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Dr. C. says,* It can be no other than a flat contradiction to the express words of the Apostle himself, to say that in the latter part of the comparison in the 18th verse, the words all men are not used in the same extensive sense, as in the former part of that verse. This is indeed a strong, positive assertion, but where is the reason to support it? Beside; he thought it no flat contradiction to the express words of the Apostle, to say that we in the former part of the 11th verse, is not used in the same extensive sense as in the latter part of that verse: nor any flat contradiction to the words of our Saviour, to say, that the word everlasting is not used in the same extensive sense in the former part, as in the latter part of Matt. xxv. 46, "These shall go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into everlasting life."
But it is time we should proceed to the other argument of Dr. C. to prove that universal salvation is taught in Rom. v. 12, &c. viz.
4. The advantage by Christ exceeds, abounds beyond, the disadvantage by Adam. But unless all men be saved, the former" sinks below" the latter.f-It is granted, that the advantage by Christ, to those who obtain salvation by Christ, exceeds, and abounds beyond, the disadvantage by Adam. But the question is, whether this saving advantage extend to all those, to whom the disadvantage by Adam extended. That it does extend to all the same subjects to whom the disadvantage by Adam extended, is holden by Dr. C. But how does he prove it? By no other arguments than those which we have already particularly considered; and whether they be conclusive, is submitted to the reader.-Dr. C. did not imagine, that the advantage by Christ was more extensive, or extended to a greater number of persons, than
† Page 32 and 81, &c.
* Page 32.
the disadvantage by Adam. He believed, that they both extended to all mankind. Therefore, the superabounding, the excess, or surplusage of the advantage by Christ, does not consist in the extent of it, but in something else, and that something else may exist, though the extent as to the number of persons be the same, or even less than the extent of the disadvantage by Adam.
If the glory of God, and the happiness of the created system, be more advanced by the salvation of a part of the human race, and by the rejection of the rest, than they would have been, if Adam had never fallen; then surely the advantage by Christ on the general scale, does not "sink below" the disadvantage by Adam and to assert, that the divine glory and the happiness of the created system would be most advanced by the salvation of all men, is to beg material points in question.-But if Dr. C. mean, that if all be not saved by Christ, then the advantage by Christ to those who shall be finally miserable, "sinks below" the disadvantage by Adam to the same persons; I grant it, and apprehend no disadvantage to my cause by the concession. For it is granting no more than is implied in the very proposition, which I endeavour to defend, that all men will not be saved.
I have now finished my remarks on Dr. C's argument from Rom. v. 12, &c.-If the reader think I have been prolix in these remarks, I hope he will remember how prolix the Doctor was in his argument from this passage; and I presume he will not think it unreasonable to take up twenty-four pages in answering sixty-nine.
It is now left to the reader to judge, whether it be certain, that because the word many in the former part of the 15th and 19th verses means all men, it means the same in the latter part of those verses :-Whether it be certain, that the word many means all men, because
the article is joined with it, & Tool, the many :-Whether because the words all men in the former part of the 18th verse, mean all mankind, they certainly mean the same in the latter part of that verse:-Whether because the advantage by Christ exceeds the disadvantage by Adam, it certainly follow, that the advantage to every individual man, will exceed the disadvantage to that man.
IN WHICH IS CONSIDERED DR. C'S ARGUMENT FROM ROMANS VIII. 19-24.
THE text is," For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity not willingly, but by reason of him who subjected the same in hope. Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. And not only they, but ourselves also which have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body."-The words of chief importance are those of the 21st verse; "The creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of God:" which are supposed by Dr. C. to hold forth the salvation of all men. But the main question here is, what is the meaning of the word creature. Dr. C. supposes it means the human Others suppose it means the whole of the crea-. tion which was made for the sake of men, and is subject
ed to their use. Beside the word creature, the following words and expressions, "manifestation of the sons of God"-" vanity"—" willingly"—" bondage of corruption"—are all understood differently by Dr. C. and by those who believe in endless punishment. Let us therefore attend to them respectively.
I. The meaning of the words, creature or creation, is to be sought. It may not be impertinent to inform the reader who is unacquainted with the original, that the word translated creature in the 19th, 20th and 21st verses, is the very same which in the 22d verse is translated creation; and doubtless whatever be the meaning of it, it ought to have been translated uniformly throughout this passage.-Dr. C. was of opinion that it means all mankind or the rational creation of this world. His reasons for this opinion are, that "earnest expectation, groaning, travailing together in pain, are more naturally and obviously applicable to the rational, than the inanimate" [and brutal] "creation"-"that a 70s, the whole creation, is never used (one disputed text only excepted, Col. i. 15.) to signify more than the whole moral creation, or all mankind”—that "it would be highly incongruous, to give this style" [the whole creation] "to the inferior or less valuable part, wholly leaving out the most excellent" part, mankind.
1. "Earnest expectation, groaning, travailing together in pain, are more naturally applicable to the rational, than the inanimate" [and brutal] "creation."*-If this prove any thing, it will prove too much it will prove, that when in Psal. cxiv. it is said "The sea saw it and fled; Jordan was driven back; the mountains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs;" the meaning is, that men saw it and fled; that men were driven back; that men skipped like rams and like lambs. It will * Page 98.
prove, that Jer. xlvii. 6, "O thou sword of the Lord, how long will it be ere thou be quiet? put up thyself into thy scabbard, rest and be still;" means that men should put up themselves into a scabbard, and there rest and be still. It will prove that Hos. xiii. 14, "I will ransom them from the power of the grave: I will redeem them from death. O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction;" means that God will be the plagues and destruction of men and when once it is established, that death and the grave mean men, as men are to be ransomed from the grave and redeemed from death, it will follow that men are to be ransomed from themselves, and redeemed from themselves.-But there is no end to the absurdities which will follow from this mode of construing the scriptures.
The truth is, that the figure of speech, whereby inanimate things are represented as living, sensible and rational persons, and are addressed as such, is very common in scripture. Beside the instances already mentioned, I beg leave to refer to the following: Deut. xxxii. 1, "Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; hear, O earth, the words of my mouth;" Psal. Ixv. 12, 13, "The little hills rejoice on every side. The pastures the valleys-shout for joy they also sing;" Isai. lv. 12, "The mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands;" Hab. ii. 11, "For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it ;" Psal. lxxxix. 12, "Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name;" Psal. xcvii. 1, "The Lord reigneth, let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of the isles be glad thereof;" Isai. xxiv. 4, “The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world mourneth, languisheth and fadeth away." See also Psal. xcviii. 8; Isai. xvi. 8; xxxv, 1, 2; xlix. 13; Lev. xviii. 28, &c. &c.