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especially of those who feel bound to promulgate somewhat liberal opinions, not merely to prosecute their studies with determination, but also in a religious temper to make a conscience of removing, at every possible opportunity, any gratuitous stumbling-block which misrepresentation or misunderstanding is apt to fling upon the path of simple, openminded faith. Even though one may be unable to win any wide assent for a time to one's conclusions and convictions, one would like to secure confidence and gain some sympathy at least for the spirit and aims of a critical endeavour. Strictly speaking, the critic has nothing to do indeed with the effects of his inquiries. But this canon has its obvious limitations. At any rate one may be educative and irenical. Besides, as the honour of any science is committed even to its humblest worker, he must see to it that no silence or unguarded language upon his part, any more than needless misconceptions on the part of others, be allowed to prejudice the interests or hinder the acceptance of what is true within his own department. Biblical criticism, especially, demands this sense of responsibility from all her servants. She must be free from gratuitous aspersions. And I shall not regret having written these paragraphs if they tend in any sense or in any quarter to allay misgivings, with many of which one has great sympathy, and also to clear the science of NT historical research, so far as that science (in a victorious and somewhat liberal phase) touches the present volume, from imputations of irreverence or the suspicion of innate iconoclasm.
The last written words of the NT happen to bear out not inaptly what has been already urged. But, says the writer, using sure and gracious language for an age perplexed amid other things by biblical disputes, and by some of those perils which accompany the benefit of Scripture— but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be the glory, both now and for ever. It is in this spirit that a Christian critic of the NT would approach and execute his task. It does not enter his commission, in the more technical branches of the subject, to parade such a religious gain as the end and motive of his own researches. Yet he entertains no manner of doubt that this must be their ultimate effect, or that one outcome of such genuine historical research as he is able to pursue into the origins of Christianity, will prove to be some enlarged and worthier appreciation of the fact that, when rightly conceived, the spiritual and the historical are but complementary aspects of that real and absolute revelation which has been vouchsafed by God in Christ to human thought and trust.
PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED
AA . . . History of the Apostolic
AJT . . The American Journal of Theology.
BI . . . A Biblical Introduction (1899). The NT section, p. 275 ff. by Prof. W. F. Adeney.
COT. . . The Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges.
Ckron . . W. Brtlckner, Die chronologische Reihenfolge in welcher die Briefe des NTverfasstsind(l890). Clemen, Die Chronologic der Paulinischen Briefe (1894). Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius. Zweiter Theil: die Chronologic der Literatur bis Irenaeus (1897).
Class. Rev.. The Classical Review.
CR . . .The Critical Review (ed. Principal Salmond).
CRE. . . Prof. W. M. .Ramsay, The Church m the Roman Empire (5th ed. 1897).
DB . . . A Dictionary of the Bible
(1898-1901), ed. Dr.
Hastings. Einf. . . Einfiihrung in das Grie
chische NT (Zweite,
Termelirte und verbes
serte Auflage 1899),
by Professor E. Nestle.
Eng. tr. 1901. EB . . . Encyclopaedia Britannica
(9th ed.). EBi . . . Encyclopaedia Biblica
(1899- ), ed. J.
S. Black and T. K.
1900). Zahn, Th. (1897-1899). Trenkle, F. S. (1897). Schafer, Aloys (1898). EWK . . Ersch and Gruber, Allge
meine Encylclcpadie der
Kiinste. ExGT . . The Expositor's Greek
Testament (1897- ). Exp . . . The Expositor (ed. Dr.
Nicoll. Small superior
numbers 2>8>4>M refer
to the series). ExpT '. . The Expository Times (ed.
Dr. Hastings). GGA . . QbUingische Gclehrte An
zeigen. GK . . . Geschichte des NT Kanons
Hausrath . Hausrath's Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichtc( En g. tr. of 2nd ed. 1895: "The Time of the Apostles ").
IIG . . . Hand ■ Commentar zum Neucn Testament (H. J. Holtzmann, Schmiedel, Lip9ius, and von Soden).
HD . . . History of Dogma, Eng.
tr. of Harnack's Dogmengeschic/ite, (18941899).
