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of praying for all men,"* mentioned in the first and second verses. The Doctor takes for granted, that it is our duty to pray for all men individually; and then concludes, that all men individually are those, whom God wills should be saved. But it is by no means true, that we are to pray for all men without exception. The apostle John expressly mentions a sin unto death, and for those who commit that sin we are not to pray; 1 John v. 16, 17. Our blessed Saviour not only did not in fact pray for the world, but openly and in the most solemn manner avowed the omission; John xvii. 9. And the prophet Jeremiah was forbidden by God, to pray for the Jews, for their good; Jer. xiv. 11. So that when the apostle in the first verse of the context now under consideration, exhorts to pray for all men, we must of necessity, as we would not set the scripture at variance with itself, under stand him to mean not all individuals without exception.

Beside, if it were our duty to pray for all individuals, it may not have been the design of the apostle in this passage to inculcate this duty. The Jewish converts to christianity were full of prejudices against the Gentiles, and above all, against the Gentile kings, and those, under whose authority they were; and who, in their opinion, had no right to exercise authority over their nation. Therefore with the utmost propriety does the apostle give the exhortation contained in the first and second verses of this context, though he meant no more, than that Christians should pray for the Gentiles of every nation, as well as for the Jews, and especially for kings and rulers among the Gentiles.

(2) The other reason given by Dr. C. why all men should be understood of all men individually, is the reason given, why God desires the salvation of all men, viz. that there is one God, and one mediator between God * Page 164.

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and men. "This," he says, a reason, which extends to all men" individually, "without limitation." Very true; and it is a reason, which extends to all men generically too: and therefore is a very good reason, why we should pray for the salvation of men of all nations; nor is there any thing in this reason, which proves, that the apostle meant, that all men individually would be saved.

As to Dr. C's reasoning in the following passage ;* "God is as truly the God of one man, as of another; and there is therefore the same reason to think, that he should be desirous of the salvation of every man, as of any man;" it is by no means allowed to be conclusive. It depends on this postulate, which is a begging of the question: That God cannot give existence and other common benefits to a man, and not save him. I might with the same force argue thus; God is as truly the God of one man, as of another; therefore there is the same reason to think, that he should be desirous of the temporal prosperity of every man, as of some men. It is no more granted, and therefore ought no more to be asserted, without proof, that salvation is connected with this circumstance, that God is a God to every man, in the sense in which it is granted, that he is a God to every man, than that temporal prosperity is connected with that circumstance.

Further, that all men individually are intended, Dr. C. argues from this, that the apostle says, "There is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." The Doctor says, that the man Jesus mediates between God and men universally. If by the mediation of Jesus, the Doctor meant such a mediation as will certainly issue in the salvation of all men; this again is a mere humble begging of the question. But if he meant a * Page 164.

mediation of the following description, that Christ hath made atonement sufficient for all men; is now offering the virtue of that atonement to all men; and is using a variety of means to persuade all men to accept and trust in that atonement, and to return to God, seeking his favour and eternal life, for the sake of Christ alone; it follows not at all from such a mediation of Christ, that all individuals will be saved. It no more follows, than from the facts, that God led the Israelites out of Egypt by the hand of a mediator; that he gave them opportunity to enter the land of promise; and that that mediator was the mediator of that whole generation individually; it followed, that that whole generation individually, would certainly enter the land of promise.

Dr. C. says, "No good reason can be assigned, why the man, Christ Jesus, should mediate between God and 66 some men only, to the exclusion of others." Can a good reason be assigned, why Christ leads to repentance in this life, some men only, to the exclusion or dereliction of others? When such a reason shall be assigned, doubt less we shall be supplied with a reason, why Christ should effectually and savingly mediate in behalf of some men only.

2. The other question concerning the meaning of this text, which also Dr. C. notices,† is, Whether there be a certain connexion between God's willing in the sense of this text, that all men should be saved, and their actual salvation.-Dr. C. grants that men as free agents have power to oppose those means which God uses with them for their salvation; and yet holds that God has a power to counteract, in a moral way, this opposition of men. Of this and other remarkable things in Dr. C. on the subject of free agency, particular notice will be taken hereafter. In the mean time it may be observed, that it * Page 165. + Page 166. Page 166, 167.

appears from various passages of scripture, that God is frequently said to will things which do not in fact come into existence, or with respect to which his will is not efficacious: as in the following passages: Matt. xxiii. 37, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets and stonest them which are sent unto thee; how often would I, nenod, have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings; and ye would not!" Hos. xi. 8; "How shall I give thee up Ephraim? How shall I deliver thee Israel? How shall I make thee as Admah? how shall I set thee as Zeboim? mine heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together." Deut. v. 28, 29; "They have well said all that they have spoken. O that there were such an heart in them, that they would fear me and keep my commandments always!" chap. xxxii. 28, 29; "For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding in them. O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!" Psal. lxxxi. 13; "O that my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel had walked in my ways!" Isai. xlviii. 18; "O that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! Then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea." Luke xii. 47; "And that servant which knew his Lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will." &c. Matt. xxi. 31; "Whether of them twain did the will of his Father? They say unto him, the first."

Now what right had Dr. C. to suppose, that the will of God in 1 Tim. ii. 4, is not used in the same sense as in the passages just quoted? And if it be used in the same sense, there is no more absurdity in supposing that the will of God should be resisted in the one case, than in the other: no more absurdity in the supposition, that God should will the salvation of all men, and yet all

should not be saved: than that he should will to gather together the inhabitants of Jerusalem, as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings; and yet that they should not be thus gathered.

Beside the texts quoted above, I may further refer to Ezek. xviii. 32; "I have no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, saith the Lord God." Yet his death did, by the words of this text, take place in fact. So that here is a most plain instance of an event which takes place contrary, in some sense, to the pleasure or will of God.-Dr. C's reasoning is this; Whatever God wills, will come to pass. God wills the salvation of all men; therefore this will come to pass. To apply this reasoning to the text last quoted, it will stand thus; Whatever God wills, comes to pass. But God wills the continued life of him that dieth; therefore it comes to pass, that he who dieth, does not die.

The truth is, God wills the salvation of all men, in the same sense that he wills the immediate repentance and sanctification of all men; or as he wills them to be as perfect, in this life, as their heavenly Father is perfect. He now commands all men every where to repent, to believe the gospel and to comply with the necessary conditions of salvation: and complying with those conditions, they shall be saved immediately after the present state. So that God's willing that all men should be saved, no more proves that all men will be saved, than his willing that all men should immediately repent, proves, that all will immediately repent; or than his willing that all men should be perfect in this world, and comply with his law as perfectly as the angels do in heaven, proves that these things will actually take place in this world.

It is presumed, that Dr. C. would not have denied, that it is the will of God in some sense, and that a proper

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