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children in some of the work which we are doing in Chicago. Our v connection has included cooperation with United Charities in the health supervision of their allowance families, and with the juvenile nection with the children of pensioned mothers. It is also includ operation with the Day Nursery Association in health supervisio day nurseries.

In the case of Rose A. the findings were as follows: thre tonsils large and cryptic; anterior cervical glands; nutrition f mendations were: dental care; watch throat; more milk; cere stop tea and coffee; sleep with windows open.

It is evident that such notations on the part of the phys from his point of view a knowledge of the program relating air, and exercise is an important factor in the diagnosis, ar details in the program essential to the proper care of the cas it seems highly desirable that as a factor in this continuo the mother should be present at the physical examinatio most excellent means of education for her in the care of he once established in her mind will then be re-emphasized } or nurse, who follows through on the suggestions made

Besides the first examination with its complete rec stock-taking of the habits of the child and of the fami history, there should be periodic examinations, whi less time, to indicate whether corrections have been 1 is being made. Since it is now generally conceded : pecially relating to weight and height, is an imp physical condition, no program of health supervisio which does not note regularly growth progress. A with reference to weight and height should be a p failure to make normal progress deserves attenti

This type of supervision, which is aiming upon very complete cooperation of all indivi child. The child itself, of course, must be inter on the program suggested; the physician's con and the nutrition worker or nurse provides child and mother to carry out the suggestio making contact with the family must be in s closely with the physician and nutrition wo: in the home the value of the advice given

Our method in working with the a duplicate social visits to the home, but monthly or weekly meetings with the social worker is also present. If she is worker later communicate in regard to th

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malnourished, enuretic, and those suffering from skin conditions, vaginitis, post-encephalitis, and the various deformities. General children's institutions are out of consideration, as they are entirely unsuitable for the care of these classes. Private home placements, hospitalization, or special institutions are the only facilities to be considered. The question arises as to which is the most desirable and effective mode of care. There are those who claim that the physically handicapped child, if permitted to be cared for in a normal environment, will develop an inferiority feeling on account of his handicap. On the other hand, there are those who hold that segregation in hospital or sanatorium or specialized institution makes the adjustment of the child in the community after the period of treatment so much more difficult.

Of all the classes mentioned the one most difficult to deal with is vaginitis. Opinion as to its nature, effect, treatment, cure, and prevention varies so greatly that a consistent policy is impossible or not even desirable. The claim is made by some physicians that vaginitis results in sterility, while others discount its seriousness and claim it disappears at the age of puberty without harm. There is also a difference of opinion in regard to method of treatment, and the only unanimity that exists is as to contagion. It is a question in my mind if any single children's organization can ever cope with vaginitis successfully until the medical profession itself comes to some decision in the matter. I wonder whether a social agency especially organized for the accumulation of material would not be the most effective way of getting to the bottom of the whole problem. Perhaps such an organization as the Elizabeth McCormick Foundation, of Chicago, which has done an unusual piece of health work for children, would undertake the care and treatment of children suffering from vaginitis for the purpose of such a study.

A practical medical arrangement for a children's agency, it seems to me,' would be to tie up with a clinic of good standing; to include on its staff paid physicians, part or full time according to the extent of the work and the resources of the organization. Such a physician should have the responsibility of the first and recurrent general examinations, the supervision and check-up on refers to special clinics, and arrangements for consultations, etc. The board of directors should have one or more physicians to constitute a medical advisory board. In addition, if the organization is large enough, the responsibility for supervision of the work with the physically handicapped should be placed with one person.

Quality, rather than quantity, should be the keynote of the private children's agency. The physically normal child can well be left to the usual community resources and public agencies. If the private organization used better judgment in intake and discharge its population would decrease to a considerable extent, thus liberating funds for the more intensive work with the physically handicapped child.



Jane F. Culbert, Executive Secretary, National Committee
on Visiting Teachers, New York

What social workers should know about the school.-Dr. Jesse H. Newlon, superintendent of Denver schools and president of the National Education Association, said that any worker from outside the school should study the present-day report system so as to know what the curricula and other activities are offering before attempting to propose any worth-while program from outside. He spoke of the fact that not infrequently people wished to introduce work through an outside agency because they believed the schools have not met some particular problem, when, as a matter of fact, they are basing their theories on no more recent knowledge than that acquired in their own school days. The schools are constantly changing and developing, said Dr. Newlon, and there is a strong tendency toward socialization and an increased realization that the school is for the child. Teachers, he said, will be found to be interested and ready to cooperate for a child in practical plans which are clearly set before them. Social workers should learn what services are offered in the school by its various departments, and through which of these departments inquiries regarding a child can be made. Assuming that the social worker is a trained person with a liberal education, particularly in the social sciences and psychology, Dr. Newlon feels that she is, and should be, a welcome contributor to the school services. The effort should be toward the integration of the educational and social forces in the school.

