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and sharpen these for cutting; and, moreover, by thus cliciting sparks he made the accidental discovery of fire. Now all this may have been ; but it is an unscientific method to take our present knowledge of implements and their uses and prescribe from this the way in which the primitive man must have invented his tools. It is, to say the least, a curious accident that no such accident as is here imagined for the savage ever happened to the monkey; that it never occurred to him to crack a stone and shape it into a knife, or to gatlıer sparks for kindling a fire. And it is still more curious — indeed unaccountable upon the theory of a kindred intelligence — that no monkey, baboon, chimpanzee has profited by the example of man in learning to make implements of the crude native materials about him. Different tribes of savages, it is believed, havo separately stumbled upon these inventions ; but in all the ages since the Stone Age, no tribe of Simiae las either stumbled upon such inventions or copied them from man. The most savage tribes learn from civilized man to improve their weapons of warfarc; sometimes copy with deadly cffcct the weapons and tactics of their superiors; but no tribe of Simiae has yet learned to make the simple weapons of stone that even the rudest savage manufactures for himself. All experience teaches us that man is the only animal capable of fashioning an implement for a specific purpose ; and hence the implements of the Stone Age are a primitive demarcation between man and other animals.

This fact has no necessary bearing upon the question of man's derivation as to his bodily frame; but it does mark very distinctly a point of departure in the crude pre-historic data of our race. The Stone Age is after all an age of human capacity, discovery, invention, and also of prophecy, and we need not be ashamed of our connection with it. Admitting that the first suggestion of a knife, the first lint of fire, came of the accidental striking of two flints together; in the same senso it may be said that the invention of the

1 Sir John Lubbock's Pre-historic Times, chap. xiv.

steam-engine was accidental, being suggested by the vapor lifting the lid of a tea-kettle ; and if we may accept the legends about Newton and Galileo, the discovery of gravitation was due to the accident of a falling apple; the suggestion of the heavenly motions, to the accidental swinging of a chandelier. In every case there was something in the man for the accident to work upon; the accidental sharpening of the stone sharpened his capacity into a purpose for adapting inorganic nature to his use; the first spark struck from the flint elicited a spark from his consciousness that kindled to a flame of invention. What we see in the Stone Age is man asserting his supremacy over nature by taking into his own hands her raw materials and shaping these to his higher uses. The first attempts are crude enough, and . the progress to polished and ornamental implements, and to works in metal, is toilsome and slow. But the germ of great possibilities is there; the science of architecture is there; the science of engineering is there; the science of husbandry is there; all arts, manufactures, inventions are potentially there; for in building the cathedral, the fort, the viaduct, in forging Krupp's cannon, and the armor of the Thunderer, man is but carrying to higher and yet higher perfection that which he began to do when lie first formed the rough materials about him into tools and weapons for his own use. Но then began the mastery of nature through his adaptive intelligence and his purposing will. All that he lias yet accomplished in subordinating and adapting nature to his ends has been through the development of the faculty that first taught him to shape an implement out of a stone. That line of demarcation separates man on the one side from physical nature by all that is possible in invention, and on the other side separates him from other animals by all that is actual in achicvements over nature.

Hence the prominence given by science to the Stone Age involves no controversy with the philosophy of man. That age is not derogatory to man as philosophy would present him in his intellectual and moral attributes. The surveying,

measuring, choosing, purposing, conquering intelligence is already there, discriminating him from the brute not only quantitively, but qualitatively also. The old arguments of philosophy for the exaltation of man are indeed brought in question by modern science. Consciousness, language, reason, reflection, memory, imagination, the domestic affections, the emotions, and even the moral feelings — all these once assumed to be distinguishing prerogatives of the human species are now claimed in some degree for different animals. I shall not trespass here on this debatable ground. Science has first of all to do with facts, without regard to their bearing upon theories of philosophy and ethics. But it is science that offers us the Stone Age as an incontestable witness for man. And surely, the germs of the spiritual and the ethical are given in an intelligence that first addressed itself to the mastery of rude nature for human ends. The conquest of thought over matter began in the making of implements; and the first rude scratches to record memory, feeling, or fancy foreshadowed that supreme implement of thought by which man gives permanence to knowledge by the written page, records the phenomena of nature and the discoveries of science, and transmits to other ages the history of the race.






