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humility and severe treatment of the body; but they are not of the slightest value in checking fleshly indulgence.

3 1 If then you were raised with Christ, seek what is above,

Where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God:

2 Set your mind upon what is above, not upon what is on the earth;

3 For you died, and your life lies hidden with Christ in God.

4 When Christ—who is your1 life—is disclosed,

Then shall you also be disclosed with him in majesty.

5 Put then to death the members that are on the earth: fornication,

6 impurity, appetite, evil desire, and covetousness—which is idolatry. It

7 is for these things that the wrath of God comes. In them at one time

8 you also walked, when you lived in them. But now do you also put them all away : anger, passion, malice, slander, foul talk from your mouth;

9 lie not to one another—seeing that you stripped off the old man with

10 his doings and put on the new man, who is ever being renewed to full

11 knowledge after the image of his creator; where there is no place for Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian,

12 slave, freeman, but Christ is all and in all. Put on therefore, as God's chosen, holy and beloved, a disposition of tender mercy, kindness, humil

13 ity, gentleness, longsuffering. Bear with one another and forgive each other, if any person has a complaint against any one else; even as the

14 Lord also forgave you, so too do you forgive. Over and above all this

15 put on love, for love is the bond that makes perfection. And let the peace of Christ rule undisputed in your hearts; for to this you were also

16 called in one body. And show thankfulness. Let the word of Christ dwell richly in your midst: teaching and admonishing each other with all wisdom in spiritual psalms and hymns and songs, singing with grace

17 in your hearts to God. And whatsoever you do, in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks through him to God the Father.

18 Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is your duty in the Lord. 19, 20 Husbands, love your wives and be not harsh to them. Children,

obey your parents in every point, for this is well-pleasing in the Lord.

21 Fathers, avoid irritating your children, that they may not be

22 dispirited. Slaves, obey those who are your masters after the flesh in every point; not with eyeservice, like those who court human favour, but

23 with singleness of heart in the fear of the Lord. Whatever you do, work

24 at it right heartily, as for the Lord and not for men; since you know you shall receive from the Lord in full return the inheritance that is your due.

25 Serve Christ the master; for the wicked shall be paid back for his wicked

4 1 ness, and there is no respect of persons. Masters, provide your

slaves with what is just and fair, since you know you also have a master in

2 heaven. Give yourselves to prayer, be diligent therein with thanks

3 giving. At the same time pray too for us, that God may open us a door for the word, so that we can declare the secret of the Christ (for which

4 also I am in bonds)—that I may disclose it as I should declare it.

5 Walk wisely with regard to those outside, making the very most of your

6 time. Let your speech always be profitable, seasoned with wholesomeness; know how you should answer each person.

7 You will be informed of all by Tychicus, the beloved brother and

8 faithful minister and fellow-slave in the Lord. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that you may know how we are, and that he may

9 encourage your hearts. He is accompanied by Onesimus, the faithful

1 Reading CpSr.

and beloved brother, who is one of yourselves. They shall inform you of all that goes on here.

10 Aristarchus, my fellow-prisoner, salutes you: so does Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, about whom you received injunctions (if he comes to

11 you, welcome him), so does Jesus, who is called Justus — men who belonged to the Circumcision. These are my sole fellow-workers for the

12 reign of God, men who have proved a comfort to me. Epaphras, one of yourselves, salutes you ; a slave of Christ Jesus, he is always wrestling keenly for you in his prayers, that you may stand perfect and fully

13 convinced in all the will of God. 1 bear him witness, he toils hard for

14 you and for those in Laodicea and for those in Hierapolis. Luke, the

15 beloved physician, salutes you, so does Demas. Salute the brothers in

16 Laodicea, also Nymphas1 and the Community at her 2 house. Further, when the letter has Deen read among you, see that it is read in the Community of the Laodiceans as well, and that you also read the letter from

17 Laodicea. Also, tell Archippus: "Attend to the ministry thou hast received in the Lord; see and fulfil it."

18 The salutation is by the hand of me, Paul. Remember my imprisonment.

Grace be with you.

l Beading Ni!/*?«. * Reading *Smt.

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The letter only contains a few friendly lines ; but they are so full of grace and wit, of earnest, trustful affection, that this short epistle shines among the rich treasures of the NT as a pearl of exquisite fineness. Never has there been a better fulfilment of the precept given by Paul himself at the close of his letter to the Colossians: A Xifyos ifuor rdvrore iv xfy'T<i SXan iipTvixivoi, lioivai rut Set ifias M ixdartfi Aroitplvcaffai (chap. iv. 6). This epistle is not merely a revelation of the apostle's heart; it becomes further, through its moral significance, an invaluable document of the Pauline ethics.—Sabatier.

M Greeting.

*"' Gratitude for Philemon's character and service.
WI Request and appeal on behalf of the slave Onesimus.
°-M Personal.


