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Jewish Literaturo.

Greek and Latin Literature.

Ur-Ecclus. (Heb.), 180. Maccab. psalms. Diogenes, c. 200.
Enoch (cpp. 1-36), before

Apollonius of Rhodes, 170.

181. Prayer of Manasseh.

Carneades (phil.), 213Eupolemus (hist.)

129. Aristobulus (phil.), 170- Book of Daniel, 165. Polybius, 204-122. 150.

Greek transl. Daniel, by | Nicander, c. 160. Jason of Cyrene.


Aristarchus, fl. 156 Sibyllines, bk. iii. (97- "Esther,” 150-130.

(gramm.). 817), 140 c.

Psalter complete, 141. Moschus, 154 c. Book of Judith, 130-105.

Hipparchus (astron.), Enoch (cpp. 83-90).

160-145 f. Wisd. Seirach (Greek), Philo (epic poet) ? Panaetius (phil.), 150130 c.

120 fl. Cleodemus (Malchus).

Apollodorus of Athens : Greek additions to Theodotus (poet)?

Xpoviná Daniel, before 90.

Ptolem. Euergetes.

Porcius Cato, 234-149.
Plautus, - 184.
Q. Ennius, 169.
Caecil. Statius (comed.),

d. 168.
Terence, 184-159. “Phor.

mio," "Eunuchus," 102. L. Titinnius (com.). M. Brutus, “De jure

civili." Sempronius Asellio (hist.).

M. Pacuvius, -129.
0. Lucilius, - 102.
Hostius, "De bello Istri.

co," 125.
L. Caelius Antipater (hist).

III. Esdras, 170-100. Ezekiel (dram.)?
Artapanus (hist.), - 100

(Ilopi 'Ioudaia). Chronicles of Hyrcanus. Enoch (cpp. 91-104), be

tween 134 and 95 B.C.
Aristeas (IIspà 'Ioudaior)?
I. Maccab., + 90.
Letter of Jeremiah
Wisc. Solomon, 90,

Letter of Aristeas (96–

63). Enoch (Similitudes, cpp. Schimeon ben Schetac

37-70), 95-65. II. Maccab. (between Activity of Scribes.

150 and 50) ?

Apollonius Molon, c. 120

(anti-Semite). Suorsun

κατα 'Ιουδαίων. Agatharcides (geog.). L. Afranius(comed.), c. 94. Clitomachus.

Accius (traged.), -94. Theodosius (math.). Sextus Turpilius (comed.). Antipater of Sidon (epigr.). Q. Mucius Scaevola

Hero (math.), c. 103? M. Aem. Scaurus (orat.).
Posidonius (phil.), 110- C. Licinius Macer, - 66.

50 fi. (“History ").
Scymnus (geogr.), c. 90. Q. Hortensius (orat.),
Parthenius (gramm.) 114-50.
Greek art and science inValerius Cato (poet), c. 80.

Rome, fi. 81.
Diotimus the Stoic, 80 C. Claudius Quadrigarius

(hist.), 100-78 f1.
Collection of Sibyll. orac., Sisenna (hist.).
c. 75.

Lucretius, 99-55, “De

rerum nat.," publ. Meleager (eleg.), 70 c. Catullus, 87-54. Lysimachus (anti-Semite). Nigidius Figulus (phil.).

Greek additions to Esther?
Alexander Polyhistor,

80-40 (slepi 'lovodía).

Tobit, before 25.
Psalt. Solomon (part),

Book of Jannes and

Jambres (?).
Book of Noah (?).
Apocalypse of Elijah (?).
"Two Ways" Catechism

(Did. i.-vi.)?
Sibyll., bk. ii. (1-62),


"Commentaries" of

King Herod ?
Book of Jubilees, 40-10.

Pseudo-Phocylides ?? Artemidorus (geogr.). Quintus Cicero.

T. Pomponius Atticus,

Menippus. Philodemus. Dec. Laberius, 107-43.

Cicero, 106-43.
Castor ("Chronicle"). Caesar.

Sallust, 86-35.
Alexandrinism. Varro. Hirtius.
Didymus of Alexandria. 0. Cornelius Gallus, 66-26.

M. Junius Brutus.
Tyrannion (elder), 115–25. Cornelius Nepos, 99-24.

Sosigenes (phil.), c. 46. Dellius (hist.). P. Syrus.
Antipater of Tyre.

L. Varius Rufus, 74-14.
Billel, 70 B.C.-6 A.D. Timagenes (hist.).

Vergil, 73-19 (“Aeneid,"

29-19). Conon (mythographus). C. Asinius Pollio, 76Shammai.

4 A.D. Nicolaus Damascenus Tibullus, -19. (hist.), 64 -.

Propertius. “ Pirke Aboth," 70 B.C. Diodorus Siculus (hist.). Horace, -8 (“Odes," i.170 A.D.

iii., 23 B.C.). Hypsikrates (hist.). Aem. Macer. Dionysius Halicarn., Vitruvius Pollio (archi

“Roman Archaeo Livy, 59 B.C.-17 A.D. logy," 8 B.C.

Messala, 64 B.C.-9 A.D.

Targums, nucleus of, 1- | Theodorus of Rhodes Juba.
200 A.D.

(rhet.), B.C. 6-A.D, 2 f1. Trogus Pompeius.

