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keen dogmatist some thirty years later——" better listen to Christianity from a circumcised man than to Judaism from one uncircumcised” (Ignat. ad Philad. 6; also, ad Philad. 8, Jo 539 1., for this heresy).

In Hebrews some unknown Alexandrian1 scholar uses the OT in a characteristic fashion to state the superiority and finality of the Christian religion. This feature is distinctive. Yet the application of Philonic methods and phrases should not, by their very strangeness in the NT, blind us to the dominating Christian spirit which is master of these characteristics. Philonist and student of the wisdom literature as he was, the author of Hebrews was supremely and essentially a Christian. No more than his successor, the author of the fourth gospel, does he suffer himself to be carried far away by the terminology and conceptions which press upon him out of his early training. Their use is strictly modified. They are at best subordinate to his leading principles and beliefs. Consequently in Hebrews, as in the fourth gospel, the fact that philosophic terms are employed in a sense occasionally different to their original setting is a proof, not that these Christian authors stood wholly remote from such speculative influences, but that they assimilated them and used them freely as accessories to their own purposes. The able thinker? who composed Hebrews used his contemplative philosophy and command of rhetoric for genuinely religious ends. situation, a rival of Christianity. This explains the differences of attitude to the Jews, in Paul and in the fourth gospel (or Apocalypse), and the later keenness of tone in the references to them made by Barnabas and Justin Martyr.

i Besides the well-known exposition of Pfleiderer, cp. for the Alexandrian culture of the author of Hebrews, Wendt, ZwTh (1895), pp. 157-160; with Holtzmann, NTTh, ii. 281-295. The Philonic parallels are amply stated by Siegfried, Philo von Alexandria als Ausleger des AT, p. 321 f., and reproduced by Ménégoz, op. cit. p. 197 f., and Pfleiderer, Urc. p. 629 f. * 2 He was “the finest and most cultured genius of the primitive church. ... The fact that a writer of such rare power and grace should have left us only a single monument of his genius, and that a mere letter, written for a definite practical purpose, and that his name should have been entirely forgotten within less than a century after his death, serves to remind us in a very forcible way of the limitations of our knowledge respecting the early days of Christianity” (McGiffert). Ménégoz has his bright antithesis: “l'auteur de l'Epître aux Hébreux est un évolutionniste; saint Paul est un révolutionnaire, en prenant ce terme en son sens exclusivement moral et religieux ... si l'on , & pu comparer saint Paul à Luther, nous comparerions volontiers l'auteur de l'Épître aux ħ. à Mélanchthon." Excellently put by Jülicher (pp. 134-136).

** 3 The remarkable use of the OT in Hebrews may throw some light on a similar phenomenon in the gospels. W. C, Allen (EspTi, xii. 187 f., 281 f.) explains the OT citations in Mt and Mk as the result of assimilation to the LXX by the final editors of the gospels, except the quotations in Mt, which are partly derived from an independent Greek document emploved by the evangelist. "It is probable, however, that these, like the similar ones in Hebrews, are taken directly from some such manuals as those referred to on page 617, n. 1. This habit of using compilations was not uncommon in antiquity, many of Josephus' citations being, for example, drawn from intermediate channels. Dr. Abbott (EBi, ii. 1825) agrees that collections of Messianic texts, manuals of Christ's teaching (including Mt 5–7 as a separate brochure ?), and accounts of the Passion, were circulated among the Christian communities ; which would account for apparent quotations from the canonical gospels in 1 Pet., Heb., the Didachê, James, and Barnabas.

[80–90 A.D.]


It is obvious that our Hebrews were familiar with the law, and had a high regard for the ordinances of temple worship. In particular it appears that they had not fully understood how the mediatorial functions of the OT were superseded by the mediatorship of Christ. But their ritualism seems to have been rather theoretical than practical. ... The most natural view of the apostle's argument, as it comes to a point in such passages as viii. 13, ix. 9, is that the disappearance of the obsolete ritual of the old covenant is no blow to Christian faith, because in Christ ascended into glory the church possesses in heavenly verity all that the old ritual presented in mere earthly symbol. It was the ruin of the Jewish state and worship which compelled Christianity to find what is offered in our epistle-a theory of the disappearance of the old dispensation in the new.-W. Robertson Smith.

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(a) ANGELS—as son of God : his humanity and career. (6) Moses-as son over swarning against unbelief,

God's house: the opportunity of rest. (c) THE HIGH-PRIEST—as perfect in his Sympathy: its grounds and character,

a remonstrance and a warning. Priesthood, “after the order of Melchizedek.”

(i.) superiority of new to old covenant, (ii.) superiority of new to old Levitical ministry, (iii.) finality of new covenant and new ministry.

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faith1012-1317 Appeal and counsel : need of { a historical panegyric upon

constancy, especially in trial,

(mutual care:
a résumé of the old and the new economies :
a table of duties.


1319-25 Epistolary conclusion.


