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7 for I am the Lord — Sam. 079 8w7pm for I am holy, the

Lord; Sept. őri äylos éyù kúplos. 8 my statutes — Sam. all my statutes 30 nr. 19 thy mother's sister - Sam. thy father's sister; Sept. Toù natpós

oov. thy father's sister - Sam. thy mother's sister ; Sept. rîs untpós

gov. 23 44277 of the nation - Sam. Dan of the nations ; Sept. Tøv dvôv;

Vulg. nationum ; Chald. A 209; Syr. *2297. 26 for I the Lord am holy – Sam. for I am the Lord. 27 they shall stone them with a stone — Sam. Dann Oaxa ye shall stone them with stones ; Sept. λίθοις λιθοβολήσετε αυτούς.

CHAP. XXI. 2 for his mother, and for his father, and for his son — Sam. for his

father, and for his mother, for his son ; Sept. éni natpi kai émi

untpi. and for his brother — Sam. for his brother. 8 and thou shalt sanctify him — Sam. thou shalt sanctify him. 14 an harlot - Sam. 02977 or an harlot.

להקריב 17 .to bring nigh להגיש .to offer

-
Sam

20 in his eye — Sam. in his eyes.
21 Jpns to offer — Sam. omitted.
22 7773x on the bread of his God — Sam. omitted.

CHAP. XXII.

5 any creeping thing — Sam. Ade you any unclean creeping

thing ; Sept. &PTETOÙ åkadáptov. 8 he shall not eat - Sam. they shall not eat.

ויליד 11 ; and they that are born וילידי .and he that is born

-
Sam

Sept. kai oi oikoyevels; Syr. 47347 18 and of the stranger in Israel — Sam. and of the stranger that

lives in Israel myo 704, Sept. Tŵv mposykútwv TÛV POSKEL

MéVwv év ʼlopaña ; Vulg. qui habitant. 21 any blemish — Sam. and any blemish. 23 shalt thou make — Sam. shall ye make. 24 and the bruised — Sam. the bruised. 30 you shall not leave - Sam. and you shall not leave. 31 I am the Lord — Sam. omitted. 32 hallow you — Sam. swipa hallow them.

CHAP. XXIII. 4 these are — Sam. 1381 and these are. 5 in the fourteenth — Sam. in the fourteenth day 014; Sept. Ýquépq. 8 in the seventh day -- Sam. and in the seventh day 543%. 10 a sheaf — Sam. 034 the sheaf. 17 two wave-loaves — Sam. 0737 Danu two loaves ; Sept. dúo õprous. 18 two rams — Sam. two rams without blemish banen; Sept. ágú.

povs. 31 any work — Sam. and any work bsn (id. v. 36). 36 on the eighth day - Sam. and on the eighth day. 38 besides your gifts - Sam. banana bo besides all your gifts.

CHAP. XXIV. 3 Aaron — Sam. Aaron and his sons 1927; Sept. kai oi vioi aitou. 4 non continually - Sam. pay until morning ; Sept. els cò

pwí. 22 das unto you — Sam. 73 unto thee.

CHAP. XXV. 5 that which groweth — Sam. and that which groweth 78%.

of thy separation - Sam. gynge of thy separations. 6 for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and

for thy stranger — Sam. for thy servants, and for thy maiden,

and for thy hired servants, and for thy strangers. 13 in the year — Sam. and in the year. 20 our increase - Sam. our increases. 21 the fruit — Sam. Ong'an ns its fruit. 22 of old fruit — Sam. naaann of its old fruit. 25 if — Sam. and if. 35 771 and he may live — Sam. 778 nmn and thy brother may live;

Sept. (Codd. AB) ó åderbós gov. 47 the sojourner — Sam. Swin or the sojourner; Sept. tû.

CHAP. XXVI. 15 bx and when — Sam. bx when. 20 the tree of the land — Sam. 070m you on the tree of the field ;

Sept. tou šypoü. 31 your sanctuaries — Sam. your sanctuary. 39 in your enemies' lands — Sam. in their enemies' lands ; Sept.

των εχθρών αυτών.

בארץ 44 .in the lands בארצות .in the land

-
Sam

,גברא

CHAP. XXVII. 9 which they offer - Sam. Smpn which he offers (id. v. 11). 17 if from the

year

Sam. and if from the year. 22 297p he sanctifies — Sam. 04 297" a man sanctifies ; Syr.

.. 25 twenty gerahs shall be the shekel — Sam. twenty gerahs the

shekel. 26 only the firstling - Sam. only every firstling 74; Sept. Tây

πρωτότοκον. . 30 of the fruit - Sam. 0224 and of the fruit. 31 the fifth - Sam. and the fifth. [oimibes ofn 705p : 09370 DD 80 this is the third book (with) one

hundred and thirty Kazzin.]

