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under whose guidance the restoration of the temple and of the worship of God was effected (Ezra iii. 5).
5. Of the next two emblems (ch. v.), that of the flying roll (v. 1-4) represents God's judgments against theft and swearing; that of the ephah (v. 5-11), His judgments against some other iniquity prevailing at that time (v. 8), which is to be removed from amongst His people into a far distant land.
6. In chapter vi. are contained the last two visions, that of the four chariots (v. 1-8), and that of the crowns (v. 9-15). The first of these two seems to represent some execution of God's wrath upon His enemies; but who those enemies specially were, or how His wrath against them was executed, it is difficult to say with certainty. The latter emblem is one of great beauty and significance. Certain Jews had arrived at Jerusalem from Babylon, bringing from their fellow-countrymen gold and silver as a free-will offering for the building of the temple. Of this the prophet was bidden to make crowns, and after setting them upon the head of Joshua, the high-priest, to deposit them, as a votive offering, in the temple (v. 10, 11, 14). By this symbolic action Joshua is set forth as the type of One far greater than himself-of the Man whose name is the Branch-Jesus Christ, who should build the true temple of God, and combine in His own person, as Melchisedec of old, the kingly and the priestly offices* (compare Gen. xiv. 18; Ps. cx. 1, 4; Is. xxii. 24; Matt. xvi. 18; Heb. iii. 1, 3; vii. 1-3). Moreover, the dedication of these crowns as a votive offering in the temple was intended as a sign that those who were then far off, i.e. the Gentiles, typified doubtless by the Jews who had come from Babylon, should one day acknowledge the royal dignity of Jesus Christ, and with the Jews help to build up the spiritual temple in which God dwelleth (v. 14, 15: see Is. lx. 10; 1 Cor. xii. 13; Gal. iii. 28). In this there may be a tacit reference to the fact, then vividly impressed on the minds of the Jews, that they had themselves rejected the assistance of the heathen in the building of the temple (Ezra iv. 3); and it may have been intended to teach them, that however right that rejection of their assistance was then, yet hereafter, and in the spiritual temple, Jews and Gentiles would be fellowbuilders, members of the same body, and partakers together of God's promise in the Gospel (Eph. ii. 13, 19-22; iii. 6).
7. The occasion of the prophecy in chapters vii. and viii. (which is evidently a continuous prophecy, see vii. 3, 5; viii. 19) was a special mission, perhaps from the Jewish captives still in Babylon, to inquire of the prophets whether the fasts, instituted in memory of the burning of their temple, and its attendant calamities, which had been observed all through their captivity (vii. 5), should be continued any longer, seeing that the fortunes of Jerusalem were improving, and the destroyed temple was rising again from its ashes (v. 1-3). In answer, Zechariah is instructed to tell them that these fasts were self-imposed, and that they had been hypocritically observed (v. 4-6); that the occasion of their being instituted was the punishment of their fathers' sins (v. 7, 11-14); and that the thing really well pleasing to God would be their own conversion from sin (v. 8.10). The prophet is directed to add to these reproofs a promise of mercy, announcing to Jerusalem the return of prosperity and peace (viii. 1-8); assuring the people that the blight and famine by which their neglect of the temple had been punished (Hag. i. 6, 9, 11) should shortly give place to plenty (v. 9-15: see Hag. ii. 15-19); that on their repentance, the fasts, which they had kept in memory of the great outstanding facts of their captivity,† should be changed into feasts of joy and gladness (v. 16-19); and lastly, that the Church of the Lord should one day be enlarged by the addition of many nations, converted by their means (v. 20-23).
A COUNTRY VICAR.
ON THE PURCHASE OF SCHOOL REQUISITES BY SCHOOL CHILDREN.
St. Martin's School, Worcester.
SIR,-As my letter on the above subject, which appeared in your number for July 1853, was the occasion of several private inquiries to me on different points of detail, I am inclined to think that some further account of our proceedings may not be unacceptable to many of your readers.
*This combination of the two offices was not permitted among the Jews. See the case of Uzziah, 2 Chron. xxvi. 18.
