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Church matters mainly give the Epistles before us (especially the first to Timothy) their peculiar impress, inasmuch as they show how, when in danger of heresy, the consciousness of the Church and Church organisation grew strong on the lines indicated by Paul. As far as the main dogmas are concerned, we find but few traces of the contest with Gnosticism, and those chiefly in reference to the doctrines regarding God. For the rest they are the main traditional doctrines of Paulinism, modified by the tendency of the age towards practical piety.—Pfleidoror.
/*'-'" Personal: the truth of Christianity against error:
Paul the representative of this saving truth. vurrin
6X670! . . . 1". l18-s0 his warning and charge to Timotheus.
SlJie Rules for church-life:
. ,. genera , 1 ,)ra_er an(j worshjp.
2"-" the sexes, J' J r
3'-' bishops, I iaation. T,./r4S4X«yot. . . 3>.
38-13 deacons, J 6
Jp-G*1 Rules for the conduct and ministry of Timotheus: in relation to 41-u ascetic errorists and their practices: riarit 6 XA^oj ... 4".
fi1'- different ages and sexes:
63"1* widows—their maintenance and ministry:
517-za elders—their maintenance and discipline:
S*** [private advice to Timotheus]
6''J slaves and their masters.
Closing advice on 0s"" the errorists—covetousness:
611'" true Christianity, a charge:
6"'u Supplement: a word to rich people:
6"-sl a word against heresy.
1 1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the command of God our
Saviour and of Christ Jesus our hope,
2 to Timotheus, my genuine child in faith:
grace, mercy, peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
3 As I appealed to thee, when I was going into Macedonia, wait on at
4 Ephesus and charge certain people not to be teachers of novelties, and not to devote themselves to myths and interminable genealogies, seeing that these promote out of the way investigations rather than God's
5 dispensation which is in faith. The aim of the charge is love, out of
6 a pure heart and a good conscience and an unfeigned faith; things from
7 which some have swerved and turned aside to cnatter, in their desire to be doctors of the law—though they understand neither what they say nor
8 what they strongly insist upon. Certainly we are aware that the law is
9 excellent, if a teacher uses it in a lawful spirit, realising that laws are laid down not for an upright man but for the lawless and insubordinate, the impious and sinful, the unholy and worldly, parricides and matricides,
10 manslayers, fornicators, sodomites, slave-dealers, liars, perjurers, and what
11 ever else is opposed to the sound doctrine—according to the gospel of the majesty of the blessed God with which I myself was entrusted.
12 I give thanks to Christ Jesus our Lord who strengthened me, because lie
13 reckoned me trustworthy by appointing me to the ministry, although I was formerly a blasphemer and a persecutor and outrageous. But I
14 obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief; and the grace
15 of our Lord overflowed with faith and love in Christ Jesus. The Saying Is Sure and worthy of all approbation, that "Christ Jesus came into the
16 world to save sinners." And of sinners I am the chief. But I obtained mercy for this reason, that in me first Christ Jesus might display his utmost long-suffering, as a typical instance for those who were hereafter
17 to believe on him to life eternal. Now to the King of the ages, who is imperishable, invisible, who alone is God, be honour and majesty for ever and ever: Amen.
18 This charge I entrust to thee, my child Timotheus, according to the prophecies that first led me to thee; that in their strength thou mayest
19 wage the noble warfare, possessing faith and a good conscience, which
20 certain people have thrust aside and so suffered shipwreck in the matter of the faith; including Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have delivered to Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.
2 1 Well, I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, petitions,
2 thanksgivings, be offered for all men, for kings and all who are in high authority, that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all piety and
3 respectfulness. This is good and welcome in the sight of our Saviour
4 God, who would have all men saved and arrive at a full knowledge of the 6 truth. For there is "one God," also "one mediator between God and 6 men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all"—this
7 is the testimony in due season, and for this I myself was appointed a herald and apostle (I speak the truth, I lie not), a teacher of the
8 Gentiles in faith and truth. I desire then that in every place the men should offer prayer, lifting up holy hands without anger and disputa
9 tion. Likewise that women adorn themselves in decent apparel, modestlv and moderately, not with braids of hair and gold, nor with pearls nor with
10 costly raiment, but (as befits women who make a religious profession) by
11 means of good deeds. Let a woman learn quietly, with entire sub
12 mission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to dictate to man. She is to keep quiet.
