the lake, away from the crowd. They lay a pillow for Him at the stern of the vessel (see Matt. viii. 20), and push off hastily, without observing that the sky is overcast.
Before they have crossed the lake a storm breaks upon them from the hills. Are they frightened? They are seafaring men, who know the lake well, and have often been in storms before. They keep the boat's head to the wind, &c., doing whatever needs to be done. But the storm increases; fiercer gusts scud across the lake; the waves, lashed into fury, break over into the boat; the shores are hidden by the driving rain. They
fight against the storm manfully. But in spite of their efforts the boat gradually fills, at last becomes unmanageable, and threatens to capsize with the roll of every wave. despair they turn to Christ. But He is still sleeping peacefully; so tired is He, the howling of the storm, the shouts of the boatmen, have not roused Him. "Master, save us, we perish." He rises, and with one word to calm their fears (Matt. viii.), speaks to the elements," Peace, be still." And at that command, as if they heard it, the angry waves sink down, the wind dies away, and the wide water now lies smooth and still, with the boat motionless upon it (see Ps. cvii. 23-32). Would you not have wondered to see it? So did they. "What manner of man is this ?" Would you not also have feared to be near one endowed with this Divine power? "they feared exceedingly.' Then He reproves them. It is natural to fear in a sinking ship, amid angry waves, with death staring one in the face. But yet ought they to have feared? was it possible for that ship to go to the bottom? "Fear not," said the great Roman to the shipmaster who was trembling for the safety of his vessel, "thou hast Cæsar for thy passenger.' Brave words, but applicable to none but Jesus Christ. However high the tempest rose, it was impossible that the ship which carried Him should sink. 35. "Unto the other side" of the lake.
36. "Sent away the multitude;" wishing now to be alone, as after other labours (Mark vi. 31, 46; Matt. xiv. 23, and xxi. 17). Those who can, however, still follow Him.
They took Him," not into the vessel, for He had already entered it (v. 1), but across the water, 'as He was" without further preparation for the passage of the lake. 37. "A great storm." Mountain lakes are peculiarly liable to sudden storms like this, which come down the gorges from the hills. Sailing vessels are seldom used upon them.
40. "Why are ye so fearful?" Their fears have not infected Him. How calmly He speaks. This is more than presence of mind. He feared His Father's wrath (Matt. xxvi. 39). But no fear of created being is related of Him.
"How is it that ye have no faith?" i.e. none ready to their need. Some faith they had hidden in their heart: "O ye of little faith" (Matt.), "where is your faith" (Luke).
41. "They feared exceedingly." This fear is not reproved, is of another kind to the fear of v. 40. That was terror, or the instinctive fear of danger, which man shares with the brutes, and which debases the mind. This was religious awe, which elevates and ennobles.
Lesson 1.-" What manner of man is this?" &c. Will the sea listen to the drowning sailor? Did it obey the Danish king? (see Gleig's History of England, p. 45.) He who made it alone governs it (Job xxxviii. 11; Ps. lxxxix. 9, and xciii. 4). We see Christ's power over the disorders and terrible phenomena in nature, tempests, earthquakes, lightning, &c.
a distant haven, a haven of rest.
Lesson 2.-" All thy waves and storms are gone over me" (Ps. xlii. 7). What are meant by storms here and at Ps. lxxxviii. 7. Life is a voyage across the world's sea, to When we least expect it, storms of affliction overtake We must then fly to Christ. He will send a great calm, if not in the world without, at least in our hearts; He will say, "Peace, be still" (Is. xxvi. 3).
Again, the Church is like a ship, sailing across the world. At baptism we entered this ark. Her storms are persecutions, such as that of Saul (Acts viii. 1), of Herod (Acts xii. 1), and of the Roman emperors. But Christ is with her (Matt. xxviii. 20), nay in her always. He seems perhaps to sleep and not “to care,” and men think the ship will perish. But it cannot sink (see Matt. xvi. 18). Christ does care for her (Acts ix. 5).
I. Name, &c.
NOTES OF LESSONS ON NORTHUMBERLAND.
1. Before the time of the Roman dominion in Britain this part of the country was inhabited by the tribes called Ottadini and Brigantes. The former dwelt in the northern, and the latter in the southern part of the present county.
2. Under the Romans it was included in the province of Valentia.
3. During the Saxon Heptarchy this county was comprised in the kingdom of Northumbria, which included all the land north of the rivers Humber and Mersey that was in England, and part of what is now in Scotland.
4. From the latter name, i.e. Northumbria, the present one is derived.
5. It means land north of the Humber.
6. Previous to the Norman Conquest, and even later, the county of Northumberland was reckoned to belong to Scotland.
II. Physical Notes.
1. Boundaries.-On the north by Scotland, on the east by the German Ocean, on the south by Durham, and on the west by Scotland and Cumberland.
The River Tweed and the Cheviot Hills form the boundary-line between Northumberland and Scotland; and the River Tyne forms part of the boundary between Northumberland and Durham.
