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especially of those who feel bound to promulgate somewhat liberal opinions, not merely to prosecute their studies with determination, but also in a religious temper to make a conscience of removing, at every possible opportunity, any gratuitous stumbling-block which misrepresentation or misunderstanding is apt to fling upon the path of simple, openminded faith. Even though one may be unable to win any wide assent for a time to one's conclusions and convictions, one would like to secure confidence and gain some sympathy at least for the spirit and aims of a critical endeavour. Strictly speaking, the critic has nothing to do indeed with the effects of his inquiries. But this canon has its obvious limitations. At any rate one may be educative and irenical. Besides, as the honour of any science is committed even to its humblest worker, he must see to it that no silence or unguarded language upon his part, any more than needless misconceptions on the part of others, be allowed to prejudice the interests or hinder the acceptance of what is true within his own department. Biblical criticism, especially, demands this sense of responsibility from all her servants. She must be free from gratuitous aspersions. And I shall not regret having written these paragraphs if they tend in any sense or in any quarter to allay misgivings, with many of which one has great sympathy, and also to clear the science of NT historical research, so far as that science (in a victorious and somewhat liberal phase) touches the present volume, from imputations of irreverence or the suspicion of innate iconoclasm.

The last written words of the NT happen to bear out not inaptly what has been already urged. But, says the writer, using sure and gracious language for an age perplexed amid other things by biblical disputes, and by some of those perils which accompany the benefit of Scripturebut grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be the glory, both now and for ever. It is in this spirit that a Christian critic of the NT would approach and execute his task. It does not enter his commission, in the more technical branches of the subject, to parade such a religious gain as the end and motive of his own researches. Yet he entertains no manner of doubt that this must be their ultimate effect, or that one outcome of such genuine historical research as he is able to pursue into the origins of Christianity, will prove to be some enlarged and worthier appreciation of the fact that, when rightly conceived, the spiritual and the historical are but complementary aspects of that real and absolute revelation which has been vouchsafed by God in Christ to human thought and trust.

JAMES MOFFATT.

DUNDONALD, AYRSHIRE,

June 1, 1901.

PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED

of Theology.

AA . . . History of the Apostolic | DB ... A Dictionary of the Bible Age

(1898–1901), ed. Dr. McGiffert, A History

Hastings. of Christianity in the Einf. . . Einführung in das GrieApostolic Age (1897).

chische NT (Zweite, Weizsäcker, Eng. tr. of

vermehrte und verbesDas Apostolische Zeit

serte Auflage 1899), alter der Christlichen

by Professor E. Nestle. Kirche (2nd ed.).

Eng. tr. 1901.
J. Vernon Bartlet, The EB ... Encyclopaedia Britannica
Apostolic Age, its Life,

(9th ed.).
Doctrine, Worship, and EBi . . . Encyclopaedia Biblica
Polity (1900).

(1899- ), ed. J. AJT .. The American Journal

Š. Black and T. K.

Cheyne. BI ... A Biblical Introduction | Eini. . .Einleitung in das Neue (1899). The NT sec

Testament,
tion, p. 275 ff. by Prof.

Hilgenfeld (1875).
W. F. Adeney.

Mangold-Bleek (1886). CGT.. The Cambridge Greek

Holtzmann, H. J. (3rd Testament for Schools

ed. 1892). and Colleges.

Jülicher, A. (3rd ed. Chron. . W. Bruckner, Die chrono

1900). logische Reihenfolge in

Zahn, Th. (1897–1899). welcher die Briefe des

Trenkle, F. s. (1897). NT verfasst sind (1890).

Schäfer, Aloys (1898). Clemen, Die Chronologic EWK . . Ersch und Gruber, Allgeder Paulinischen Briefe

meine Encyklopädie der (1894).

Wissenschaften und Harnack, Geschichte der

Künste. altchristlichen Littera- | ExGT. . The Expositor's Greek tur bis Eusebius. Zweiter

Testament (1897– ). Theil: die Chrono- | Exp ... The Expositor (ed. Dr. logie der Literatur bis

Nicoll. Small superior Irenaeus (1897).

numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 refer Class. Rev.. The Classical Review.

to the series). CR , .. The Critical Review (ed. | ExpT'. . The Expository Times (ed. Principal Salmond).

Dr. Hastings). CRE. . . Prof. W. M. Ramsay, GGA . . Göttingische Gelehrte An. The Church in the

zeigen. Roman Empire (5th ed.GK.. Geschichte des NT Kanons 1897).

(Zahn), 1888–

Hausrath . Hausrath's Neutestament | NTTh . . Weiss, Eng. tr. of 3rd liche Zeitgeschichte(Eng.

ed. (1888). tr. of 2nd ed. 1895 :

Bovon, Théologie du NT “The Time of the

(1893): deux tomes. Apostles").

