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37 scripture might be fulfilled, No bone of him shall be broken. And again

another scripture says, They shall look on him whom they impaled. 38 Now after this, Joseph of Arimathaea, who was a disciple of Jesus—but

a secret disciple for fear of the Jews-asked Pilate that he might take

away the body of Jesus. And Pilate gave him permission. So he went 39 and took away his body; and Nikodemus also went (he who had come to

him at first by night), with about a hundred pounds of myrrh and aloes 40 mixed. So they took and swathed the body of Jesus in linen bandages 41 with the spices, according to the Jewish custom of burial. Now at the

place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new 42 tomb where as yet no man had ever been laid. So on account of the

Jews' day of preparation, seeing that the tomb was close at hand, they laid Jesus there.


201 Now on the first day of the week Mary of Magdala goes to the tomb

very early, when it was still dark, and sees the stone removed from the 2 tomb. So she runs and goes to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple,

whom Jesus loved, and says to them, “They have removed the Lord from 3 the tomb, and we know not where they have laid him." Peter went out

then with the other disciple, and they went on their way to the tomb. 4 They both ran together; but the other disciple ran faster than Peter 5 and reached the tomb first; and on gazing in he sees the linen bandages 6 lying. However he did not go in. Now Simon Peter also comes, following

him; and he went into the tomb, and notices the linen bandages lying, 7 and also that the napkin, which had been upon his head, was not lying 8 with the linen bandages but was wrapped up in a place by itself. Then

the other disciple, who had come to the tomb first, went in and saw and 9 believed. (For as yet they did not know the scripture, that he must rise 10 again from the dead.) Thereupon the disciples went away again to their 11 home. Mary stood outside at the tomb, weeping. Now as she wept, she 12 gazed into the tomb; and she notices two angels in white sitting where 13 the body of Jesus had lain, one at the head and one at the feet. And

they say to her, “Woman, why weepest thou ?” She says to them,

“Because they have removed my Lord, and I know not where they have 14 laid him." She said this and turned back; and she notices Jesus 15 standing, yet she did not know it was Jesus. Jesus says to her, “Woman,

why weepest thou? whom seekest thou ?" Imagining him to be the

gardener, she says to him, “Sir, if it was thou who didst carry him off, 16 tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away." Jesus says

to her, “Mary.” She turns and says to him, in Hebrew, “Rabbuni" 17 (that is, “Teacher"). Jesus says to her, “Touch me not, for I have not

ascended yet to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them : 'I 18 ascend to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'” Mary

of Magdala goes to the disciples with the news, “I have seen the Lord,

and that he had said this to her. 19 So when it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and

when the doors at the place where the disciples were had been shut for

fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and says to them, 20 “Peace to you!” And saying this he showed them his hands and his 21 side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord. So he 1

says to them once more, “Peace to you! As the Father has sent me 22 forth, so also am I sending you." And saying this he breathed on them and says to them, “Receive the holy Spirit ;

1 Omitting [[• 'Ix06ūs]].

23 If you forgive the sins of anyone, they are forgiven ;

If you retain them, they are retained.” 24 Now Thomas, one of the twelve (that is, “the Twin"), was not with 25 them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, “We have seen

the Lord.” But he said to them, “Unless I see the mark of the nails in

his hands, and put my finger into the mark of the nails, and put my hand 26 into his side, I will not believe." And after eight days his disciples were

once more within the house, and Thomas with them. Jesus came,

though the doors had been shut, and stood in the midst and said, “ Peace 27 to you !” Then he says to Thomas, “Reach hither thy finger, here are

my hands! Reach thy hand also, and put it into my side, and be not 28 incredulous, but believe." Thomas answered and said to him, “ My Lord 29 and my God!” Jesus says to him,

"Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed :
Happy they who have not seen, yet have believed !"


Many other signs indeed did Jesus perform in presence of his dis31 ciples, which are not written in this book; but these have been written

that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his Name.


