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pope was too wary to sign the decree, and the actual imprisonment of the sage lasted no more than twenty days, and that in “the best and most comfortable rooms of the holy office.”
In nothing, perhaps, is the papal power of literary patronage more enviable than in its protection of libraries, which no locks, or police, or penalties among Protestants can secure from kleptomaniacs. The invaluable library at Santa Maria Sopra Minerva, — the very spot where Galileo was incarcerated, - is open to all the world, and yet its books are safe. Their palladium is this. Over its door, in letters which he that runneth may read, you see a notice that whosoever carries a book through that door is, by that very act, ipso facto, excommunicated. On the whole Newman has reason to say: “Not a man who now talks bravely against the church, but owes it to the church that he can talk at all.”
Various outlays of the United States in the cause of knowledge have been mentioned in the course of this Article. But it may help to a better appreciation of our national contributions of this nature if we look, in a table, at the principal annual appropriations. Those for the official year ending with June 1874 were as follows: Coast-Survey, $852,828 ; West Point, $345,362; Naval School, $200,000; Naval Observatory, $42,600; Nautical Almanac, $20,000; Congressional Library, $54,646 ; Surgeon-General's Library, $10,000; National Museum, warming and repairing, $27,000; Testing strength of materials and experiments with new systems of guns, $153,000; Botanical Garden, $54,646 ; Making Maps, $30,000; Storm Signals, $88,000; Transit of Venus, $150,000; Western Explorations, $125,000 ; Bureau of Education, $34,850; Statistics (astronomical, etc.), $65,440; making a total of $2,253,372. But the actual outlay for the good of knowledge will probably amount to nearer three millions than two. In addition to this, President Grant, in compliance with a resolution of Congress, has invited the statistical association to hold their next, and ninth, congress in the United States.
Under the patronage of Belgium, Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, Italy, Holland, and Russia, that society has held one congress in each of those states. Should it accept our invitation, doubtless it will find our authorities shrinking from no outlay needful to render its first welcome in the New World a match for any reception that has greeted it in the Old.
Buckle and some others have depreciated patronage, counting it of little worth, and have even decried it as killing with kindness. “Glory,” says Lord Camden,“is the reward of science. When the bookseller offered Milton £5 for * Paradise Lost,' he did not reject it, and commit his poem to the flames, nor did he accept the miserable pittance as the reward of his labor. He knew that the real price of his work was immortality, and that posterity would pay it." But the foregoing facts — though their results, for want of space, have been only incidentally alluded to — seem to evince that patronage has done much in advancing knowledge. Its benefits would have been seen to be much greater, had showing private as well as public aid been my purpose. Yet candor demands the admission that pecuniary favor has done far less for genius than for talent. Genius “ is made better by no mean, but genius makes that mean.” Genius creates ; talent explains and applies. Genius is spontaneous ; talent is called out. Genius, stamped in nature's mint of ecstasy, can snatch a grace beyond the reach of art, and needs not, like talent, the aid of art. It is the wind, which “bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh.” Talent is steam, developed by man and under human control. So it is well said :
“ Talk not of Genius baffled; Genius masters man.
Genius does what it must, while Talent does what it can." Homer achieved immortality, without library, or printing, or perhaps writing. But who cver did before him? And how few have since! It is the nature of the aid ministered to talent, rather than to genius, by patronage, which has now been unfolded.
VOL. XXXIV. No. 133.
Governmental patronage of knowledge, as now passed in review, has been shown founding and furnishing universities and learned societies, building and equipping libraries and museums, laying out botanic gardens, collecting and publishing archives, offering prizes for advances to be made, rewarding them when made, importing men more precious than the wedges of Ophir, paying the charges both of single experts and of scientific parties sent forth - either within their own territories or to the uttermost parts of the earth and sea and air — to test the deductions of theorists and extend the area of knowledge, reinforcing explorers by official prestige and by opportunities for observation and experiment, lavishing money on religious establishments, and mitigating the rigors of war - a policy which has increased the number of students of truth, as well as their ability and zeal in their pursuit.
