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cations, and he is all the more effective and useful for each increment of culture and personal power. Much has been done, much will still be done by men and women of deep consecration, whose intellectual power and furnishing have been but moderate; and their praise and reward are sure. But we do them no wrong, indeed we only say what they themselves would be quick to say, when we insist that, other things being equal the greater the mental power and the higher the training of the missionary, the larger, more sustained, and fruitful is the service. The question is sometimes raised whether the time has not come to introduce lay workers in large numbers into the missionary force. It is urged that in this day of open fields with vast populations accessible, the demand for missionaries outruns the probable, even the possible, supply of thoroughly trained, ordained laborers, and that in consequence there is no resource but to call in lay workers in great numbers. The urgency of the situation is obvious and conceded; the missionary force ought to be materially increased at once, to be doubled within the next five years. But the neces. sity or the expediency of calling in lay workers does not follow. Why should not the number of ordained laborers be greatly increased? Our colleges are full to overflowing with the choicest body of young men and women the sun ever shone upon. They are capable of this service; they are fitted for it; they can be won to it. Our theological seminaries can at once double the number they yearly train, if the men are found And our young men and women will come if the Christian public feel that they ough: to come. In truth, they are coming in unusual numbers; and we need only to foster and intensify the movement already begun, and the problem will be solved. The lis missionary will in the main do only such work as the native agency is prepared to do And it is far better, less expensive, and more effective, to leave this work to the native Christians. The missionary should always be a leader, a trainer of others, taking the oversight of native helpers whenever these can be secured. While the evangelist: force in any country cannot well be too large, the leaders and directors need not to many. And this is precisely the office of the missionary. China is to be evangelić by converted Chinamen. The missionary force initiates the movement and givest wise direction until the native forces suffice; and there its errand ends. This is to method of the early Church and of all successful missionary work. The activity and sense of responsibility of the native converts needs stimulus and constant develo ment; it is a mistake for a missionary to do anything which a native Christian is to to do and can be persuaded to do. And so we must still approve the rule who demands the ablest and the best for missionary service, and makes thorough cultuo and mental power important qualifications for the foreign field. 4. A fourth qualification, which is of acknowledged importance, is somewhat difficul: to define. It is practical in character, and may be designated as soundness of judg ment, or good sense. It affects the whole man, his spiritual life, his mental operation. his social relations, his efficiency in counsel and in service. Its absence is quickly moto and constitutes a defect which is fatal. Its presence often more than makes up i. want of genius or invention, and more than compensates for brilliancy and fertility" suggestion by the steadiness and quiet force with which it works towards its ends. It yields to its possessor a sane and clear discernment of the aims and methods of missionary work; the ability to see and accept facts and adjust himself to them; readio to appreciate his associates, native and foreign, and to coöperate with them in a sensitk and hearty way; a sober realization of what is possible and of what is necesso and the power of shaping his plans and efforts to them. This quality is perhaps in 3 special degree common among the people of this land, and goes far to make Ameria: missionaries, what thoughtful observers declare them to be, among the most practic and capable of all foreign laborers. And yet we cannot safely assume it to be * present; and it is needful to inquire for it, and a happy circumstance to find it. The ... foreign missionary field is no place for a visionary or conceited or impracticable man. The natural difficulties of the work are so great, the inevitable friction is so intense, that it is highly inexpedient to introduce any avoidable weakness into the missionary body itself. The founders of Massachusetts came to these bleak shores for a definite purpose, and they could not afford to admit to their colony any elements that were likely to defeat that purpose. We may praise or chide their aims; but we must own the practical wisdom, even the necessity of their rigid exclusion of whatever was likely to defeat their end. Quaker and Anabaptist and Liberal might be of the best and noblest, and somewhere had their place and rights. But the colony of Massachusetts Bay was not planted for such as them, and they must be content to seek their fortunes outside its bounds. Even so it is wise that the missionary force should be spared the burden of uncongenial, ill-balanced, and trouble-breeding associates; and missionary societies should be spared the fruitless expense of sending them abroad. We cannot pause to enumerate all the qualities which would make up an ideal missionary force. Nor is it needful. Enough has been said to show that certain qualifications are indispensable to success, that it is not every one who wishes to go abroad that can wisely be sent, and that it is demanded of Mission Boards that they look with care to the quality and equipment of the men and women they commission and support. III. The service is kingly, its demands are high and strict, its work is the grandest of man ever attempts, and its issue is as certain and glorious as the hopes of man and the * promises of God. It is nothing less than the building of Christ's kingdom throughout * the pagan and non-Christian world. The prophets and apostles, the martyrs and saints have wrought in it; the angels and all the heavenly host, with Gabriel and Michael, might well rejoice to attempt it. But it is not too high for men to render, since Christ summons them to the post. God makes no mistakes; and when he deals with * men by his Spirit and grace, there is no service to which they are not equal. He called * a Hebrew out of Mesopotamia and parted him from home and friends and taught him the high truths of heaven, and gave him an immortal name as the Father of the faithful. * He took a young shepherd of Midian and set him before kings, made him the * deliverer and lawgiver and ruler of his people, and wrote his name ineffaceably on the history of the world. When he wished to spread his kingdom in the earth he chose to fisherman and publicans for his followers, and made them apostles and heroes, the founders of the Church, the teachers of the nations. When he would reform the coro rupt and oppressive Church and inaugurate a new order of the ages, he took a Saxon :: monk, touched his heart and inspired his soul, and set him before princes to assert God's high claims and break the fetters which a thousand years had forged. When he would deliver England from a tyranny that threatened her ruin he raised up a Northto amptonshire squire and gathered about him men of like fearless faith, and set the name 2 of Cromwell and his Ironsides above the glory of Caesar and his conquering legions. : When he would arouse a sleeping Church to its neglected duty of preaching the gospel 2 to the pagan world, he touched the heart and illumed the mind of a humble English ... preacher and made of Carey the inaugurator of an epoch, the leader of his Church, 2 and an inspiring example to the century. And now, when a new era is dawning in - missionary work, when the doors of opportunity swing wide in every land, his gifts and guidance will not fail. The men shall match the call and the hour; and they shall enter every open door, and around the wide world shall preach the name and reap the harvests of our God. And the song of victory shall be the eternal song of heaven: “Blessing and honour and glory and power be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.”