The problem of the outside social worker's reaching the right source of information in the school.-In discussion, the opinion was expressed by some that the social worker often feels unwelcome in the school and finds it difficult to obtain information, about a child, which is necessary to her plans. It was also suggested that sometimes the schools found it hard to give time for interviews with these outside workers. The general conclusion seemed to be that the social worker should obtain as detailed information as possible from a department or a central bureau in the school, such as a guidance department, or any other special service department. After that she should consult with both teacher and principal, but should remember that the school's time is budgeted, and should therefore have very clearly in mind what she needs to say or ask, and keep clearly to the point. In response to a question as to just how or through whom a more complete cooperation of educational and social forces can best be brought about, how their purposes are to be best united toward the educational aim, the visiting teacher was designated as the school functionary who, with experience in teaching as well as in social work, is able to blend the two professions in a manner to increase the school's efficiency in its own field of education through introduction of social work methods.

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Is it true that some children would be better off in industry than in school, and what is the responsibility of the schools?—This question was discussed in connection with the matter of compulsory attendance and the present-day tendency toward raising the compulsory age limit. It was said that in the cases of some over-age children the school had seemed to work more harm than good, and that occasionally a psychiatrist had advised industry in preference.

Mr. Newton H. Hegel, director of the department of research and guidance of the Minneapolis schools, further developed this point as one worthy of serious attention. As cases of serious school unadjustment had often been referred through his department of visiting teachers to the Child Guidance Clinic, Mr. Hegel asked that the problem be discussed by Dr. Lawson G. Lowrey, formerly director of the Child Guidance Clinic of Minneapolis, now of Cleveland. Dr. Lowrey called attention to children of the duller groups who, failing to make good in the regular curriculum, often become conduct problems in the more rigid school systems.

Miss Brown, principal of Skinner Junior High School, Denver, spoke of the very flexible system within her school, and the grading arrangement by which the duller children could advance at their own rate with a sense of normal achievement because of the adaptability of the marking system. She also spoke of the enriched curriculum, mentioning manual crafts, mechanics, shops, etc. She said that they had no trouble with children wishing to leave school, even from the dull groups.

Dr. Elizabeth Woods, school psychologist, Los Angeles, discussed modern trends in education which were developing out of the psychological gradings.

Dr. Lawson G. Lowrey emphasized the point that because the present school curriculum is too seldom adapted to the typical child one should not feel that the problem will be solved simply by releasing the child into industry, but look forward rather to the further development of the school to meet his needs. The concensus seemed to be that, when it comes to a point of responsibility for the child who wishes to leave school, provision for his education and training under supervision can be better met in the school than in industry. In this connection the problem of the gifted child was also introduced. Dr. Lowrey said that superior children, when misplaced in their grades and their abilities thwarted, will often produce a clinical picture not unlike that presented by the dull or even defective child.



Ralph Barrow, Executive Secretary, Connecticut Children's
Aid Society, Hartford

Professor Lang, of the University of Alabama, tells of a curiously interesting incident of which he had been a witness during a season of post-graduate work in the University of Edinburgh. Announcement was made of a lecture by Mr. Arthur Balfour on the subject, "The Moral Values which Unite the Nations." Professor Lang, desirous of taking advantage of so great an opportunity, was among the first to arrive at McEwen Hall on the appointed evening. Seated immediately opposite him, he noticed a Japanese student also engaged in graduate work. Mr. Balfour's lecture proved a masterly presentation of the different ties that bind together the peoples of the earth, common knowledge, common commercial interests, the intercourse of diplomatic relationship, and the bonds of human friendship. As the presiding officer arose, following the great wave of applause, to voice his appreciation, Professor Lang saw the Japanese student rise also, and lean on the balcony, and before the chairman of the meeting could speak, the Japanese student had asked, "But, Mr. Balfour, what about Jesus Christ?" Professor Lang said that one could have heard a pin drop. Everybody felt at once the justice of the rebuke. The leading statesman of the greatest Christian empire in the world had been dealing with the different ties that are to unite mankind, and had omitted the fundamental and essential bond. And everyone felt, too, the dramatic element in the situation, that the reminder of his forgetfulness had come to him from a Japanese student from a far-away non-Christian country.

It seems to me that application might well be made of this story. It is the moral values which unite the social work organizations of today with each other and with the communities in which they exist. By values, I do not mean alone the results obtained from the working out of problems along prescribed lines through masterly technique, but rather the gaining of the shining principle of human unity and the giving to mankind the instruments through which its common life may best be expressed, and by which its common work may most enduringly be done. Such values must of necessity be spiritual values, causing good to replace evil, beauty to transform ugliness, kindliness to cover cruelty, freedom to unshackle fear.

Spiritual values are of greater import than the most highly developed theories, which oftentimes are no better than empty gestures. They permit outgrowth of the growth of yesterday; they are the compensation for all suffering, all inequalities. They endure. I am convinced that we can no longer attack

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