2. Area.-1,249,299 acres; 1952 square miles.
3. Position. The most northern county in England.
4. It is a maritime county.
5. Islands on the coast:
a. Holy Isle, or Lindisfarne. This name is derived from the circumstance that
B. Ferne Islands. A noted resort of the eider-duck and other sea-birds. The
6. Mountains.-Part of the Penine Range, and the Cheviot Hills. These are situate in the western part of the county, and form the watershed of it.
7. Rivers.-1. Tweed; 2. Till, right-hand tributary to the Tweed; 3. Alne; 4. Coquet; 5. Wansbeck; 6. North Tyne, and 7. South Tyne, which, when they unite, are called, 8. The Tyne.
These all flow in an easterly direction, and into the German Ocean.
8. Climate. Very changeable, but the air is healthful.
9. Soil. Various. In the east, corn and meadow land: in the west, heaths and barren soil. Timber is plentiful. It is for the most part an agricultural county.
a. Some quantity of lead is produced.
B. In the south-east is part of the Northumberland and Durham coal-field. Coal is principally shipped to London.
7. Iron, found in the neighbourhood of Newcastle.
11. Manners, &c.-The customs, words, and habits of the people resemble those of the Lowlands of Scotland.
III. Folitical Notes.
1. Divisions.-Two, northern and southern.
2. Employment of the People.-Agricultural labour in the north; manufacturing in towns; mining in south-east.
a. Great North of England, running into Scotland.
B. Newcastle and Carlisle, between these towns.
4. Number of Houses.-1. Inhabited, 47,737; 2. Uninhabited, 2064; 3. Building, 386. Total, 50,187.
5. Population in 1851, 303,568; being 149,515 males, and 154,053 females,-155 to a square mile.
6. Diocese. In the diocese of Durham.
7. Parliamentary Boroughs.-1. Newcastle; 2. Berwick-upon-Tweed; 3. Morpeth; 4. Tynemouth.
8. Other Towns.-1. Alnwick; 2. Hexham.
9. Members of Parliament.-Ten in all, namely:
a. The northern division of the county
B'. The southern division of the county
IV. Principal Towns.
a. On the River Tyne. From this it is genearlly called Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
c. Its present name was taken from a castle which was built by Robert Duke of
d. This town is the largest and most handsome in the North of England.
e. It is now the county town.
f. It is supposed to have been a Roman station.
g. It was called by the Romans, Pons Elii.
h. Before the Norman Conquest it belonged to the Scots.
i. Historical events :
a'. In 1292 John Baliol did homage to Edward I. for the Scottish crown at Newcastle.
B. Edward Baliol did the same to Edward III. in 1334.
7. It was made a borough by Richard II.
8. Charles I. was brought here by the Scottish army after surrendering to them at Newark, A.D. 1646.
k. The Roman walls. These walls were built across the country from Newcastle to Carlisle, at different times, for the purpose of keeping out the Picts and Scots, as the uncivilised inhabitants of the northern part of this island were called, who made frequent inroads upon the southern and more cultivated part, and committed many depredations. They were in all three in number. The first was built of mud by the Roman general Agricola, A.D. 80. The second was built of stone by the Emperor Adrian, A.D. 120; and the other by the Emperor Severus, A.D. 210. These walls were fortified. There were 23 forts on the line of these walls, and 14 more near them. It required about 14,000 foot, and 900 horse soldiers to guard this line of fortifications. The commander of these troops was called Dux Britanniarum, i.e. the Duke of Britain. Very little now remains of these walls; but they can be traced in several places.
7. Manufactures of glass and machinery.
m. This town ranks as fifth in importance for commerce in England.
n. Exports: coal, salmon, and grindstones. The latter are procured from Gateshead, the suburb of Newcastle, and on the south side of the Tyne, in the county of Durham.
o. Population in 1851, 87,784.
a. Stands on the River Alne.
b. Derives its name from the River Alne, and the Latin word vicus, a street or town; therefore it means the town on the River Alne.
c. It was formerly the county town.
d. Historical events:
a. Malcolm III., king of Scotland, was slain whilst besieging its castle, A.D. 1093.
B'. William the Lion was taken prisoner while he was besieging the castle, and was detained by Henry II. till he gave security for 100,0007. as his ransom, in A.D. 1174.
7. The town was burnt in A.D. 1215.
e. The castle is the residence of the Duke of Northumberland.
f. Population in 1851, 6231.
a. On the River Tweed, hence mostly called Berwick-upon-Tweed.
b. Stands in a detached part of the county; being separated from the remainder of the county by a large portion of the county of Durham, which is also detached.
c. It is the most northern town in England.
d. Owing to its position, it has been the scene of many remarkable events.
a. Edward I. took the town with great slaughter, and held a parliament in it, A.D. 1296.
B'. Bruce re-took it in the year 1318.
y'. It ceased to have connection with Scotland, A.D. 1502.
d'. By treaty between Edward VI. and Mary Queen of Scots it was declared to be a free town.
e. It is reckoned as belonging to England, but yet as being a distinct liberty, having a small district attached to it.
In all official documents applicable to this town, it is mentioned distinctly by name; e.g. "A Form of Prayer to be used in all churches and chapels throughout those parts of the United Kingdom called England and Ireland, and in the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed," &c.
f. Noted for its salmon fishery in the River Tweed.