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ANNUAL SURVEY OF THE WORK OF THE AMERICAN BOARD, 1891–92.

BY THE FOREIGN SECRETARIES, REV. N. G. CLARK, D.D., AND REv. JUDSON SMITH, D.D.

[Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Board, at Chicago, October 4, 1892.]

THE PACIFIC ISLANDS, THE CHINESE EMPIRE, AFRICA, AND
ASIATIC TURKEY.
[Secretary Smith's Department.]

This portion of the Annual Survey gives a brief review of the year's work in the twelve missions of the Board which are under my care—two in the Pacific Islands, three in Africa, four in the Chinese empire, and three in Asiatic Turkey. The present force in these missions consists of 322 foreign laborers, 16 of whom have gone out for the first time this year, and of 1,194 native laborers engaged mainly is pastors, preachers, and teachers. Four missionaries in these fields have died within the year: Mrs. Sanders, of the West African Mission, one of the two first women to enter this field; Mrs. Bartlett, of Smyrna, patient to the end under great and pro tracted suffering; Mrs. Kinnear, of the Foochow Mission, and Miss Bertha Smith, of Marsovan, each after three years of service. The death of Dr. Constantine, of Smyrna, for nearly thirty years in Christian work in behalf of his own people, § deeply lamented in the mission and in this land.

THE PACIFIC ISLANDS.

The raising up of an educated native ministry for the native churches and for the mission supported by these churches in the Gilbert Islands is the main feature of wo work in the Hawaiian Islands, still under the care of the Board. Of the nine who graduated from the Training School this year, all volunteered for service in the Gilbert Islands, and three have been sent thither. Dr. Hyde earnestly asks for an associate to share his labors and to visit more widely among the native churches.

The story of the year from Micronesia brings tidings of joy and enlargement hero, of weakness and discouragement there, of enlarging openings and of a diminishing force. The Star was thoroughly overhauled last year at San Francisco, and is said to be in as good condition as when first launched. The Robert W. Logan is renderin; the service for which she was built in a very satisfactory way, relieving the Star to: service elsewhere and bringing the missionaries at Ruk into closer connection with to Mortlocks and the islands in the Ruk Lagoon of which they have supervision. " has long seemed necessary that some similar facility should be furnished for the Gilbert Islands; and at last it has been decided to build a vessel of about the same tonnage as the Robert W. Logan, with auxiliary steam-power, to enable Mr. Walkup to spend all his time in the islands and look after the work as it needs at each point This craft, which has just been launched at San Francisco, bears the name Hiro" Bingham, in honor of the veteran member of the mission, who has rendered thiro six years of missionary service in behalf of the Gilbert Islands and now crowns it als by giving to this people the entire Bible in their own tongue. The last year's rep" from this group shows an increase in church membership of more than twenty perce". while the pupils in the schools have almost doubled in numbers. It is a day of specio opportunity in these islands, when by proper effort the gospel may soon be made evo

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where triumphant. The raising of the British flag over the group, just reported, may be expected to have a beneficial effect upon our work there. The voyage of the Star gave no time for the annual tour among the Marshall Islands, and thus no recent tidings are at hand. The Training Schools and the Girls' School for these two groups, located at Kusaie, report the usual attendance and progress for the year. Dr. Pease finds it imperative for him to return to this country next summer, and a successor for the very important work he has administered has been sought for two years and has not yet been found. A better state of things exists in the Ruk district than for several years past, due in great measure to the more constant supervision made possible by the A'obert W. Logan. Mrs. Logan and Miss Kinney have a fine building for the Girls' School, with large classes and encouraging progress, and they plan to give no little time hereafter to direct evangelistic work among women, of which there is great need. Mr. Snelling's hands are more than full with the management of the Boys' Training School and the supervision of the churches and schools, and an associate is earnestly called for at once. Ponape still remains in the hands of the Spaniards; desperate fighting, in which, as usual, the natives hold the field, has just been reported; our missionaries are still in exile, and Christian work of all kinds on this island is for the time suspended. Spain has replied to the demands of our government, promising reparation for losses