13 For Adam was formed first of all,
14 And Adam was not deceived,
It was Eve who was beguiled and fell into transgression.
15 Still "women shall be brought safely through their childbearing, if they
3 1 continue in faith and love and sanctification, with soberness." The Sating
2 If anyone aspires to a bishopric, he is desiring a noble task. Now a bishop must be unblamable, the husband of one wife, temperate, sober
3 minded, orderly, hospitable, a skilful teacher, not drunken or quarrel
4 some, but forbearing; no wrangler, no lover of money, one who presides ably over his own household, with his children in submission and entirely
5 respectful—if a man does not know how to preside over his own house
6 hold, how is he to take care of a Community of God ?—-not a novice, lest
7 his head should be turned and he fall into the devil's doom. Also, he must have a creditable report from outsiders, lest he fall into the devil's
8 reproach and snare. Deacons likewise are to be serious, not
9 talebearers, not addicted to much wine, not greedy for base gain, holding
10 in a pure conscience the secret of the faith. Also, let these men first of all be tested; then let them serve as deacons, if they are irre]jroachable.
11 Women likewise are to be serious—not slanderers, but temperate, trust
12 worthy in all respects. Let deacons be husbands of one wife, presiding
13 ably over their children and their own households. For those who have served ably as deacons acquire for themselves a good position and great
14 confidence in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. Though I
15 hope to come to thee soon, I am writing to thee thus, in order that, if I am long in coming, thou mayest know how it is right to behave in God's household, that is, in the Community of the living God, a pillar
16 and prop of the truth. And admittedly great is the secret of piety :—
"Who was disclosed in the flesh,
4 1 But the Spirit expresslv says that in later times some shall fall away
from the faith by their devotion to seducing spirits and doctrines of
2 daemons, through the hypocrisy of men who speak falsely, who have their
3 own conscience branded and marked, who forbid marriage and enjoin abstinence from food—things which God created to be thankfully par
4 taken of by those who believe and who know the truth. For everything created by God is excellent; and nothing is to be rejected if it be thank
5 fully received, for then it is sanctified by the word of God and by prayer.
6 Give this advice to the brothers; so shalt thou be an excellent minister of Christ Jesus, nourishing thyself upon the words of the faith
7 and of the excellent doctrine whose course thou hast followed. But as for
8 worldly and old wives' myths, have nothing to do with them. Train thyself to piety ; "bodily training is profitable for a little, but piety is profitable for everything, as it has the promise of the present life and of the
0, 10 life to come." The Saying Is Sore, and worthy of all approbation; for
this is why we labour and are denounced,1 because we have set our hope
upon the living God, who is a Saviour of all men, especially of those who
11,12 believe. Charge thus and teach. Let no one despise thy youth;
but show thyself a pattern to the believers in word, in conduct, in love, in
13 faith, in purity. Till I come, devote thyself to the reading, the exhort
14 ing, the teaching. (Neglect not the talent within thee, which was given thee through prophecy, along with the laying on of hands by the elders'
15 assembly.) Practise these. Be absorbed in them, that thy progress
16 may be obvious to all. Pay attention to thyself and to thy teaching. Persevere with these, for by so doing thou shalt save both thyself and thy hearers.
5 1 Chide not a senior sharply, but appeal to him as a father; appeal to
2 younger men as brothers, to older women as mothers, to younger women
3 as sisters, with all purity. Support widows who are really widows.
4 (But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to act piously to their own household and to render some return to those who have brought them up; for this is a welcome thing in the sight of God.)
