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endured with much long-suffering, the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction." One end it seems of permitting sinners to proceed to such lengths in sin, is to make known the divine power in their destruction. But annihilation is no exertion of power, it is a mere suspension of power. The words imply further, that the longer God endures with the wicked, the greater will be the manifestation of both his wrath and power in their destruction. But as annihilation is the same to every person annihilated, it exhibits no greater manifestation of power towards one than towards another. And if it were a manifestation of power, there would be no greater manifestation of power in the annihilation of one, than ́of another. It is presumed, that no unbiassed judge will say, that the meaning is, that God endures, with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath, to display his wrath and power in their annihilation; as the very same display of both would be made, without any long-suffering.

The only consideration urged from scripture in support of the sentiment, which I am opposing, is the application of the words, death, destruction, perish, corruption, &c. to the punishment of the wicked. This however came with a very ill grace from Dr. C. who understood, and was necessitated by his scheme of universal salvation, to understand, those words to mean misery, as I have already shown.-With regard to others, who make not this concession, let them, if they believe in revelation, (and with such only I dispute) reconcile the scriptures with themselves, and understand such like passages as those I have quoted above, representing the punishment of the damned, to consist in misery, in any consistence with the threatening of death, destruction, &c. otherwise than by allowing that those words do mean positive misery. But to allow this, is to give up the scheme of annihilation; or at least this argument for it.

Besides, the scriptures themselves explain their own meaning in the use of the words death, destruction, &c. The second death is expressly said to consist in being cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, and in having a part in that lake; which is not a description of annihilation, nor can be reconciled with it. Rev. xx. 14, chap. xxi. 8.—Mat. xxiv. 51, “And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with hypocrites, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth." To divide a man into two parts, as determinately expresses annihilation, as the words death, perdition, &c. This however the scripture supposes to be consistent with a state of misery, expressed by wailing and gnashing of teeth. Gen. v. 24,"Enoch walked with God, and was not, for God took him." In this instance, though the scripture says, Enoch was not, which more directly expresses annihilation, than death, destruction, &c. yet it explains itself to mean not annihilation; indeed no man pretends that the righteous are annihilated-When the scriptures say, that men are dead in trespasses- and sins, no man understands the expression to mean annihilation. The same may be said of the apostle's words in 1 Tim. v. 6, "She that liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth."

Therefore, since the scriptures do often use the word death, &c. to signify something entirely different from a cessation of life or of existence; and since we cannot make the scriptures consistent with themselves, unless we understand the same words in the same latitude, when applied to the punishment of the wicked, we are necessitated to understand them in that latitude.

II. As I observed, there is another sense in which annihilation may be holden, and was holden by Dr. C. .which is this; that though annihilation will not actually be inflicted on any man, yet it is the curse which was originally in the divine law denounced against sin; but

that Christ hath absolutely redeemed all men from that curse, so that no man is now liable to it. "By Christthey were absolutely and unconditionally put into salvable circumstances-Upon this foundation and this only, they are become capable of a future immortality."*"God might upon the first offence he" [Adam] "committed, have immediately turned him out of existence, as he threatened he would; the effect whereof would have been the total loss of all his principles bodily and mental, and of all his obligations." "The same grace through Christ, which continued Adam in being after the lapse," &c.t "It will further enhance our idea of the greatness of God's grace" [through Christ] "in restoring that possi bility of existence which had been forfeited by Adam's lapse," &c.§"Death-would have put a period to all possibility of perception or exertion in any shape forever, had it not been for the interposition of grace through Christ." "The term death when used with reference to the posterity of Adam, considered simply as such, cannot contain more in its meaning, than is included in it, when used with reference to Adam himself."T

On this hypothesis, the punishment actually suffered by the damned is no part of the curse of the divine law, but merely a necessary and wholesome discipline designed for the good of the patients. But this scheme of annihilation can, no more than the former, be reconciled with the scripture, which says the wicked shall receive according to their works, shall pay the uttermost farthing, shall have judgment without mercy, wrath without mixture, &c. Nor indeed can it be reconciled with Dr. C's book, which says, The wicked will be punished according to their deserts, according to their sins, according to the nature and number of their crimes and evil Ibid. p. 243.

* Page 132. Ibid. p. 244.

+ Five Dissertations, p. 198.
Ibid. p. 140. lbid. p. 144.

deeds; and so that the law will have its course, and the threatened penalty will be executed on some of them at least. These expressions certainly declare, that they will suffer the full curse of the divine law. Otherwise the curse of the law is a greater punishment than that which is according to the deserts of the wicked, and greater too than the full penalty threatened in the law; which is absurd and contradictory.

Here I might repeat the various arguments urged in the third chapter, to prove that the punishment of the damned is not a mere salutary discipline. But to avoid repetition, I beg leave to refer the reader to the considerations there suggested; and to proceed to other considerations, which may further show, that the future punishment of the wicked is not disciplinary, and that Christ hath not so redeemed all men from annihilation, that no man is now liable to it, if indeed that be the curse of the law.

1. If annihilation be the curse of the divine law, and the torments of hell be a mere salutary discipline; then there is no forgiveness in exempting a sinner from those torments. To forgive a sinner is to exempt or release him from the curse of the law; not to excuse him from a salutary mean of grace. If a physician excuse his patient from an emetic or from the cold bath, no man will pretend, that he exercises forgiving grace.

2. I wish the reader to attend to Gal. iii. 10; "For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things written in the book of the law to do them." This proves that all men are not absolutely delivered from the curse of the law, whether that - curse consist in annihilation, or misery temporary or endless: because some men are evidently supposed in this text, to be exposed to that curse.

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the works of the law," as doubtless many of the Jews of that day were, are expressly said to be "under the They therefore were not absolutely and unconditionally delivered from that curse. But if the curse of the law be annihilation, and all men be unconditionally delivered by Christ from that curse, how can any man be under it?

If it should be said, that this text is nothing to the purpose, because the curse here mentioned is the curse, not of the moral, but of the ceremonial law; it may be answered, If this text, with the context say nothing of redemption from the curse of the moral law, how is it known, that Christ, according to the hypothesis now under consideration, hath delivered all men unconditionally from annihilation, which is supposed to be the curse of the moral law? It is the 13th verse, which assures us, that "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law." If this mean the ceremonial law, it seems, we have no assurance that Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the moral law, be that annihilation or what it may; but all that Christ hath done or suffered notwithstanding, we are as liable to that curse, as we were before Christ undertook for us.

Besides, the curse of the law here mentioned, is the very curse mentioned in Deut. xxvii. 26, from which it is quoted. But that was not the curse of the ceremonial law, but of the moral, as every precept enumerated in that context, and to which this curse is annexed, is purely moral. Or if this curse be that to which any man is liable, who transgresses any precept, written in the book of the law; it will certainly include the curse of the moral law. For whether the book mentioned, be the book of Deuteronomy, or the whole Pentateuch, it contained the whole moral law. Therefore the curse here mentioned includes the curse of the moral law.

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