connected with Mr. Doane's imprisonment five years ago, assenting to the presence g *>

of our missionaries in Ponape, provided they will abstain from all interference with

the government, but denying reparation for the destruction of mission property at Oua of two years since, on the ground that the missionaries were aiding the natives in their

rebellion and the burning of their houses was a military necessity. Our government

refuses to entertain the charge against our missionaries, and insists on due indemnity; and it is hoped that the demand for just and prompt reparation will soon be made so clear and strong as to be irresistible. CHINA. China is often spoken of as the synonym of rigid conservatism. Undoubtedly the temper of the people is much more steady and even than we are accustomed to see in

the Occident; they hold to the good they have gained with great tenacity and are slow

to accept the necessity of change. But it would be far from the facts to speak of China

as stationary, and of the life of her people as stagnant. Those who live in the empire,

and are conversant with the facts, are aware that this great empire is in motion; that

against her will, almost without her knowledge, the currents of progress which sweep so powerfully through all Western life are lifting her up and bearing her away from all familiar moorings toward the goal of a New Age and a New World. The thickening net of telegraph wires upon her provinces is one sign. The railway from Tientsin to the sea, with the plans for a system which shall cover the empire, is another

sign. The imperial proclamation of recent date, defining the character and aims of Christian missionaries, declaring them to be the teachers of virtue, and commanding the people to receive and treat them as their guests and friends; this is a further proof. The riots and mobs against foreigners have a like significance. When

the Christian religion was unmolested in the old Roman empire, it was weak and relatively unknown. The thickening of persecutions, the growing fierceness of opposition, the increasing crowds of Christians that were swept to the lions, the flames, and the sword, gave sure proof of the incurable weakness of Paganism, and of the resistless growth of the true faith. This token of the irrepressible conflict between the gospel and false faiths of China already appears. The action of our government, in open violation of treaty stipulation, excluding the Chinese from our shores, seems inexplicable; and it can but react in some degree to hinder the work of our missionaries and to lower

our national influence at Peking.

The South China Mission, heretofore called the Hong Kong Mission, has transomti its centre to Canton; has been reinforced, and is broadening its plans to comeson: to its enlarging opportunities. The most notable fact in connection with this field the current year is the generous way in which the Chinese Christians in this country cotribute to support native preachers and teachers in the field. During the last year their gifts from New England alone have reached the sum of $460.

The Shansi Mission is in a state of happy internal union and healthy growth. The two main stations are well manned, and a third centre has been opened during this year. The district surrounding the mission is thickly strewn with populous villages att cities, easily accessible; and the people exhibit a friendly feeling toward the mission. aries, which increases as they come better to understand the character and aims of the strangers. The church, the schools, the medical work, are already centres of a positive and growing influence, and the future is full of promise.

The Foochow Mission, like so many other fields, reports a diminished force facing a prosperous and expanding work. The long period of faithful seed-sowing seems abor to be succeeded by a bountiful harvest. Larger numbers were received to the churches last year than in any one year before; inquirers are numerous, both at Foochow and in the interior, and the opportunities for evangelistic work are only limited by the numbers and strength of the missionary force. An increasing interest in education is remarked, and the accommodations of the Boys' High School and the Girls' Boarding School are taxed to the utmost, while the common schools have gained perceptibly in attendance

and interest under more systematic visitation. The medical work of this mission is o

well established in three important centres, and the number of patients receiving trealment in dispensary and hospital last year reached the large aggregate of 18,080. The new missionary families and three single women are urgently needed for this field to coming year. In the North China Mission the Board probably finds its largest opportunity, if * consider the numbers accessible and their relations to the nations of which they are part. It is probably within the facts to say that surrounding the seven stations of to mission are 15,000,ooo souls, dependent on the agencies of this mission for all the ligh: of the gospel they can receive. When we add to this the fact that Peking, the capia of the empire, and Tientsin, one of the greatest commercial centres, and Pao-tings. the capital of one of the most important provinces, are among the stations of this mo sion, the greatness and significance of the opportunity are obvious. During the thiro

two years since our work on this field began solid foundations have been laid; "|

churches report a present membership of 1,270, 208 being added last lear; a native agency of seventy-four, including three pastors and twenty-nine preachers, is in th:

field; a College and High School for Boys, and two Boarding Schools for Girls gaol

117 pupils; a wide field has been evangelized; and a notable contribution made to to: work of Bible translation and the production of textbooks and a Christain siteratio The past year has been marked by cheering proof of growth in the evangelistic won. by large additions to the churches, and by the increasing zeal and efficiency of to: native agency. The effort to put the College of the mission, located at Tung-cho, oh”

permanent basis, with suitable buildings and equipments, occupies a leading place into o hope and plans of the mission. The sum of $50,000 would instantly solve the who:

problem. Where is the man or woman who will see that this is done, and done * once?

AFRICA.

The attention and interest of the European States, and in a large degree of the whole civilized world, are still powerfully drawn toward Africa and its political, cof mercial, and religious development. The partition of the continent among the o

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