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9. Give an account of the simple mechanical powers and their uses. Show how you can prove the force of the lever from the law of the parallelogram of forces.

10. Explain the terms mass, momentum, unit of mass. State on what the velocity of a moving body depends, giving an example.

(d) 11. Describe the thermometer and explain the method of filling and graduating it. Describe the scales of temperature in ase, and find the degrees Fahrenheit corresponding to 20° Centigrade.

12. Define the coefficients of linear, superficial, and cubical expansion of a substance, and prove that the coefficients of superficial and cubical expansion may be taken as twice and three times the coefficients of linear expansion respectively.

13. Describe the chief sources of heat, and explain the general hypothesis as to the nature of heat, mentioning any reasons for the hypothesis.

14. Give a description of an air thermometer, and state its advantages and disadvantages.

fe) 15. Describe the construction and mode of charging a Leyden jar. What circumstances affect the amount of charge which such a jar is capable of receiving ? How is the charge measured ?

16. Two equal small conducting spheres charged with quantities of positive electricity denoted by 1 and 4, repel each other with a certain force when the distance between their centres is 5 centimetres. If the charges are now equally divided between the two spheres, what must be their distance apart that the force of repulsion may be unaltered ?

17. Copper is five times as good a conductor of electricity as platinum. How is this fact experimentally proved ?

18. The amount of electricity induced by an electrified body on surrounding conductors is equal and opposite to that of the body. Give an experiment to prove this.

(f) 19. Describe the lowest known form of animal life, and state the facts that prove it is an animal.

20. “A plant may consist of one cell, live upon rain-water alone, revive after a long period of drying, and be capable of independent motion.” Examine the truth of these assertions.

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(9) 21. Refer the following to their places in classification, giving your reasons in each case : Sea-mouse, Sea-lemon, Sea-hare, Seacucumber, Sea-fan.

22. Make a diagram of the structure of a Nautilus, a Whelk, and a Lamellibranch Mollusc, such as Anodon or Ostrea.

23. What is meant by the terms diphycercal and homocercal? 24. Explain clearly how a fish breathes.

(h) 25. What is a leaf? Describe a plant of Dead-nettle (without the flower), giving the meaning of the terms,-node, internode, whirl, petiole, blade, lamina, and midrib.

26. Distinguish between parallel veined and net veined, whirled and scattered, opposite and alternate, foliage and floral leaves.

27. Do all plants have leaves ? Give three examples to prove the truth of your answer.

28. “A flower consists of several whirls of metamorphosed leaves." Prove this statement.

(k) 29. How are positions on the earth's surface determined ? State how the difficulties are met which occur in representing portions of the earth's surface in maps.

30. What are the principal constituents of the earth's crust?

31. Give the density of the earth's outer crust, and compare it with that of the whole earth. What do you suppose to be the cause of the difference? How has the mean density of the earth been ascertained ?

32. Are there any grounds for believing that the earth contains any heat but that derived by radiation from the sun? If so, state what the grounds are.


Higher Local.



All Students are expected to satisfy the Examiners in (a) and in one at least of

the subjects (6) to (9). No Student will be examined in more than three of the subjects (6) to (9) in one year.

(a) 1. Mention the chief forms in which Sulphur and Phosphorus exist.

2. Name the principal acids derived from Phosphorus, and give equations showing how they are formed.

3. What is the composition of Sulphuretted Hydrogen, and why is this compound of importance in analysis.

4. Define a unit magnetic pole, the magnetic moment of a magnet, a magnetic line of force.

5. What are the several attractions and repulsions acting between two unelectrified bodies according to the one-fluid theory of electricity as at present received ?

6. Explain fully the terms: Differentiation, Metamorphosis, and Life History, with reference to an organism with which you are acquainted.

7. Describe minutely a Hydra-viridis, and explain what is meant by saying it differs morphologically and physiologically

from a plant.

8. What is a crystal, a metal, an alloy, an ore?

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9. Describe the method of preparation of caustic, soda, and potash.

10. Give the names of the monad metals, and show, in tabular form, their chief resemblances and differences.

11. Give the chief, general, and special tests for the members of the calcium group.

(c) 12. Describe the construction of an induction coil.

13. State the laws respecting the action of conductors conveying currents upon one another.

14. What is the essential feature of a constant battery? Describe the compensation method of determining the electromotive force of a battery.

15. Describe some method of comparing the relative strengths of the earth's magnetic field in different localities.

(d) 16. Discuss the question of Root-pressure.

17. What path does the water of transpiration take in travelling upwards through a plant? Verify your answer by facts.

18. What conditions are necessary for the growth of a plant?

19. Explain the meaning of the words meristem, etiolated, heliotropic, geotropic, nutation, and torsion.

(e) 20. Describe the life-history and structure of a Crane-fly, a Cockchafer, and a Cockroach ; and contrast that of a Butterfly.

21. Describe the structure of a Spider.

22. Describe the nature and development of feathers, and contrast these avian structures with hairs and teeth.

23. Describe and compare the various kinds of scales.


24. Give an account of the lymphatic system and its uses.

25. Explain clearly the means by which the respiratory movements are effected.

26. Give an account of Hæmoglobin and the part which it plays in the animal economy.

27. Describe as fully as you can (i) the amphibian, (ii) the mammalian lung.


28. Describe the courses of the warm currents of the sea with which you are acquainted. Show how they affect the atmosphere above them, besides raising its temperature.

29. Account for the great irregularity of the mean annual isothermal lines in the northern hemisphere ; also for the variation of the mean annual isobarometric lines.

30. Into what great classes are the stratified rocks divided ? State accurately upon what grounds these divisions are based.

31. Distinguish between the acid and basic rocks. Describe the minerals composing one of the crystalline types of the acid and basic rocks respectively.

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