The fast of the fourth month was observed in memory of the breaking up of the city of Jerusalem, after a siege of eighteen months, B.C. 588 (2 Kings xxv. 1-7; Jer. lii. 6, 7); that of the fifth month, in memory of the burning of the city and temple by Nebuzaradan in the same year (2 Kings xxv. 8-10; Jer. lii. 12, 13); that of the seventh month, in memory of the slaughter of Gedaliah, the ruler over the remnant of the people in the land (2 Kings xxv. 25; Jer. xli. 1-3); that of the tenth month, in memory of the commencement of the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 590 (2 Kings xxv. 1; Jer. lii. 4).
I must state that at the Government inspection in October 1852, the Rev. H. W. Bellairs strongly advised that the children should be allowed to purchase their own books. We adopted his suggestion, and at the commencement of the year 1853 began our sales. There was a little hesitation and difficulty at first on the part of a few, but it was of so trifling a character, that I should hardly have thought it worth while to name it at all, had I not reason to suppose that many hesitate to adopt our principle of insisting upon the purchase of all school requisites, solely from an exaggerated fear that their doing so would cause difficulty with the parents; and I am therefore glad of the opportunity of doing all I can to show the groundlessness of such an apprehension, by stating the result of my own experience to the contrary.
Our way of getting over the early difficulty, and one easily capable of general application, was by selling all our used, and therefore damaged books at a reduction from the rate at which we sold the new ones; and as these themselves were rated at a very reduced price, lower even than that on the Government schedules, our charge was not beyond the means of any.
But, and I say it advisedly, such excess of precaution proved needless: indeed, we have lately considered it advisable to raise the prices of several of the books 15 and 20 per cent in advance of the prices originally fixed; and many are really sold at the prime cost.
Every child has to purchase every article he requires, down to a steel pen or a stick of pencil; and in order that your readers may judge of the measure of success which has attended our endeavours, I append a list of the books and materials sold during the two years in which this system has been in force.
List of Books, &c. sold to the Boys of St. Martin's School, Worcester.
£ s. d.
£ s. d.
160 M'Culloch's 1st Book at d.
192 Ditto 2d
0 6 9
0 11 3
0 3 1
0 9 9
all at d.
all at d.
0 6 10
at lid. (old)
0 3 13
£22 3 3
I may mention in addition, that at Lady-day last a master from the Worcester School of Design was secured to instruct the children in the elements of drawing, and that the rate of payment for the three upper classes, who principally benefit by that instruction, has been advanced from 2d. to 24d.; but notwithstanding all, the school-pence for the year just closed, even exclusively of the additional halfpennies for the drawing, was up
wards of 57. more than in the preceding year; and at the Government inspection of 1853 we had 106 children present out of 141 on the books; while that in 1854 was attended by 132 out of 161.
My strong advice to all school-managers is-try the plan. If there are in the school a few really poor children whose parents cannot pay for the books, their cases can be relieved by an act of individual charity; for the sake of such few it is surely not worth while to pauperise a whole school by a gratuitous provision of books. I have had to deal: with no such cases, I must mention; for when once the book-buying system was in full work with us, every new comer, as a matter of course, fell in with our requirements.
But I must say a few words of caution to any who may be inclined to adopt the plan. Be in earnest, and persevere; insist upon the purchase as an obligation, and it will not be long before it is regarded as a privilege and a duty.—I am, &c.
PROVISION FOR OLD AGE.
SIR,-Allow me to thank your correspondent" W. L." in this month's Paper for drawing my attention to deferred annuities.
I have had the subject on my mind a long time; and I believe that many teachers, including myself, have been hoping that the Committee of Privy Council were preparing something in the shape of a Superannuation Fund for teachers (vide Minutes of Council, vol. for 1852-53, pp. 136-152); but such hopes are not realised yet.
"W. L's." seems an admirable and easy plan of securing "provision for old age,' and I consequently have resolved (D. V.) to apply my next and subsequent augmentation in that or a similar way.
I assume that the price of a copy of the Act referred to, and Mr. Tidd Pratt's "Saggestions," is the reason why your correspondent has recommended Associations of schoolmasters to procure them: he rightly thought them out of the reach of many teachers as individuals.
It just occurs to me that "W. L." would be doing a good service to teachers generally, but more especially to those who are isolated and prevented from distance joining associations, if he would make suitable short extracts to appear in your Paper, with your permission, accompanied with tables of premiums for ages ranging, say from 20 to 40, and annuities secured thereby at the ages of 50, 55, 60, and 65.—I am, &c.
