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9. What is the relation between the pressure and volume of a given mass of elastic fluid? When the pressure of the atmosphere is 15 lbs. on the square inch, a cubical box containing a cubic foot of air has a closely fitting piston weighing 10 lbs. inserted into it horizontally ; how far will it descend by its own weight?
10. Describe capillarity, and its effects with regard to several substances.
(d) 11. What is meant by the conductivity of a substance ? Place in order of conductive power the following substances :Wood, Water, Stone, Metals. Explain the action of the Davy Safety-Lamp. Why are loose-fitting gloves warmer in winter than tight-fitting ones ?
12. Explain the process of communicating heat through liquids called convection ; and show what pərt this process plays in causing England to be warmer than places in the same latitude on the Atlantic sea-board of America.
13. Explain the formation of dew. Why are ciear nights in winter often frosty ? How is it that ice can be formed at night in the Sahara ?
14. A wall covered with whitewash gives off a sensible amount of heat when the sun shines on it. A roof similarly covered protects the house from heat. Explain these phenomena, and state the law which shows their agreement.
(e) 15. If a magnet be broken into two parts, what will be their magnetic conditions ? Iron filings are scattered over a bar magnet, what is the form which they assume? Explain the difference between a magnet and a magnetic substance.
16. What is the law of magnetic attraction and repulsion ? Explain briefly by what two methods it is established.
17. Describe the changes both in direction and intensity which would be produced by passing a dipping-needle along a great circle on the earth's surface.
18. If a very flexible fine magnetized steel wire were fastened at its middle point to a copper wire, what would happen to the steel wire (i) when a current is sent through the copper wire, (ii) when the current is reversed ?
($) 19. Describe the various modes of reproduction in Hydra and Vorticella.
20. Explain with reference to Hydra and Vorticella the terms encysted, endoderm, ectoderm, endoplast, gemmation, and imbibition.
(9) 21. Refer the following to their place in classification :Glow-worm, Wire-worm, Silk-worm, Razorfish, Oyster, Cuttlefish, Serpula, Spirorbis, Limpet, Periwinkle, Scallop, and Slug.
22. Write out in a tabular form the various orders of Mammalia.
23. Contrast the pelvic girdle of a bird and of a monkey.
24, Write out a classification of the Carinata ; and explain how the beaks of the various classes of birds are adapted to the food they live on.
(h) 25. Give an example of a perfect flower belonging to the subclass Incompletæ, explaining the various terms used in classify
26. Describe, with reference to examples, a Catkin, a Spadix, and a Grass-Spike.
27. Trace the various steps by which you would decide the exact place in the Vegetable Kingdom held by a Nettle and a Snowdrop respectively.
28. Describe in detail, from observation, the flowers of an Orchis, a Lily, and a Sedge.
(18) 29. What are Cyclones? What is meant by the statement that the storms occurring in this country are cyclonic in character? Account for the spiral movement in these storms.
30. Describe monsoons, hurricanes, and tornadoes, giving in each case their probable origin.
31. Define the terms conduction, convection, and radiation, as regards heat ; and give examples of their effects in causing various phenomena, showing their relation to the following :-dry air ; air containing aqueous vapour ; the sea ; grass ; rocks ; metals.
32. What conditions are favourable to the deposition of dew? Show how it depends on radiation of heat.
Higher Local. (a) ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS, AND BIOLOGY ; (6) CHE
MISTRY ; ) PHYSICS ; (d) BOTANY; (e) ZOOLOGY ; (f) Phy
SIOLOGY ; (9) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY. All Students are expected to satisfy the Examiners in (a) and in one at least of
the subjects (6) to (9). No Student will be examined in more than three of the subjects (b) to (9) in one year.
(a) 1. Give an account of arsenic and its chief compounds. Why may this element be considered as intermediate between metals and non-metals ?
2. Describe the chemistry of the commercial preparation of copper and lead.
3. Give an account of mercury, and of its chief compounds.
4. Two men, A and B, carry a weight of 200 lbs. suspended from a pole. If the men be five feet apart, and the weight two feet from A, what part of the weight will be carry ?