211 [After this Jesus disclosed himself once more to the disciples at the

2 sea of Tiberias. He disclosed himself in this way. Simon Peter and

Thomas (that is, “the Twin ”) and Nathanael of Kana in Galilee and the 3 sons of Zebedee and two others of his disciples were together. Simon

Peter says to them, “I am going to fish." They say to him, “We are coming with thee too." They went out and embarked in the boat, but 4 that night they caught nothing. Now at the break of day Jesus stood 5 upon the beach : however, the disciples did not know it was Jesus. So

Jesus says to them, “Lads, have you caught any fish?” They answered 6 him, “No.” And he said to them, “Throw the net on the right side of

the boat, and you shall find something." So they threw the net, and now 7 they could not haul it in for the multitude of fish. That disciple then whom Jesus loved says to Peter, “It is the Lord.” So on hearing it was

the Lord, Simon Peter girt his blouse round him (for he was unclad) and 8 plunged into the sea ; meanwhile the other disciples came in the small

boat (for they were not far from the land, but about a hundred yards off) 9 dragging the netful of fish. So when they got ashore, they see a fire of 10 coals laid, and some fish laid on it, and bread. Jesus says to them, 11 “Bring some of the fish you caught just now." Simon Peter then went

on board and hauled the net to land, full of large fish, a hundred and

fifty-three of them; and for all their number, the net was not torn. 12 Jesus says to them, “Come and breakfast." (Now none of the disciples

dared to inquire of him, “Who art thou ? " for they knew it was the 13 Lord.) Jesus goes, takes the bread and gives it to them; and so with the 14 fish. This was the third time now, that Jesus was disclosed to the

disciples after he had risen from the dead. 15 So when they had breakfasted, Jesus says to Simon Peter, “Simon,

son of John, lovest thou me more than these do?” He says to him,

“ Yes, Lord : thou knowest that I love thee.” He says to him, “ Feed my 16 lambs.” Once more he says to him a second time, “Simon, son of John,

lovest thou me?He says to him, “Yes, Lord : thou knowest that I 17 love thee.” He says to him, “Be a shepherd to my sheep." For the

third time he says to him, “Simon, son of John, lovest thou me?Peter was grieved because he said to him, “Lovest thou me?" for the third

time, and he said to him, “Lord, thou knowest all things : thou seest 18 that I love thee.” Jesus says to him, “Feed my sheep. "Truly, I tell thee, truly,

When thou wast young, thou didst gird thyself and walk where thou

didst choose : But when thou growest old, thou shalt hold out thy hands, and

another shall gird thee and bring thee where thou dost not choose." 19 (He said this to indicate the kind of death by which he was to honour 20 God.) And after saying this he says to him, "Follow me.” On turning

round, Peter sees the disciple whom Jesus loved, following--the one who

leant back on his breast at the supper and said, “Lord, who is thy 21 betrayer ?So on seeing him Peter says to Jesus, “Lord, and what 22 about this man?” Jesus says to him, “If I choose that he should survive 23 till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou me.” So this rumour

spread abroad among the brothers, namely, that that disciple was not to die. Yet Jesus did not tell him he was not to die; he said, “If I choose

that he should survive till I come, what is that to thee ?:) 24 This is the disciple who bears witness concerning these things and who

has written these things; and his witness, we know, is true.] 25 [[Now there are many other things besides, which Jesus did; were

they written one by one, I suppose that not even the world itself would have room for the books that would be written.]]


For the historical understanding of these letters the data are scanty and ambiguous :

(a) The relative position of the fourth gospel and the first epistle, 1 The remarkable similarities of thought and diction between the two writings indicate a common situation. Both writings are addressed to practically the same condition of things in the Christian community, although they approach it from different sides. The epistle naturally has a more marked polemical tendency than the gospel, and it has been conjectured that the author of the epistle endeavoured in the interests of popular Christianity to recast the ideas of the fourth gospel and thereby introduce them to a wider public. Such a motive and method is quite credible. Whether it involves a dual authorship or not (cp. Jülicher, Einl. pp. 193–196, and Salmond, DB, ii. pp. 737,738) is a further question, and a question for which no evidence-least of all the stylistic resem. blance-supplies a final answer, although probabilities favour unity. At any rate the tract is a product of the Johannine school in Ephesus, a postscript rather than (as e.g. Renan and Tolstoi think) a preface to the larger history. Taking the epistle with most (cp. especially Pfleiderer, Urc. p. 791 f., and 0. Holtzmann, op. cit. pp. 166-171, but on other side Bartlet, AA, P. 435 f.) as subsequent in time to the gospel, we find that its period lies not earlier than 95-100 A.D. It is the application and reproduction of the Johannine ideas, addressed to some definite and local circle (“non videtur peregre misisse, sed coram impertiisse auditoribus," Bengel), and yet passing beyond these limits to the needs of wider Christendom. Here too, simple truth" has been “miscalled simplicity.” But the verdict is not adequate. Patiently the author turns and repeats his leading themes, like a teacher, with a monotony that wins upon one till it becomes often impressive and--within its own limits-attractive.3 “ The style is not flowing and articulated; the sentences come like minute

1 Exhaustively discussed by Holtzmann, Jpth (1881), pp. 690-712, (1882), pp. 316-342, whose arguments are reviewed by Weiss (-Meyer, 1888, Epp. Joh. pp. 4-9). The differences are held by numerous critics (e.g, in this country S. Davidson, M. Arnold, and Martineau, Seat of Authority, pp. 509-512) to be incompatible in a single author. Wendt (Joh. Erglm. pp. 158-162) also finds that the resemblances refer to the source, not to the editor of the fourth gospel.

