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problem as a whole and to the development of other agencies. I should also wish to have facts which would show the quality of the service rendered, as well as the quantity. Surely I should have such facts available for planning the work of my agency, whether I dealt with a budget committee or not.

I should take the utmost pains to put these facts in graphic form. Charts would show the relationship between my own work and that of other agencies, and conditions in the community as a whole. Charts would show also the relationship between the cost of the various elements of my agency's service year by year, and in comparison with the costs of other agencies. These charts would be put in such shape that they could readily be seen by a committee of some size, either by having them made into lantern slides so that they could be shown with a stereopticon, or by having them photographically enlarged and mounted on pieces of linen two or three feet square which could be fastened to an easel. With these charts I could clearly illustrate any points which the facts indicated as to the necessity of increased appropriations on account of changing factors in my work, or on account of unmet needs or growing demands for service.

In addition to these charts, I would find great value in photographs of the salient features of the work of my agency; of the needs which ought to be met in the community that are not being met, and which it was proposed that my agency should meet, and of typical children as indicative of special problems to be handled. These photographs might either be made into lantern slides or enlarged and mounted, like the charts. When I had thus put in graphic form the facts about my agency and its problems, I should begin to plan the use of the second key to the hearts and minds of the budget committee. That key is the efficient presentation of these graphic facts to the committee.

A community fund budget committee usually includes nine or more members. Sometimes the agency representatives appear before a subcommittee of a budget committee, which in turn makes recommendations to the committee as a whole. The principles of presentation would, however, be little affected by the size of the committee. The point remains that a committee made up of individuals who know more or less about social work is charged with the responsibility of determining how much of the funds which it is thought may be available shall be given to each particular agency in the community fund membership. My discussion of relationship to the budget committee naturally divides itself into four main points: first, the mailing of suitable material to the budget committee; second, getting the budget committee to visit the agency; third, the presentation of the budget to the committee when the time for decision comes; and fourth, the attitude of the representatives of the children's agency toward the budget committee.

If I were superintendent of a children's agency wishing an appropriation from a budget committee, I should mail fact material about my agency at least once a month during the year to the members of the committee. Each month I would send a brief statement regarding some particular phase of my agency's

work to which I wished special attention given; such, for example, as the problem of rising food costs, the increasing number of children requiring attention because of desertion, or some other phase of the work which might require modification of the budget. I should make the suggestion, direct or implied, that I felt that the members of the committee who are charged with making appropriations to agencies might like to know how the money might have to be spent in the future. I believe the budget committee would rather have this material from time to time, when it could be readily assimilated, than concentrated into one mass at budget-making time. These bulletins could be mimeographed or copied with a ditto machine at very low expense. Charts showing the relationship which I desired to exhibit could easily be prepared in the same way along with the statements. This same material obviously could be sent to my board, so that it would be doubly useful.

I would also send to the members of the budget committee any printed matter which my institution prepared during the course of the month, and would include typical clippings of newspaper stories and editorials about my work. This should be done not merely because of the direct educational value of this material to the members of the budget committee, but also because they would get the impression that many people were reading about my agency and presumably thinking well of it. Such a program of direct mail advertising to members of the budget committee should aid tremendously in securing understanding of my agency's problems and would help to get the largest possible appropriation for it.

In addition to mailing material to the members of the budget committee, I should attempt at least once a year to get the members of the committee to visit my agency. They might, for example, be invited to take lunch or have tea at the institution. An invitation should be formally sent by the president. Members of the board should be detailed with their automobiles to bring members of the budget committee to the meeting. Some of the other board members should be present as hosts and hostesses. After the members of the budget committee had arrived at the institution, a competent member of the board, or myself, if I felt more competent to do so, should talk about the history of the institution and describe the special needs which required attention. Afterward, the members of the budget committee should be taken on a tour of inspection of the institution and be shown in detail those matters which required consideration in the next budget; such, for example, as needed repairs, additions to equipment, and needs for special workers. Each member of the budget committee should be accompanied by a board member or competent staff member who would answer all questions. At the luncheon or tea which preceded or followed the inspection, each budget committee member should be sandwiched between well-informed board members or staff members. When the affair was over, I should see that those members of the budget committee who did not

have their own automobiles were safely trundled to their own homes or places of business by board members.

If I ran a home finding agency with only an office, I should still get the budget committee out to see it in action. In addition to inviting the budget committee members to a special visit to the agency, I would see that they were invited during the year to such affairs as Christmas parties, annual meetings, and other events of unusual interest and importance. I believe that by this process of getting members of the budget committee personally familiar with the work, they would acquire a far more vivid sense of its needs and possibilities than otherwise would be the case.