The Grand Seignior, when the Italian painter Bellini showed him the head of John the Baptist in a charger, declared the rendering of the muscles not natural, and, to justify his criticism, had a slave decapitated on the spot. This story, however false to fact, is true as illustrating the alacrity of many governments in testing, regardless of expense, the theories of students in all departments, and hence extending the area of knowledge.
Such patronage as we have now considered, beginning with the dawn of enlightenment, has grown with its growth in all the principal nations of the world. It is now most conspicuous in those which lead the van of civilization. It is increasing in every one of them to-day. Seeing what has been in the action of governments for the good of knowledge, no man can doubt what will be; just as on the western borders of Wisconsin, when we behold how far the Father of Floods has flowed, we cannot doubt but he will flow farther, “ spreading broad and more broad till he reaches the sea.”
NATURAL BASIS OF OUR SPIRITUAL LANGUAGE.
BY REV. W. M. THOMSON, D.D., OF THE SYRIAN MISSION, AUTHOR
or “ THE LAND AND THE BOOK.”
VI. — THE SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. From circumstances in which the readers of the Bibliotheca Sacra have no interest, the writer of these Essays cannot extend them so far as the nature of the subject may seem to demand. He is aware that many departments of the general subject remain to be developed, including such wide and suggestive topics as agriculture, architecture, domestic economy, food, garments, personal ornaments, amusements, occupations, trades, navigation, commerce, education, superstitions, diseases and medicines, death, funerals, and mourning, crimes and modes of punishment, miscellaneous manners and customs, and other things, almost innumerable, which have contributed more or less to the wealth of our religious language, but which do not readily group themselves around any common centre. Many of these considerations must be relegated to some future period.
The present Number will be devoted to certain topics which show that as the time drew nigh when the religion of the Bible ceased to be exclusively, or even mainly, confined to the Hebrews, the verbal vehicle — the names, metaphors, figures, and symbols — also ceased to be exclusively Palestinian. When, in the fulness of time, Christ came, and introduced that dispensation which contemplates all lands and is to include all people, these names, symbols, and similitudes became likewise universal, and many of them even Western and European. In a word, the natural basis for this part of our spiritual language must be sought for outside the Holy Land. To establish and illustrate this important fact, we select our
first example from the last chapter of the Old Testament. This selection will also show that some of these terms admit of indefinite expansion. So the amount of revelation - if the expression be allowable - which they contain will vary according to the knowledge and antecedent education of the recipients. This is pre-eminently true with regard to the sayings and parables of our Lord; but even such familiar words as Creator, Redeemer, King, Shepherd, and many others, will impart more or less of important truth in proportion to the previous culture of those who employ them. No better example of this principle can be selected than the prophetic title given to the promised Saviour by Malachi: “ Unto you that fear my name, shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his wings” (Mal. iv. 2). The attributes and offices of the material sun, obvious to all mankind, and which probably suggested the application of this name to the promised Redeemer, are, light-giver, ruler of the day, and source of genial warmth and universal life. Now, although these attributes and offices of the sun are in no way confined to Palestine, but common to all lands, yet our specific line of argument seems to demand that we find something in this country, or in the conditions and customs of the Hebrew people, which enhanced, in their estimation, the preciousness of light -- light in the habitation, in the city, and in the road; and this, we believe, can be shown without difficulty by the following considerations : First, as to light in the habitation. The ancient houses in this country were destitute of windows, – those of the poor absolutely so, - and thus they continue to be until the present hour. If there were any apertures, besides the door, for the admission of air and light, they were very small; and, as there was no glass in existence, or at least none available for windows, these apertures were closed either with stones, boards, or other opaque materials. Consequently, their rooms were gloomy and dark. This condition of things may be illustrated by the parable of the woman that had lost one of her ten pieces of silver. She lighted a candle, and swept the house to find it.