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The North China Mission was opened at Tientsin in 1860, and has steadily expanded until it now occupies seven strong stations in the very heart of the empire, the most of them in great cities like Peking, Tientsin, Pao-ting-fu, and Tung-cho, giving easy access to a population exceeding 30,000,000 souls, to whom it alone can bring the gospel message.

The educational work of this important mission from the beginning has kept even pace with the development of native churches and the expansion of the field, and is now thoroughly organized and well in hand. The Boys' Boarding School, opened in Tung-cho about seven years after the organization of the mission, developed slowly but naturally into the central High School of the mission, and has at length become the main source of supply for the Theological Seminary located also at Tung-cho, in which the native preachers of the mission are trained.

During the last nine years two classes of young men, eighteen in all, have gone through the High School and the Theological School, and are now engaged in the work of the church. Three of these young men have already been ordained, and three others are recommended for ordination, as pastors and evangelists. These cultured and consecrated young men are living witnesses to their own people of what Christian education can accomplish, and help them to realize that Christianity is not a foreign exotic, but a tree that can strike deep root even in the soil of China. The growth of evangelistic work and of the opportunities for evangelistic work in all the field has created a demand for a large number of native preachers and for preachers thoroughly equipped, a demand which already far exceeds the supply. The proper development of the work of the whole mission is at this time in a peculiar degree dependent on the immediate and adequate supply of this demand.

In view of these facts the mission two years since unanimously voted to extend the course of study and otherwise enlarge this High School to the full rank of a College, and the Board, at its Annual Meeting in New York, voted unanimously that it “most heartily approves and endorses the plans of the mission for enlarged educational work at Tung-cho, and requests the Prudential Committee to take the necessary steps for carrying these plans into effect at the earliest possible moment.” Under these instructions the Committee at an early day authorized the mission to purchase a suitable site for the College and made a grant for this purpose ; but did not feel warranted in providing any further part of the funds required.

In view, however, of the need of immediate action, if we would not let slip a great opportunity in our mission work in China, and in view also of present favorable conditions, the Prudential Committee now makes an urgent appeal for special gifts additional to all regular contributions to the Board, including the $100,000 extra planned for at Pittsfield, to provide Tung-cho College with the needed equipment for its great work. A conservative estimate of what is needed has been made by the missionaries in charge of the College, amounting to $50,000, distributed as follows: $5,000 for a suitable site outside of the city walls ; $20,000 for a central college building containing chapel, recitation-rooms,

and laboratories ; $15,000 for two halls to accommodate 200 students; and $10,000 for missionaries' residences.

The College is already a vital agency in the work of the mission ; its needs are an essential part of the needs of this great mission. The call for its due enlargement is practically a call for the evangelization of the 30,000,000 souls to whom it alone can furnish the needed Christian preachers and teachers for the generations to come.



The Cesarea station is in the central portion of Asia Minor, and covers a territory of more than 45,000 square miles. The city itself, which gives the station its name, is one of the oldest cities in the world. In Young's Concordance, under the word Armenia, we read : “B.C. 1827, accession of Aram, who carries his arms into Asia Minor and founds Mazaca, that is, Cesarea Cappadocia.” When our Saviour was a young man living in Nazareth (about A.D. 15) Tiberius Cæsar made Cappadocia a Roman province, and the name of the city was changed to Cesarea. The ancient names of the countries covered wholly or in part by the station were Cappadocia, Lycaonia, Pontus, and Galatia. A late Greek historian claims, on the authority of Gregory of Nyssa, about A.D. 350, that Christianity was brought to this place by the soldier who pierced our Saviour's side. Converted by the wonderful sights at the crucifixion, he resigned his position in the Roman army, returned to his home in Cesarea, preached Christ and him crucified with great success, was ordained by Peter as the first bishop of Cappadocia, and died the death of a martyr. We know that Paul introduced Christianity into Lycaonia and Galatia.

In or near Cesarea lived St. Basil and several other celebrated Greek fathers, and about A.D. 490 Andreas of Cesarea wrote “the first entire and connected commentary on the Apocalypse.”l

The population of the district connected with the station may be roughly estimated at 2,300,000. Of these, 2,000,000 are Mohammedans and 300,000 nominal Christians, about equally divided between the two churches, Greek and Armenian. The first efforts at reviving the spiritual life of these churches date from 1823, when an agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society brought here the Word of God in the language of the people. Not the friends but the eneinies of Protestant Christianity sent the first preachers to Cesarea. In 1839 two teachers were banished from Constantinople to a monastery near this city. They brought with them their principles and their tongues. After about a year they returned to Constantinople, but good seed had fallen on good ground. Again in 1845 another man, a priest, was banished to the same monastery. He preached with such success that the bishop of Cesarea wrote to his superior in Constantinople: “If you do not call this man back, we here shall all become Protestants."

In 1849 a Protestant preacher was sent from Aintab for a short visit, and the next year the Rev. Mr. Johnston, of Smyrna, spent a few days here, and both

1 Alford's Revelation, $ 68.

gave encouraging reports. In 1852 one of the men who were banished to Cesarea thirteen years before revisitel the place, and from thai time it was

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occupied as an out-station till the arrival of Messrs. J. N. Ball and W. A. Farnsworth, June 16, 1854, when it became a regular station. A little band of about

twenty, old and young, welcomed the missionaries with tears of joy. Two weeks later (July 2) the first Protestant evangelical church was formed. From the first it has enjoyed steady growth. It now numbers more than 650 members, but nearly two thirds of these reside in out-stations where churches have not yet been formed.