The mailing of material to budget committee members and the inspection of the agency would be a double prelude to the presentation of the budget to the committee. I should take pains to have the budget very carefully planned and would make sure that it presented only actual and reasonable needs. My good intention would be shown by cutting former expenditures where cuts were possible and by proposing increases only where necessary. I should, of course, be careful to give full and precise explanation, in figures and charts, of the reason for every proposed increase in expenditure or decrease in income.

The budget would be prepared exactly as I thought it ought to be granted, rather than with leeway for a prospective cut. A budget committee soon learns which organizations expect to get cuts, and is likely to make an even greater cut than the organization thinks may be made. On the other hand, a well-prepared budget, adequately presented, will quite often go through the budget committee as presented, without change.

Arrangements should be made for the effective display, with a stereopticon or an easel, of the charts and photographs which had been prepared. In this way I could show the significant relationships in the budget proposals, both as to finances and as to service. I would have the main proposals typed and carbon copies available for distribution to members of the budget committee. Of final importance would be a good, businesslike speaker who would present briefly and vividly the various proposals on behalf of the organization. This speaker should be one who knows thoroughly the work of the agency and the details of the budget, and should be able to answer any questions which may be asked. I believe that with a budget thus prepared and presented I could more nearly secure from the budget committee the allowance my agency needed than by any other means.

Another matter of importance is the attitude of the organization toward the budget committee. I should let the facts speak for themselves in the presentation of the proposals for the budget. I should put the decision squarely on the budget committee, explaining what would be sacrificed, if cuts were made, in terms of human service. I should say in effect: "I leave this in your hands, believing that you will give the maximum amount which you have available. We

will be glad to do our best on whatever sum you can allow in view of the facts presented." In other words, I should make the budget committee a participant in the work of my agency and in the planning of its service.

Moreover, I should preserve the same attitude of fair play during the year. I would only use what money I absolutely had to use, and if I saw that I could make savings I would do so. If, then, during the year I found that I had to use more than I had planned for some item of expense, I would probably find the budget committee in a fairly responsive mood.

I should, further, always make requests of the budget committee for extra allowances before the expense was incurred, rather than afterward. A budget committee will usually grant a reasonable request made to it, but sometimes is naturally and properly stiff-necked when told that an expenditure has been made without the approval of the committee which allocates the funds.

As a further factor in my attitude toward the budget committee, I should never attempt to use any "pull" or do any "log-rolling." I would not try to elect members of the budget committee to my board of directors for the sake of the influence. I would not try to get a friend of mine to speak to a friend of his who is on the budget committee and ask for special favors. I should not bring a large delegation of impressive citizens before the budget committee when I asked for my budget. Such delegations make the budget committee suspicious that the organization has very little of real value in its work and feels that it has to depend upon impressiveness and influence rather than merit. As a matter of fact, one or two people who know the situation thoroughly are far more effective in securing adequate consideration of a budget by a budget committee than are any number of distinguished but uninformed citizens.

I believe that the children's agency which will mail material to members of the budget committee, get the committee to visit the institution, make a businesslike and vivid presentation of its budget to the committee, and maintain an attitude of fair play and of give and take toward the budget committee will secure adequate consideration of its needs.

This process is directly analogous to the larger task of the children's agency to inform the whole public of the nature of its work. The task I have described is the easier because there are so many fewer individuals in the budget committee than there are in the general public. The results of such interpretation should be quicker because the budget committee can make a direct appropriation, while money sought from the public usually can be secured only after a long, expensive, and difficult process. In other words, the interpretation of the work of the agency to the budget committee is merely part of the larger educational program which every children's agency should have.

In conclusion, then, I should say that the children's agency which will apply the principles of fact interpretation and of varied and effective presentation to the budget committee, not merely at budget-making time but throughout the

year, will be able to attain and maintain that position in the charities budget to which it is entitled, within the limits of the funds available. Such an agency, basing its relations to the budget committee on fact finding and fact interpretation, will save the time, energy, and worry of its superintendent and board members. It will secure more adequate understanding from the budget committee. It will be better financed than otherwise would be the case. It will have greater opportunities for larger and more effective service to those children whose needs its aims to meet.

Again, and for the last time I say it: facts and their interpretation are the two keys which will unlock the hearts and minds of budget committees, as they will, indeed, the hearts and minds of the community at large.


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