SALARIES AND CERTIFICATE MONEY.
SIR,I quite agree with your correspondent that the system, so very prevalent among school-managers, of cutting down teachers' salaries on account of their certificates ought to be strongly reprobated. I notice an advertisement in the last Monthly Paper, “Total, including all emoluments, 1107. to 1207." On inquiry, I find that the real salary is 607, the remainder including the amount of the master's certificate and pupil-teachers' grants.
School-managers feel themselves perfectly justified now in inserting in their advertisements, "salary, including government grant for certificate and pupil-teachers," so much. But these grants are very uncertain; and their payment depends on so many conditions, that they have no right to be reckoned in a statement of yearly salary. And even if they were certain, school-managers have surely no right to estimate them in their remuneration, and cut down the fixed salaries because of them. They were intended for the benefit of the teacher, not of the school-managers; and are paid by their Lordships either, as in the case of certificate grants, for past extra labour and industry, or, as in the case of pupil teachers' grants, for extra daily labour out of school-hours. Yet schoolmanagers reduce the salaries of teachers for the very reason, above all others, why they should be raised, viz. that by extra talent or industry, or both combined, they have raised themselves above the average of their brethren, and so obtained certificates. Teachers' salaries are surely low enough as it is, without still further reducing them. Already we see advertisements in every educational paper offering salaries which make us blush for the men who can form such a low estimate of the teacher's worth. Even to married couples we find salaries of 407., 457., and 507, with a house and garden or "a small unfurnished cottage," offered; "the master to be able to play the harmonium and train a choir;" or "the master to be fully competent to play a small organ and take charge of the singing in Church." How, in the name of common sense and justice, is a man with a wife and perhaps a family of children to exist upon this? This is why we are daily losing the best men from the profession: they cannot live, they cannot get bread to eat. I believe there is more real destitution, more heart-sickening distress and anxiety of mind, and more hard struggling against positive hunger and want among school-teachers than any
other class of men. When will the country awaken to their merits and claims, and sce the glaring inconsistency of allowing the men to whom they are perfectly willing to cntrust the education of the future men and women of England, to whom they feel confident this work may be safely intrusted, to perish for want, or maintain through the best years of their life a constant daily battling with poverty and endeavours to live on next to nothing? These men are for the most part educated, they have been trained for their work; they work hard and zealously, and give all their energies of mind and body to their profession; yet they labour for far less than the mechanic or journeyman, for less even than the remuneration of many of the parents of their scholars. I am sure I ask for nothing unreasonable when I demand for them in the name of justice, in the name of humanity, and as a fit recompense for their valuable and self-denying efforts," a fairer year's wages for their hard year's work." JUSTICE.
SIR,-May I be allowed a small space in the Monthly Paper to bring to the notice of the friends of education the following circumstances connected with the last examination for Certificates of Merit? I know personally of three teachers in charge of schools, who attended for examination, and of whom the first, if unsuccessful, was to be dismissed from his school; the second was told by the manager that, if successful, whatever amount of augmentation grant he might become entitled to, his ordinary stipend should be reduced by that much; and the third was informed by the Commi tee of Council on Education that, by reason of his stipend being derived entirely from endowment, no augmentation grant would be made on account of any certificate that he might acquire.
Possibly the first case might be justified; but I think the two latter show that much as has been done for National schools and their teachers, there still exists in the promoters of the education of the poor, from the highest to the lowest, a spirit which, to say the least, is ungenerous. I should be sorry to be a grievance-monger; facts speak for themselves; let the impartial reader judge.--I am, &c.
H. D. H.
SIR,-In your February Number, one of your correspondents requests some information about needlework, as taught generally in girls' National schools. I send you herewith a time-table now used in my school, with a short treatise on the subject of needlework, which I hope may answer his purpose. —Yours, &c.
W. SPRANGEr White. Vicar of St. Just in Penwith.
Needlework, properly so called, is the art of using the needle; and is divided, generally speaking, into two classes, according the the kind of needle employed. These two kinds of needle are, the common needle and the knitting-needle. first kind of needlework there are three stages: the lowest or elementary branch of which consists in hemming, sewing, running, stitching, whipping, button-hole making, and two or three more; all admitting of different degrees of execution, from the coarsest of materials and mere cobbling, to the most delicate cambric muslin and the most beautiful of workmanship; but all consisting of mere mechanical work, requiring no ingenuity of the mind to devise, but only neat fingers to execute.