5 Now she who is really a widow and left desolate, has her nope set on
6 God, and perseveres night and day in supplications and prayers; but she
7 who lives in dissipation is dead in life. Give this charge also, that they
8 may be unblamable: if anyone does not provide for his own people, and especially for his own household, he has renounced the faith, he is
9 worse than an unbeliever. Let no one be registered as a widow, who is less than sixty years of age; and she only who has been the wife of one
10 husband, who has a reputation for good deeds, who has brought up children, practised hospitality, washed the saints' feet, relieved the
11 distressed, diligently practised every good deed. But refuse to register younger widows; for when they come to wax wanton against Christ they
12, 13 wish to marry, and so get sentenced for breaking their first troth. Besides, by going about from nouse to house they learn also to be idle ; and not merely to be idle but also babblers and busybodies, talking of what they
14 have no right to mention. So I desire younger women to marry, to bear children, to manage their households, to give the adversary no
15 opportunity for reviling—for some are turned aside already after
16 Satan. If any believing woman has widows, let her relieve them; nor let the Community be burdened, rather let it relieve those who are really widows.
17 Let the elders who preside ably be held worthy of double support,
18 especially those who labour in word and teaching; for the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle an ox when he is treading out corn, and "The
19 labourer is worthy of his wages." Accept no accusation against an elder,
20 unless it is certified by two or three witnesses. Those wno sin, reprove
21 in the sight of all; so that the rest may also be in fear. In the sight of God and of Christ Jesus and of the chosen angels, I solemnly charge thee to be unprejudiced in following these directions, to be utterly impartial.
22 Lay hands on no one hastily, and have no share in other people's sins:
1 Reading :intitf/*<8a.
23 keep thyself pure.—Be a total abstainer no longer, but use a little wine on account of thy stomach and thy frequent illnesses.—
24 The sins of some men are conspicuous, preceding them to judgment;
But they also follow after some men.
25 Likewise, while good deeds are conspicuous,
Even those that are otherwise cannot be hidden. 6 1 Let all who are slaves under the yoke reckon their masters worthy of
2 all honour, that God's name and the doctrine may not be maligned. And let not those who have believers as their masters, despise them because they are brothers; nay, let them render service all the more heartily, seeing that those who enjoy the benefit of the service are believers and beloved.
3' Teach thus and exhort. If anyone is a teacher of novelties and refuses to assent to the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and to the
4 doctrine which is in accordance with piety, he is besotted; he knows nothing, but is morbidly excited about controversies and wranglings over words, which produce envy, quarrelling, slanders, wicked suspicions,
5 incessant disputes, among men corrupted in mind and deprived of the
6 truth, who think piety is a source of profit. Piety with content
7 ment indeed is a great source of profit. For we take nothing into the
8 world, nor 1 can we take anything out; yet if we have food and clothing,
9 we are to be satisfied with these. But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many desires which are senseless
10 and injurious, such as sink men in destruction and perdition. For the love of money is a root of all evils, and in aspiring to money some have been led astray from the faith and have pierced themselves through with
11 many a pain. But flee thou from these things, 0 man of God,
12 and pursue uprightness, piety, faith, love, patience, meekness. Play thy part in the noble contest of the faith ; lay hold of the eternal life for which thou wast called and didst make the noble confession in the sight
13 of many witnesses. In the sight of God, who makes all things live, and of Christ Jesus, "who bore witness in the noble confession before Pontius
14 Pilate," I charge thee to keep the commandment unstained, unblamable,
15 until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, which shall be shown in due season by the blessed and only Prince—the King of kings, the Lord
16 of lords—who alone has immortality, dwelling in light unapproachable, whom no man has seen or is able to see. To him be honour and eternal power: Amen.
17 [Charge those who are rich in the present world not to be highminded, and not to set their hope on the uncertainty of riches, but on God who
18 provides us richly with all things for enjoyment; charge them to be
19 bountiful, to be rich in good deeds, liberal givers, generous, storing up for themselves a good foundation for the future, that they may lay hold of the life which really is life.
20 0 Timotheus, guard thy trust; and turn away from the worldly babble and "antitheses" of " the knowledge" (which is falsely named "know
21 ledge "), by professing which some persons have swerved in the matter of the faith.]
Grace be with you.
1 Omitting iti.