Beyschlag, Eng.tr. (1896). HC .. . Hand - Commentar zum

Holtzmann, Lehrbuch Neuen Testament (H. J.

der Neutestamentlichen Holtzmann, Schmiedel,

Thcologie (1896).
Lipsius, and von Soden).

Stevens (1899), Internat. HD . . . History of Dogma, Eng.

Theol. Library. tr. of Harnack's Dog.

| PG . . .

· Philology of the Gospels, mengeschichte, (1894–

Blass (1898). 1899).

PM . . . Protestantische Monatshefte HJP. . . Eng. tr. of Schürer's

(1897- , ed. Websky). Geschichte des jüdischen Reuss. . E. Reuss, Geschichte der Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu

heiligen Schriften NT Christi 2 (1886–1890),

(Eng. tr. of 5th ed. entitled, "A History

1884). of the Jewish People Réville . . A. Réville, Jésus de in the Time of Jesus

Nazareth : études cri. Christ.”

tiques sur les antécédents ICC . . . The International Critical

de l'histoire évangélique Commentary.

et la vie de Jésus (1897, IH ... International Handbooks

deux tomes). to the NT (ed. Dr. RLA . . Prof. E. de W. Burton, Orello Cone), 1900- .

Records and Letters of INT. . . Introduction to the New

the Apostolic Age (1895). Testament.

RTK . . Real-Encyklopädie für Weiss B. (Eng. tr. of

protestantische Theologie Einleitung in das Neue

und Kirche (ed. Hauck) Testament, ? 1886).

1896- . Davidson S. 3rd ed. 1894). SBBA. . Sitzungsberichte derkönig. Bacon B. W. (1900).

lich preussischen AkadSalmon G. (8th ed. 1897).

emie der Wissen. Godet, Introduction au

schaften zu Berlin. Nouveau Testament-1. | SK ... Studien und Kritiken Les Épîtres de S. Paul

(ed. Köstlin and (1893). Eng. tr. 1894.

Kautzsch).
II. (div. 1) 1899.

. Prof. W. M. Ramsay, St. Jpth . . Jahrbücher für protestant.

Paul the Traveller and Theologie.

the Roman Citizen JTS. . . Journal of Theological Studies.

Syr-Sin. . The Four Gospels transKAP . . Die Apokryphen W.

lated from the Syriac Pseudepigraphen d.

of the Sinaitic palim. Allen Testaments, ed.

psest (Lewis, 1894). Kautzsch (1898–1899). TQ... Theologische QuartalKeim (i.-vi.) Eng. tr. of Geschichte

schrift. Jesu von Nazara. TR... Thcologische Rundschau Laurent Neutestamentliche Studien

(ed. Bousset). (1866), by J. C. M. TU . . . Texte und Untersuchungen Laurent.

zur Geschichte der altLC .. Literarisches Centralblatt

christlichen Literatur (ed. E. Zarncke).

(ed. Harnack and Geb. --Meyer . . Meyer's Commentar zum

hardt). NT (latest editions). ThA.Theologische AbhandNTT) . . New Testament Theo

lungent C. von Weizlogy

säcker gewidmet (1892).

SPT

(1895).

diee

(1897).

Thin . . Theologische Literatur. | ZKWL. Zeitschrift für Kirchliche zeitung (ed. Harnack

Wissenschaft und Kirch. and Schürer).

liches Leben (ed. Luth. Thst. . . Theologische Studien

ardt). Herrn Prof. D. Bern- | ZNW . Zeitschrift für die neuhard Weiss dargebracht

testamentliche Wissen

schaft und die Kunde Urc . . . Das Orchristenthum

des Urchristentums (ed. Pfleiderer, Das Urchris

Preuschen). tenthum (1887). | ZSchz . . Theologische Zeitschrift Spitta, Zur Geschichte u.

aus der Schweiz (ed. Litteratur d.Urchristen

Meili). thums (1893–1896). ZTH K . . Zeitschrift für Theologie WH. , . The New Testament in

und Kirche. Greek, Westcott and ZwTh . Zeitschrift für wissen. Hort.

schaftliche Theologie (ed. Hilgenfeld).

The other abbreviations employed throughout the volume are either obvious or familiar. In addition to what has been already said, however, upon the types employed in the translation (p. xxi), the reader is requested to observe that where OT quotations occur in the body of an earlier source (e.g. pp. 189, 295), they are always printed in italics, as elsewhere throughout the volume, although they must in these cases be strictly regarded as part and parcel of the darker type which forms their immediate context. Also, in Tables IV.-V. the straight lines represent more or less direct literary filiation, while mere affinities or indirect influences are marked by means of dotted lines.

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