1 Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timotheus the brother,

to Philemon our beloved and our fellow-worker, and to Apphia the

2 sister, and to Archippus our fellow-soldier, and to the Community at thy house:

3 grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus


4 I always give thanks to my God when I make mention of thee in my

5 prayers—as I hear of thy love and of the faith that thou hast to the Lord

6 Jesus and for all the saints—praying that to participate in thy faith may result for them in a full knowledge of all the goodness we possess, Christ

7 ward. I had great joy and comfort over thy love, because the hearts of the

8 saints have been refreshed through thee, brother. Therefore, while

9 in Christ I would have great confidence in ordering thee to do what is thy duty, yet I prefer to appeal to thee for love's sake. Being of this mind then,

10 I Paul, an old man, aye and a prisoner of Christ Jesus now—I appeal to thee for my child whom I have begotten in my imprisonment, for Onesimus;

11 at one time he was of no service to thee, but he is serviceable now to thee 12, 13 and to myself. I send him back to thee (he is my very heart): I would

have liked to keep him beside me, to minister on thy behalf to me as I lie

14 imprisoned for the gospel; but I was unwilling to do anything without thy consent, in order that thy kindness might not be given by way of

15 compulsion but from thine own free will. For perhaps it was on this account that he was parted from thee for a time, that thou shouldest have

16 him back for ever—no longer as a slave but as something more than a slave, as a brother, beloved by me most of all, but how much more by

17 thee, in the flesh also as well as in the Lord. If thou considerest me then

18 to be a comrade of thine, take him home as if it were myself. And if he has wronged thee at all or owes thee anything, put that down to my account.

19 I write it, I Paul, with my own hand: "I will repay it"—not to remind

20 thee, that thou owest me thy very self besides. "tea, brother! let me have some return from thee in the Lord I Eefresh my heart in Christ.

21 I write thee in the confidence that thou wilt obey, knowing that thou

22 wilt do even more than what I say. At the same time, get ready a lodging for me also; for I am hoping that through your prayers I shall be restored to you.

23, 24 Epaphras my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus salutes thee; so do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow-workers. 25 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.


Upon the dubious hypothesis that this encyclical letter is genuine, its period is easily fixed. The undoubted connection of its thought with that of the Colossian epistle argues a contemporary origin during the latter period of Paul's imprisonment (3141) at Rome (Phil 482). While the question of the relative priority is not of much moment, it is better, with a majority of critics (especially after Honig's proof: ZwTh, 1872, p. 63 f.), to place the Colossian epistle at a slightly earlier date, finding in the Ephesian letter traces of development upon several lines of thought (e.g. the Spirit and the church). Practically—upon arguments, forcible if few—the epistle is reckoned contemporaneous with and if anything subsequent to Colossians: so Weiss (INT, i. pp. 339-358; AJT, i. pp. 377-384), Sabatier

gp. cit. p. 225 f., a very convincing discussion), Reuss (pp. 110-119), odet (INT, pp. 475-490), Salmon (INT, p. 388 f.), and Prof. G. G. Findlay (Expositor's Bible, "Ephesians," pp. 3-13). Similarly Schafer, E. H. Hall, L. Schultze, Hort ("Romans and Ephesians," 1895), T. K. Abbott (ICC, pp. ix-xxii), Adeney (BI, pp. 395-398), McGiffert (pp. 378385), Macpherson (Comm. Ephesians, 1892), and Bartlet (A A, 189 f.).

Up till recently the best criticism had placed the epistle in the second century, as a polemic against Montanism (Schwegler) or Gnosticism, to be dated either c. 140 A.D. as a remodelled and expanded version of Colossians (Hilgenfeld and Hausrath), or towards the beginning of the second century as the original work of a Pauline scholar (Holtzmann and Mangold). The latter theory suggests a comparison between the so-called "Ephesian" epistle and the seventh book of the Nikomachean Ethics; neither is original, but both are so permeated by the Master's spirit and ideas as to be practically authentic for the purposes of interpretation. This date, towards the close of the first or in the opening of the second century, is held by many excellent scholars who find the leading evidence for a non-Pauline period in the apparently maturer phase (Pfleiderer, Paulinism, ii. pp. 162-193; Weizsiicker, AA, ii. pp. 240-245) of the theology, which approximates in many striking respects to that of the fourth gospel, and with it may be said to form the summit of NT theology. This line of argument from the epistle's place in the development of thought and life (cp. passages like 3" 4U 220) is really crucial (Holtzmann, Kritik. p. 200 f.). The epistle itself gives few hints of its historical setting or even of local colouring, and alongside of what seem absolute novelties in thought and language lie specifically Pauline elements. Consequently, while the extreme period (120-150 A.d.) has been practically abandoned, save by a few critics like Hausrath, S. Davidson (INT, ii. pp. 261-300), Rovers (Nieuw-test. Letterkunde, 1888, pp. 65 f.: Col., Philem., Ephes. in beginning of Hadrian's reign), Bruckner (Chron. pp. 257-276), and Pfleiderer (Ure. p. 684f.), a date ranging from 80 to 100 is adopted by many (e.g. Holtzmann, Hatch, Schmiedel, and Mangold). This is confirmed by the resemblances between Ephes. and

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