?Cp. Schmiedel, EWK, II. 34, p. 368. The absence of title or greeting gives this anonymous writing the appearance of a homily, or set of homilies, addressed to an intimate circle ; but there is no evidence to show that the readers owed their Christian faith to the author.

3 Weiss, NTTh, ii. pp. 317, 318. “His wliole spiritual work is a contemplative sinking of himself in a small circle of great truths." At the same time, in conparison with the preceding and the subsequent letters of the NT, there is no denying that in 1 John the range of interest and ideas is limited if not meagre, and that the treatment is frequently tautological, although the style often approaches limpidity and the conceptions grandeur.

guns, as they would drop from a natural Hebrew. The writer moves indeed amidst that order of religious ideas which meets us in the fourth gospel, and which was that of the Greek world wherein he found himself. He moves amongst these new ideas, however, not with the practical felicity of the evangelist, but with something of helplessness, although the depth and serene beauty of his spirit give to all he says an infinite impressiveness and charm” (Arnold).

(6) The evidence of the errors ? presupposed (1 Jn 46 218 222). As in the case of the fourth gospel, these have been variously and vaguely interpreted as dualism, doketism, Gnostic, Basilidian, and Montanist tendencies, etc. Consequently 140-150 A.D. has been taken as the period of the first epistle's composition (e.g. by Pfleiderer, Urc. p. 790 f.), owing to the supposed development of Gnostic errors. The comparative absence of emphasis upon the personalities of the Logos and the Spirit is probably due, upon this theory, to the monarchian dread of approximating to the Gnostic aeons which swarmed between man and the Divine being. After the results reached in regard to the gospel, however, it is un. necessary to look for any period later than the opening decade of the second century, since the religious and moral atmosphere of the one writing is essentially that of the other. Among the incipient forms of the Cerinthian heresy the epistle is accordingly to be placed. So most of the recent editors; Westcott, Haupt, Weiss, Plummer (CGT). The two main features of heresy against which the writer sets up the true faith, spring from a loosened hold of the historical tradition; they are (i.) the denial of the divine sonship of the incarnate (42) Jesus, and (ii.) a practical libertinism which, as in the later pastoral epistles, was marked by antinomian principles. This false and speculative teaching, with its Christological basis and ethical (34)consequences, forms the occasion for the positive statement of Christianity as a body of truth based on tradition and experience, that is conveyed in the pages of this anonymous epistle. The writer, too, like the later author of James, has to face an abuse of Pauline ideas, which failed to maintain the vital connection between uprightness by faith and the exercise of uprightness in moral acts (229 310 3171).

The second and third letters are even more elusive than the first. Both spring from the same school of thought and feeling, if not from the

i Internal dangers not external persecutions are the topic that absorbs the writer. On other grounds it is highly probable, if not certain, that the epistle falls later than the period covered by the Domitian persecution ; but it is scarcely safe to argue that it must bave been “written in a time of peace as it contains no allusion to" any such rough experiences (BI, p. 454). The cast of the writer's idealism makes it unlikely that he would have cared to notice such temporal and outward circumstances. His interests are elsewhere and higher; his atinosphere is too rarified for such sublunary concerns. The esoteric tone of the gospel is in fact reproduced here, along with a broad and denationalised interest. "It is the view of a temper wrapped in itself, a view which could satisfy and promote the quiet life of an isolated community, but could not render possible the task involved in the grand mission to the world. For that it had no taste" (Weizsäcker, AA, ii. p. 297).

2 Cp. Häring Th A (1892), pp. 173-200, besides Weiss, INT, ii. pp. 175-197 (and in Meyer), and Keim, i. p. 200 f. ("The epistle and the gospel are the evident, acute, and conprehensive answer to this Cerinthus"). On the curious attempt (Jn 1934, 1 Jn 56-8) at a semi-mystical allegorising of baptism, after the Philonic pattern, which is common to both writings, cp. Abbott, EB, article “Gospels,” pp. 828-830 : “It reveals an exaggerated notice of the importance of baptism by water, against which the author feels compelled to contend." But it is also a bit of polemic against Cerinthus and the school of John the Baptist, who laid excessive stress upon the baptism of Jesus.

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