In 1865 one of the original members of the church was ordained as its pastor, and three years later the church assumed his entire support. Other churches have been formed as follows: at Yozgat, in 1858; at Moonjoosoon, in 1869; at Soongoorloo, in 1870; at Injirli, in 1875, and at Istanoze about the same time. Five of these churches have pastors, all natives of the Cesarea district. In 1890 there were received to these churches 104, making the membership 1,083. There are within the station 33 preaching places, with an aggregate attendance of more than 4,000. In 1890 the people raised for the preaching of the gospel more than $2,000, or $2 for each church member. The work of education reports 40 common schools, with 1,800 pupils; 3 high schools for boys, with 9ı pupils ; I girls' boarding school, with 69 boarding and 20 day scholars ; and 2 kindergartens, with some 80 pupils. For about three years (1858–61) Yozgat and vicinity was a separate station, occupied by Messrs. Ball and Jewett. The missionaries and assistant missionaries at Cesarea have been, in all, 23 ; namely, Rev. and Mrs. J. N. Ball, 1854-58; Rev. and Mrs. J. Y. Leonard, 1857-60; Rev. W. H. Giles, 1864-67, and Mrs. Giles, 1864-76; Rev. and Mrs. Lyman Bartlett, 1867-84 ; Miss A. M. Griswold (Mrs. Dwight), 1869–73; Rev. and Mrs. J. O. Barrows, 1869-75; Rev. and Mrs. Daniel Stover, 1876-80. Miss M. E. Brewer came to Cesarea in 1888, but was almost immediately transferred to Sivas. Of the nine now occupying the station, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Farnsworth arrived in 1854 ; Miss S. A. Closson in 1867; Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Fowle in 1878; Miss F. E. Burrage in 1880; Dr. and Mrs. W. S. Dodd in 1886; and Miss J. Zimmer in 1890.

The growth of the station may be seen by looking at a few statistics. In 1856 the native laborers were 5; in 1860, 23; in 1870, 74. Adherents were reported in 1856, 162 ; in 1870, 1,032 ; in 1890, 4,558. Pupils were, in 1856, 76; in 1870, 429; and in 1890, 2,089. Church members were, for the same dates, 22, 195, and 1,083 respectively. The amount raised by the people was for the first date less than $100; in 1870, $880; and in 1890, $4,440.

Our fellow-workers, whether Armenian or Greek, have, with rare exceptions, been true helpers in the Lord's work, and for the last eight years they have cooperated with the missionaries on terms of perfect equality in all matters pertaining to the evangelistic work and to common-school education.

The health record of the station is worthy of note. No missionary or assistant missionary has died at the station, and only one when connected with the station.

Touring has from the first been regarded as an important part of the work of the missionaries. This enables us to keep in touch with our fellow-laborers and with the congregations throughout the field. The itinerary of the senior missionary shows travel with horses amounting to something more than 59,000 miles. Since 1863, by the generosity of friends known and unknown, first in Rockford,

Ill., and then in other places, we have been furnished with wagons, which have aided much both in the ease and the efficiency of this branch of work.

When, in 1854, the missionaries went to Cesarea, they did so at some risk and against the protest of a British consul. That official, who was their natural political protector, said : “They have no right to go at such a time as this ;' and added : “If they do go, and the Turks cut their heads off, I will not interfere.” But they felt that the Lord was saying, “Go forward !” and they did so, trusting in Him; and it proved to be just the very best time to occupy the post, for they were regarded as English, and the English were then helping the Turks in their war with Russia. The Lord protected them from dangers seep and unseen. On two occasions bullets were fired through the iron-lined window-blinds of their house, one of them passing just over the heads of our good father Dr. Dwight and of the missionary who was conversing with him. The danger from robbers has often, indeed generally, been great, but all have been kept from personal violence, and on only two occasions have any of the missionaries been robbed, and both of these when beyond the boundary of the station. Once Miss Closson knew herself to be in the greatest danger, but a fine white donkey carried her bravely through the band of Koordish freebooters.

The Girls' Boarding School of the station is located at Talas, a large town some five miles southeast of Cesarea. This school, begun in 1873. has since that time grown greatly, having graduated forty-four young ladies, whose record of Christian work is most excellent. The school occupied its present commodious quarters in September, 1889.

Here would we set up our “ Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto hath the Lord helped





We have long felt that the brighter girls of the school should be given the opportunity of securing a government diploma or degree. The possession of such a degree would accredit them in the Protestant schools in which they might become teachers, and would accredit the schools under their direction in the eyes of the Roman Catholic community, from which the children in our common schools are largely drawn.

It would have been natural that, for the purpose of securing the degree, we should have matriculated our students in one of the Government Normal Schools for Girls. This, however, was found to be impracticable on account of the rigorous demands on the pupils in these Normal Schools in respect to Roman Catholic doctrine. That difficulty, however, does not exist, or by friendly influence has been removed, respecting our girls, in the Government Institute, or High School, in San Sebastian.

But girls in Spain who aspire to government diplomas or to literary degrees rarely study in the Institutes, which confer on graduates, from their course of five years of study, the degree of Bachelor of Arts, but they matriculate in the

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