HJP. . . Eng. tr. of Schiirer's Geschichte desjiidischen Volkes im Zeilalter Jesu Christi1 (1886-1890), entitled, "A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ."
ICG . . . The International Critical
Commentary. IH . . . International Handbooks to the NT (ed. Dr. OrelloCone), 1900- . INT. . . Introduction to the New Testament. Weiss B. (Eng. tr. of Einlcitung in das Neue Testament,'1 1886). Davidson S. (3rd ed. 1894). Bacon B. W. (1900). Salmon G. (8th ed. 1897). Godet, Introduction an Nouveau, Testament—1. Les tpitres de S. Paul (1893). Eng. tr. 1894. II. (div. 1) 1899. JpTh , . Jahrbiicherfilrprolestant. Theologie.
JTS . . . Journal of Theological Studies.
KAP . . Die Apokryphen u.
Allen Testaments, ed.
Kautzsoh (1898-1899). Keim (i.-vi.) Eng. tr. of Oeschichtc
Jesu von Nazara. Laurent . Neutestamcntliche Studien
(1866), by J. C. M.
LC . . . Literarisches Centralblatl (ed. E. Zarncke).
-Meyer . . Meyer's Commentar zum NT (latest editions).
NTTh . . New Testament Theology—
NTTh . . Weiss, Eng. tr. of 3rd ed. (1888). Bo von, Theologie du NT
(1893) : deux tomes. Beyschlag.Eng.tr. (1896). Holtzmann, Lehrbuch der NeiUeatamcntlichcn Theologie (1896). Stevens (1899), Internat. Theol. Library. PO . . . Philology of the Gospels,
Blass (1898). PM . . . ProtestantischcMonatshefle (1897- , ed. Websky). Reuss . . E. Reuss, Geschichte der heiligen Schriften NT (Eng. tr. of 5th ed. 1884).
Reville . . A. ReVille, Jesus de Nazareth: itudes critiques sur les antfcMcnts de Vhistoire (vangilique et la vie de Jisus (1897, deux tomes).
RLA . . Prof. E. de W. Burton, Records and Letters of the Apostolic Age (1895).
IITK . . Real-Encyklopddie fur protestantische Theologie nnd Kirche(ed. Hauck) 1896- .
SBBA . . Sitzungsberichte derkbniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.
SK . . . Studien und Kritiken (ed. Kostlin and Kautzsoh).
SPT . . . Prof. W. M. Ramsay, St.
Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen (1895).
Syr-Sin . . The Four Gospels translated from the Syriac of tho Sinaitic palimpsest (Lewis, 1894).
TQ . . . Theologisclie Quarto!schrift.
TR . . . Tfieologische Rundschau (ed. Bousset).
TU . . . Texteund Untersuchungen zur GcschicMe der allchristlichen Literatur (ed. Harnack and Oebhardt).
ThA. . . Theoloi/ische Abhnndlungen C. von JVcizsacker gcuddmet (1892).
ThLt . . Theologische Lileraturzeitung (ed. Harnack and Schiirer).
ThSt. . . Theologische Studien
Herrn Prof. D. Bern-
Ore . . . Das Urchristenthum—
Pfleiderer, Das Urchris-
WH. . . The New Testament in
ZKWL . . Zeitschrift far Kirchliche Wissenichaft undKirchliches Leben (ed."Luthardt).
ZNW . . Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde des Urchrislentums(eA. Preuschen).
ZSchz . . Theologische Zeitschrift au3 der Schweiz (ed. Meili).
ZThK . . Zeitschrift fur Theologie und Kirche.
ZwTh . . Zeitschrift filr wissenschafiliehe Theologie (ed. Hilgenfeld).
The other abbreviations employed throughout the volume are either obvious or familiar. In addition to what has been already said, however, upon the types employed in the translation (p. xxi), the reader is requested to observe that where OT quotations occur in the body of an earlier source (e.g. pp. 189, 295), they are always printed in italics, as elsewhere throughout the volume, although they must in these cases be strictly regarded as part and parcel of the darker type which forms their immediate context. Also, in Tables IV.-V. the straight lines represent more or less direct literary filiation, while mere affinities or indirect influences are marked by means of dotted Sines.