ARTICLE VI.

GOVERNMENTAL PATRONAGE OF KNOWLEDGE.

BY PROF. JAMES DAVIE BUTLER, LL.D., MADISON, WIS.

The phrase “ Knowledge is power” may be no older than Bacon; some say it is not so old; but the feeling it indicates runs back of all chronology and round the world. It is implied in the very name man, which means thinker, and which is as old as the pre-historic Aryan cradle.

In no portion of any community has the appreciation of knowledge in some form been more conspicuous than in the ruling class. According to Carlyle the first sovereign was called “ king,” being regarded, as by way of eminence, the kenning man, because he who kens, can. The feeling that knowledge is power we see in the African potentate when he saw the first plow turning up its furrow, exclaiming in royal rapture, “ This will save me five wives.” We see it in Peter the Great throwing his arms round the statue of Richelieu, and crying out,“ Why were we not contemporaries? Then I would have given thee half my kingdom for teaching me to make the most of the other half.” We see it in

Turks for ages baffled by Greek fire; and in savage chiefs always and everywhere seeking fire-arms, regardless of expense. We see it in Philip of Macedon writing that he thanked the gods less for his son Alexander than for Aristotle as his teacher.

Believing that governmental patronage of knowledge deserves more attention than, so far as I know, that theme has received, I propose, as the subject of the present Article, Some of the Modes in which Governments have Patronized Knowledge or Contributed to its Increase. Let us render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's. I am well aware that public patronage is often more selfish than private gifts are. Frequently it has cost nothing to those public functionaries who have been its almoners, so that satirists would compare them to Dr. Reineke Fuchs prescribing for the sick lion a plaster torn off from the back of the bear. Still the application may have been as salutary as if the fox had made his medicament by the sacrifice of his own skin. So the dollars of the self-seeking may prove as beneficent as those of the benevolent, wherever money is the sinews of science.

Governments have been forced to patronize knowledge for their own interest, and that both in war and peace.

War under great captains has always been a science, and it has both called into its service the best knowledge of its time, and it has done its utmost to improve that knowledge. Mark the endeavors persisted in through all ages to render fortifications, navies, arms, and every warlike munition more scientific Remember among the ancients the walls of Babylon, of the Romans, of China; the bridges of Darius, Xerxes, and Trajan ; the Roman roads; the engines devised for Hiero by Archimedes.

Not a few governmental works of peace are no less noteworthy as marking dates in the progress of knowledge. Of this class are the palaces of the Pharaohs, Caesars, and of mediaeval or modern sovereigns by hundreds; the treasuries, from that of Athens to that of the United States; the Athenian propylaea ; statues and fountains everywhere; the ancient

Vol. XXXIV. No. 133.

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Colossus at Rhodes, — the modern at Munich ; Egyptian obelisks, Roman pillars, arches, and aqueducts; the German Walhalla; halls of legislation, from the Roman senate-house to the new-born capitol at Washington, or the parliamenthouse at Melbourne costing a million sterling. These are but a small part of the forms in which — thanks to the helping hand of government, accorded either for self-preservation or self-aggrandizement, there has been an endeavor to incarnate art or science in some new embodiment, and that, if possible, superior to whatever had been realized.

Governments have patronized various departments of knowledge less indirectly. Music and the drama are specimens.

The chiefest among singers and players have been court musicians, and through court patronage have reached their acme. So have poets also been developed. Pindar and Theocritus, the Athenian dramatists, Horace and Virgil, Ariosto and Tasso are familiar examples. You may even see in the British Museum the title-deed to a lot bestowed by a king of Assyria on his poet-laureate before Rome was founded. The success of one has given hope to all. It used to be said that whenever Calhoun took snuff all South Carolina would sneeze. So when the pencil, dropped by Titian, was picked up by the Emperor on whose dominions the sun never set; when Charles the First hung a diamond cordon round the neck of Rubens; when the Grand Monarque invited Moliere to dine with him ; when Wedgwood's queen's ware was adopted by Queen Charlotte, and when Goethe was buried in the mausoleum of the Duke of Weimar, every artist in the world felt honored and was stimulated. The use of public wealth by Pericles to pay for the admission of the Athenian demos into the theatre, has been pronounced a collateral recognition of the arts which expanded into the most intelligent fostering that they have ever had.

France, like Athens in her golden era, has always been a patron of the drama. In 1861 its annual appropriation to Parisian theatres was a million and a half francs. The Parisian opera founded in 1671 by public funds, in 1840 was

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