1 1 AFTER speaking to the fathers long ago by fragments and forms manifold 2 in the prophets, God spoke to us at the end of these days in a Son, whom

he appointed heir of all things, through whom he also made the worlds ; 3 who, as the reflected radiance of his majesty and the facsimile of his

nature, sustaining also all things with the word of his power, sat down, after he had made purification of sins, at the right hand of the Sovereignty 4 on high, becoming so far better than the angels as the name he has 5 inherited is more excellent than they. For to which of the angels did he ever say,

My Son thou art, to-day have I begotten thee? and again,

I will be to him a Father, and he shall be a Son to me? 6 And again, when he introduces the first-born into the world, he says,

And let all God's angels do him reverence. 7 And while he says of the angels,

Who makes his angels winds,

And his servants a flame of fire ; 8 he says of the Son,

Thy throne, O God, is ever and for ever,

And the sceptre of thy reign is the sceptre of equity. 9 Thou hast loved justice and hated lawlessness;

Therefore has God anointed thee, thy God,

With oil of rejoicing above thy comrades. 10 And,

Thou Lord didst found the earth at the beginning,

And the skies are works of thy hands :
They shall perish, but thou remainest;

They shall all become worn out like a garment, 12 Yea, like a mantle thou shalt fold them up and 1 they shall be changed,

But thou art the same and thy years shall not fail. 13 And to which of the angels has he ever said,

Sit at my right hand,

Till I make thine enemies a footstool for thy feet? 14 Are they not all spirits for service, sent out to minister on behalf of 2 1 those who are to inherit salvation?

Therefore we must more and more devote ourselves to what we have been taught, in case we drift 2 away. For if the word spoken through angels held good, and every

transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward, 3 how shall we escape if we have paid no heed to so great a salvation ?

which began by being spoken through the Lord and was confirmed for 4 us by the hearers, while God bore witness along with them by signs and also by wonders and by manifold miracles and by distributions of the holy Spirit in virtue of his will.

1 Omitting [[áis iud Toox]].

5 For it was not to angels that he subjected the world to come, of which 6 we speak : but someone has testified somewhere, saying,

What is man that thou rememberest him?

Or the son of man that thou carest for him?
Thou didst make him for a little while lower than the angels,

With majesty and honour thou didst crown him ; 8 Thou didst make all things subject under his feet.

In making all things subject to him he left nothing unsubjected to him. 9 Now as it is, we do not yet see all things subjected to him ; but we see

Jesus, who has been made for a little while lower than the angels, crowned

with majesty and honour for the suffering of death, that by the grace of 10 God he might taste death for everyone. For it became him for whom

are all things and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to

majesty to make the leader of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 11 For the sanctifier and the sanctified all come from One; and this is 12 why he is not ashamed to call them brothers, saying,

I will declare thy name to my brothers,

In the midst of the assembly I will sing thy praise : 13 and again,

I will put my trust in him : and again,

Here am I with the children whom God has given me! 14 Since then the children's share is blood and flesh,

Of these did he partake in the same way,
That through death he might put down him who has the power of

death (that is, the devil), 15 And deliver all who through fear of death were all their life-time

held under bondage. 16 For, one need hardly say, it is not angels that he takes in hand;

No, he takes in hand the offspring of Abraham. 17 Hence he needed to be made like his brothers in all things,

That he might be merciful and a faithful high priest with regard

to God,

To make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For as he was tempted himself in what he suffered,

He is able to help the tempted.

31 Wherefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling,

Consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession; 2 Who was faithful to him who appointed him,

Like Moses in God's whole household. 3 For this man has been held worthy of more majesty than Moses, Inasmuch as he who established the household is more honoured

than the household. 4 For every household is established by someone ;

But he who established all things is God. 5 And while Moses was faithful in God's whole household as a servant

To bear testimony to what was to be spoken6 Christ was faithful as a son over his household; And we are his household, If we hold fast and firm to the end our confidence and the hope

wherein we exult. 7 Therefore, as the holy Spirit says,

To-day, when you hear his voice,

Make not your heart stubborn as at the provocation

On the day of the trial, in the wilderness, 9 Where your fathers tried me by proving me,

Yet saw my works for forty years. 10

Therefore was I exasperated with this generation,

And I said, They are ever erring in their heart."

Yea, they knew not my ways.
So I swore in my wrath,

They shall not enter into my rest."
12 Brothers, take care lest there is ever in any one of you an evil heart of


and you depart from the living God : 13 But exhort one another day by day, as long as the call comes


so that none of you may become stubborn by the deceit of sin. 14 For we are partakers of Christ,

If we hold fast and firm to the end the confidence with which we

15 While it is said, To-day, when you hear his voice,

Make not your hearts stubborn as in the wilderness.
16 For who heard and yet provoked ?

Was it not all who came out of Egypt under Moses? 17 And with whom was he exasperated for forty years ?

Was it not with those who had sinned, whose corpses fell in the

18 And to whom did he swear that they should not enter into his rest?

To whom but to those who had disobeyed ? 19, 4 1 So it was owing to unbelief, we see, that they could not enter. Let

us then be afraid lest, when there is still a promise left of enter

ing into his rest, any one of you be held to have fallen short of it. 2 For indeed we have had the glad tidings preached to us as they had also ;

but to them the word of the message was of no avail, since the hearers 3 did not make it their own 1 by faith. For it is we who have believed that enter into the rest; as he said,

So I swore in my wrath,

They shall not enter into my rest”although from the foundation of the world the works were finished. 4 For he spoke somewhere about the seventh day thus : And God rested on 5 the seventh day from all his works, and again in this place, they shall not 6 enter into my rest. Well then, since it is reserved for some to enter into it,

and since those who had the glad tidings previously preached to them 7 did not enter on account of disobedience, he appoints a day once more ;

To-day (speaking in David after so long a time, as it has been already said)

To-day, when you hear his voice,

Make not your hearts stubborn. 8 For had they been given rest by Joshua, he would not afterwards have 9 spoken of another day. So then there is reserved for the people of God 10 a sabbath-rest ; for he who has entered into his rest, he also has rest from 11 his works, as God from his. Let us then eagerly endeavour to enter into

that rest, so that no one may follow the same example and fall into 12 disobedience. For the Logos of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, penetrating even to the division of soul

1 Reading ouvzszepoco usvos.

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