5. A body falling a uniform rate of acceleration passes through ten feet in the first two seconds after starting, how far will it be from the starting-point at the end of the third second ?
6. State and explain the leading characters that distinguish a Frog from the Invertebrata. 7. What do you understand by “Co-ordination "? Give
Give briefly, without detailed description, a sketch of the nervous system of the Frog.
(6) 8. Discuss the conditions which affect the diffusion and dialysis of gases. Calculate the rate of diffusion of CO, (density
: =1.529 ; air being 1).
9. What methods can you suggest for determining the atomic and molecular weights of any substance ?
Illustrate your answer by examples.
10. What is an Aldehyd? What are the most characteristic reactions of the aldehyds ? Describe the preparation and properties of acetic aldehyd. What are acetal and chloral, and how is the latter prepared ?
11. Describe the modes of occurrence, preparation and properties of Bromine and its compounds with other non-metallic elements.
(c) 12. Two heavy bodies, weighing respectively three and five oz., are attached to the ends of a straight rod eight inches long, weighing two ounces; find the centre of the gravity of the system.
13. Describe and explain by means of a diagram the action. of the common pump:
14. A stone after falling for one second strikes a pane of glass, and thus loses half its velocity. How far will it fall in the next second ?
15. A bottle holds 1500 grains of water; when filled with alcohol it weighs 1708 grains, but when empty it weighs 520 grains ; find the specific gravity of alcohol.
(d) 16. Describe three flowers in which special modifications have taken place to adapt them for cross fertilisation. Give the meaning of the terms-cleistogamous, anemophilous, entomophilous, dichogomy, dimorphic, protandrous, and heterostylous.
17. Explain why plants must be grown in an aquarium to keep the water pure, and why in transplanting plants it is well to keep the earth round their roots, and in bright weather to cut off some of their leaves.
18. Name some phenomena of plant movement, and explain the mechanism by which it is effected in at least one case.
19. Draw diagrams of and explain in detail the structure of a Dicotyledonous stem.
(e) 20. What do you understand by the terms genus, species, cariety, hybrid?
21. Describe the various forms of the excretory organs in Vertebrates.
22. Contrast the structure of the alimentary canal in the Carnivora, Ruminantia, and Frugivorous Apes.
23. By what characters are the Cataertime and the Platyertime Apes distinguished ? What is their respective geographical distribution ?
(5) 24. State what you know of the functions of the brain. 25. Describe the larynx, and explain the production of voice. 26. Explain the terms reflex, automatic, inhibition. 27. What is a proteid, and how is it tested ?
(9) 28. To what astronomical causes have the changes in the climate of Britain been attributed ?
29. What evidence have we of these climatic changes in the Invertebrate fossil forms of the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods?
30. Describe fully the Cromer Forest-bed."
31. Describe a transverse section from London to Brighton. Draw a diagram to illustrate your description.
General Paper. 1. Define Logic, and discuss the question whether it is more correct to speak of the science or of the art of Logic.
2. What is meant by Formal Logic? What is its scope and what are its limits ?
3. What do we mean by“ knowing a thing ” ? Define subject and predicate. Is it true that "the predicate is included in the subject and the subject in the predicate”?
4. Enlarge upon, and, if necessary, criticise the following statement—"Nothing is really concrete or abstract; but there is a concrete and abstract element in each name.'
5. Explain the meanings of the following terms :- concept, reasoning, law, explanation, term, general notion, method.
6. Define and show clearly the distinctions between the following terms :-language, terminology, nomenclature.
7. “Two straight lines cannot enclose a space. Whence do we derive our knowledge of this proposition ? Suggest and discuss any answers which might be given to this question.
8." In every syllogism there are really four terms." If this is so, why is it commonly believed that a syllogism consists of only three terms?
9. Laws of causation must be expressed as tendencies only. Illustrate this truth if you can from the science of Political Economy ; if not, from some science with which you are acquainted.
10. What do we mean by the moral sciences ? Examine the chief objections which have been raised to the application of Logic to moral science.
11. Write a short essay on the place of hypothesis in scientific investigation.