A higher branch of the same kind of needlework consists in what is called fixing. This requires neat fingers, like the first or elementary branch, but it requires also a clever head; for however beautifully the different parts of a garment may be individually hemmed or sewed to one another, if they are not properly fixed or fitted they will neither be pleasing to the eye nor pleasant to the wearer.
The highest branch of which this first kind of needlework consists is called the cutting out, and is the part requiring the greatest care and the most cleverness; for it requires not only neat fingers and a clever head, but a good pair of eyes to make allowances for shrinking and other variations that may take place between the raw material and the finished article-whether shirt, frock, or any thing else. A good cutter-out must be a neat worker and a good fixer, but she must be much more; for unless the different parts of a shirt or dress be rightly cut out, they will never make a good shirt or dress however nicely they may be fixed or however beautifully sewed together.
Besides these three branches in plain needlework, there are two more called making and embroidery, both very useful, and capable of being also very ornamental, but not admitting of the different orders of which plain work consists.
'The second kind of needlework is knitting, which scarcely admits of being divided into different departments, but depends for its proper execution more upon practice than any thing else. A beginner will require to be instructed in what is called the "bating"
in a stocking; but this is easily learnt, consisting merely in counting the required number of stitches, and not requiring any ingenuity of eyes or head.
* "Fancy work" includes any kind of needlework they bring from home, whether ornamental, as crochet, or useful, as articles of dress.
CANVASSING FOR QUEEN'S SCHOLARS.
SIR, A letter under this head from the Rev. Æneas B. Hutchison appeared in your paper for February. As I issued two circulars, one to the clergyman and another to the schoolmaster, it would seem that I am the person alluded to in Mr. Hutchison's letter. I enclose a copy of each circular, which I will thank you to publish with this letter.
As the Committee of Council decline all correspondence respecting Queen's Scholars, I presume the Queen's Scholars would remain uninformed of their success, unless the Principals of training schools conveyed to them an intimation to that effect.
The Committee of Council informed each Principal that the number of Queen's Scholars would be equal to all the vacancies in all the training schools. Unless the Queen's Scholars were instructed where to find vacancies, in case they were excluded from the institutions for which they were examined, they would have great trouble and difficulty in discovering where vacancies existed. Under these circumstances, it seems to me the issuing of circular No. 1 respecting Queen's Scholars, was simply carrying out what the Committee of Council expected at the hands of each principal, and what the nature of the case required.
With respect to circular No. 2, little need be said. The best of the unsuccessful candidates for Queen's Scholarships were selected by the Committee of Council as eligible for appointment to certain vacant exhibitions attached to this college. I presume it was necessary to obtain the consent of the young men before assigning exhibitions to them, and that it is not unnatural to add such explanations as may remove impediments to their acceptance of them.
Whether these circulars deserve the odium which your correspondent attaches to them, I leave to your readers to determine.—I am, &c. WILLIAM REED.
Training College, Caermarthen, 12th January, 1855.
has obtained a 2d Class
SIR,-I am to inform you that your pupil-teacher Queen's Scholarship, and that he is permitted to choose the institution at which he prefers to be educated for a schoolmaster.
The number of Queen's Scholars elected by my Lords of her Majesty's Privy Council on Education is just sufficient to fill up the vacancies in all the Training Colleges. Here 25 vacancies are reserved
for Queen's Scholars.
The terms are 217. per annum. The College will re-open on Saturday, the 27th instant. Should your pupil-teacher wish for a vacancy here, I will thank you to inform me as early as possible.-I am, &c. WILLIAM REED. The Master of School.
Training College, Caermarthen, 31st January, 1855. REV. SIR,-Will you have the kindness to inform me by return of post whether the late unsuccessful candidate for a Queen's Scholarship in is willing to accept an Exhibition of £ in this Institution? We have a limited number of exhibitions to be offered to the best of the unsuccessful candidates for Queen's Scholarships at the recent examination; and as immediate residence is required, the earliest applicants will be appointed. The acceptance of these exhibitions will not oblige the individual to take a school in Wales. His choice will be unfettered, and equally as free as that of students in Training Institutions in England. - I am, &c.