CHAP. I. 6 and he shall flay - Sam. and they shall flay; Sept. kal édel

ραντες. . and cat— Sam. and they shall cut; Sept. relcowolv. 7 the priest --- Sam. the priests ; Sept. oi iepels. 8 the head — Sam. and the lead ; Sept. kai tny kedalúv. 9 points shall he wash - Sam. 1300 shall they wash; Sept. Triv

νούσιν. . a burnt sacrifice - Sam. 1977 by it is a burnt sacrifice ; Sept.

kúprwuá łoti; Syr. 17 any. 10 of the flocks — Sam. 133 72377 13 of the flocks a burnt sacrifice.

. bus for a burnt sacrifice - Sam. omitted.

.lhis offering to the Lord קרבני ליהוה

.his offering- Sam קרבנו

אל פתח אהל מועד :At the end of the verse tlie Samaritan adds

nx po at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation he

shall bring it. 12 and he shall cut it — Sam. 1703 and they shall cut it; Sept. kai

διελούσιν. . 17 he shall not — Sam. and he shall not #34; Sept. kaì oủ.

CHAP. II. 1 frankincense thereon - Sam. frankincense thereon, it is an ob

lation 17 7000; Sept. Ovoia cori. 11 npn shall burn - Sam. "spn shall bring ; Sept. posolo ETC.

CHAP. III. 5 on the fire — Sam. Nato by DX DN 33 on the fire which is

upon the altar. 80 nx the blood thereof — Sam. 07 nx the blood. 9 and the fat - Sam. the fat.

seven times with his טבע פעמים באצבעו

.seven times



13 sons of Aaron — Sam. sons of Aaron the priests ; Sept. ci iepcís. 16 a sweet savor — Sam. a sweet savor unto the Lord 1:1733; Sept. το κυρίω. .

CHAP. IV. 5 that is anointed - Sam. yun x xbox hon that is anointed

who consecrates his hand; Sept. ó Teted cwuevos tùs xcipas. 6

finger; Sept. Tộ SacréAọ. 7 the blood of the bullock - Sam. the blood. 12 shall be carry — Sam. "W93177 shall they carry; Sept. (Codd.

AB) έξοίσουσιν. and burn Sam. 15701 and they shall burn; Sept. katakaú

σουσιν. . 14 young bullock Sam. young bullock without blemish ban;

Sept. άμωμον. . 17 and sprinkle - Sam. and sprinkle of the blood on 10; Sept.

από του αίματος. . before the veil — Sam. before the vcil of the sanctuary wypn;

Sept. του αγίου. . 18 he shall put - Sam. and the priest shall put.

of the altar — Sam. bacon n-op of the altar of sweet incense;

Sept. των θυμιαμάτων της συνθέσεως. . 24 he shall kill - Sam. Cho they shall kill; Sept. o účovou. 27 any of the commandments — Sam. nira boa nns any of all the

commandments ; Sept. Taoûv tûv évtodôv. 29 in the place — Sam. nx thea mex sipas in the place where

they kill; Sept. oŮ opáčovolv. 30 bottom of the altar — Sam. 12an nara 21217 bottom of the altar of the burnt offering (id. v. 34).

. he
the fat (id. v. 35).
35 priest shall burn them ons — Sam. priest shall burn.

3 . .

for liis sin which he hatha sinned, and he shall be forgiven;

Sept. περί της αμαρτίας και αφεθήσεται αυτή η αμαρτία. 8 and wring off-Sam. ;-an pen and the priest shall wring off;

Sept. και προςάξει ο ιερεύς.

as lie talkes away יסיר החלב .fat is taken away Sam הוסר חלב 31

.shall sin יחטא .shall be guilty Sanm כי יאטם 5

concerning lhis sin מחטאתו 6 על חטאתו אשר חטא ונסלח לי .Sam

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