Ovid, "Art of Love,” 2-1 Dionysius Periegetes. B.c.; banishment, 9 A.D. Strabo, 54 B.C.-24 A.D. “Monumentum Ancy(hist. geogr.).

ranum." Ptolemy of Ascalon,

Manilius, "Astronomica." “Life of Herod "? Apollonius Sophista, c. 20. L. Fenestella (hist.).

Antonius Musa (med.).
Apion, “Egyptian his. Celsus (med.).

Valerius Maximus (hist.).

Philo born, c. 20.

Paul born?
Assumptio Mosis.
Test. XII. Patriarch.

(groundwork ?).

Enoch (Slavonic), 1-50.

TABLE II.—30–100 A.D.

The struggle between the Christian principle and Jewish tradition was bound to arise. The new seed sown in that ancient soil could not germinate without rising in it and in places breaking up the rich hard crust. In the books of the NT that have preserved to us the picture of that first and powerful germination, side by side with the principle to which the future belongs, we necessarily find old things that are on the way to death.Sabatier.

The world was then undergoing a moral improvement and an intellectual decline . . . Greece fortunately remained faithful to her genius. The prodigious splendour of Roman power had dazzled and stunned, but not annihilated it. But at this period Greece herself was passing through one of her intervals of lassitude. Genius was scarce, and original science inferior to what it had been in preceding ages, and to what it would be in the following. The space from the death of Augustus to the accession of Trajan must be classed as a period of temporary degradation for the human intellect. The ancient world had by no means uttered its last word, but the bitter trials through which it was passing took from it both voice and courage. When brighter days return, and genius shall be delivered from the terrible sway of the Caesars, she will take heart again.-Renan.

The history of the gospel contains two great transitions, both of which, however, fall within the first century: from Christ to the first generation of believers, including Paul, and from the first, Jewish Christian, generation of these believers to the Gentile Christians ; in other words, from Christ to the brotherhood of believers in Christ, and from this to the incipient catholic church. No later transitions in the church cap be compared with these in importance.-Harnack.



Judaea and the East.




Aretas IV. rules Naba

taeans (9 B.C.-40 A.D.). 30 Fall of Sejanus, 31.

Death of Stephen : Persecution of Christians in

Paul a Christian, 30(31). Financial crisis at

Caiaphas deposed, 36. Paul in Arabia, -34. Rome, 33. Caligula, 37-Jan. 24) Pilate recalled to Rome. Herod Agrippa I.,

king, 37-44.

Alondria 39
Persecution of Jews in Alexandria, 88. Birth of Josephus, +37.
in Gaul and Bri- Apion in Rome, 39. Attempt to place Cali. Earthquakes in Ant.
tain, 39-40. Herod Antipas deposed gula's statue in
and banished, 39.

Philo's embassy to Rome, 40.
Lucan in Rome, 40. Revival of Pharisaism. Paul in Syria and Asia

Minor, 34-48.
Claudius, 41-(Oct. 13)

Zealots in Judaea.
Seneca in exile, 41-49. Martyrdom of James

the son of Zebedee. Romans in Britain, Lycia, Rom. prov. Revolt of Theudas. Judaism in Adiabene,

c. 44. Famine, 44 c.

Birth of Plutarch (45-50) London founded by Expulsion of Jews from Cumanus, procurator, Paul's first tour. Aulus Plautius, 47. Rome, 48 (?).

48-52. Secular games (6th), 47. S. Britain, Rom. prov. Revolts in Palestine, Council at Jerus., 49.

Agrippa II., 50-100. Nero adopted, 50. Caractacus defeated,51.

Paul's second tour,


Felix, procurator, 52-(59). Simon Magus.
Trajan born, 52. Afranius Burrus, pref.

Praetor, 51-62.
Pallas, 52-55.
Increasing turbulence. Josephus among

Essenes, 53-56.
Nero, 54-(June 9) 68.
Burrus and Seneca Parthian and Armenian


Paul's third tour, 52-56. in power, 65,

wars. Birth of Tacitus, 55.

Popular tumults. Death of Britannicus,

Paul's arrest, 56. 55.

Josephus joins the Corbulo in Armenia,

Pharisees, £ 57. 57-59. Suetonius in Britain,

Festus, procurator, 59.

Earthquake in Lycus 59-61.

Trouble in Caesarea. Valley. Boadicea defeated.

Martyrdom of James Paul's voyage to Rome, in Jerus., 62 (61).


Albinus, procurator, 61.
Tigellinus, Poppaea, in Martial reaches Rome,
power, 62 f.

c. 63.
Josephus in Rome,

Epiktetus born in 63, 64 (-66).

Hierapolis (?).
Paul in Rome.

Burning of Rome, 19th July Lee

}64 Persecution of Christians

Temple in
Gessius Florus, procurator,64-66.

Jerusalem completed, c. 64. Florus abandons Jeru.

salem, Plague in Rome, 65. Josephus, governor of Massacres of Jews in


Syria and Egypt. Deaths of Lucan and Seneca

Romans driven from John of Gischala. Conspiracy of Piso.

Jerusalem, 66. Revolt of Vindex in Nero in Greece, 66-67. | Roman campaign : Vespasian in Galilee and Gaul.

Plutarch in Alexandria, 65-70. Judaea, 67.

(Continued on p. 86.

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