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necessarily implies the contrary. An enemy may be under the feet of his conqueror before he is annihilated, but after he is annihilated, he is neither under his feet, nor in any other place. To be under the feet therefore implies existence and sin may properly be said to be put under the feet of Christ, when it is so restrained and exemplarily punished, that on the whole no dishonour is done by it to Christ, or to the Deity; no evil results from it to the universe, or to any of Christ's real followers but on the other had it is made, contrary to its own tendency, the instrument of promoting the glory of God and of the Saviour, and of increasing the happiness of his universal kingdom, and of all his true subjects.

Dr. C. makes a distinction between God's government of power and his moral government; by which it is supposed, that he meant to show, that sin cannot be brought into subjection to Christ, but by the willing submission of the sinner. *Men by sinning oppose the government of God; not his government of power; for this ever was, and ever will, and ever must be, submitted to; but his moral government which he exercises over intelligent and free agents. Here is room for opposition. Men may resist that will of God, which requires their obedience," &c. It may be presumed, that the passage now quoted was entirely out of the Doctor's mind, when he wrote the following; ""Tis readily acknowledged, the glory of Christ's power, as head of the government of God, will be illustriously displayed, if by force only he finally subdues obstinate sinners." By this it appears, that it was Dr. C's opinion, that men do oppose the power of Christ, and the power of Christ as the head of the government of God too; and that his power may be illustriously displayed, if it be employed to subdue by force their

* Page 179:

obstinate opposition. But to say, that power and force are employed to subdue obstinate opposition, and yet that this opposition is no opposition to that power and force, is as absurd, as to say, that a prince exerts his power and force to subdue the opposition of an army of rebels, and yet that those rebels do not at all oppose his power; or it is as absurd as to say, that opposition can be subdued where there is no opposition.

It is by no means clear what Dr. C. meant by God's government of power, as opposed to his moral government. Can there be any government without power? It is plain by the last quotation, that Dr. C. did not imagine, that God's moral government is without either power or force, and that both power and force may be employed to subdue sinners, who as sinners are subjects of God's moral government only.-But let the Doctor hav meant by this distinction what he will, it is by no means true, that sinners are always so far restrained and subjected by God's moral government, that in the present state of things, and if all things were to remain as they now are, no dishonour would be done to God, no injury to his kingdom, to his chosen people, or to the intellectual system. There is room therefore for sin and sinners, in this sense, to be subjected and restrained by the government of God. When "the wrath of men shall praise God, and the remainder of wrath shall be restrained," then will sinners be brought to that subjection to Christ, of which I am speaking. But Dr. C. would not pretend, that in this sense, sinners ever have been, ever will be, and ever must be subject to God.-In one word, to be subjected to Christ is to be made either actively or passively subservient to his purposes and to his glory.

When the enemies of a prince are overcome, and in chains and prisons are restrained from interrupting the

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peace and happiness of his faithful subjects; then they are put under his feet and are subjected to him, and all their "rule, authority and power, are put down or abolished." So when all the enemies of Christ, all "obstinate sinners" shall be, to use Dr. C's own words, "by force finally subdued," shut up in prison, bound with chains, and prevented from doing the least mischief to the disciples and kingdom of Christ; then those enemies will be put under the feet of Christ; then "an end will be put to the dominion of sin ;" then the works of the devil will be destroyed; then the serpent's head will be bruised, and the devil's kingdom will be overthrown, as really and effectually, as the power of a rebel can be overthrown by an entire conquest of him and his adherents, by his perpetual imprisonment and other proper punishments according to the laws of the kingdom, though he and some of his partizans be permitted to live, and though they retain a rebellious spirit.-The verb vxolacaw in Rom. viii. 20, signifies, as Dr. C. holds, an involuntary subjection. It may therefore mean the same in Heb. ii. 8, and 1 Cor. xv. 27, &c.

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Doctor C. insists on the words in 1 John iii. 8, “For this purpose was the Son of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil." By the works of the devil, he understands all sin: by destroying he understands an entire abolition. On the other hand, by destroying the works of the devil, some understand a perfect defeat of every attempt in opposition to the peace, happiness and glory of God's kingdom: "The devil will be most effectually subdued, his works will be destroyed and his head bruised in the highest sense and degree, when he shall be perfectly defeated and disappointed in all his designs, and every thing he has attempted against Christ and his interest, shall be turned against himself, to answer those ends which he constantly sought to de

feat by all his attempts; and Christ shall be more honoured, and his kingdom more happy and glorious forever, than it could have been, if Satan had never opposed him, or seduced and destroyed any of mankind.”*—As the text now under consideration is capable of the sense just given; until it shall be proved, that the Doctor's is the true sense, it proves nothing to his purpose.

Doctor C. grants,† That by destruction the scriptures mean the misery and punishment of sinners. Therefore sinners are in the sense and language of scripture destroyed, when they are sent to the place of restraint, imprisonment and misery prepared for them. And as sinners will be destroyed without annihilation, so may sin and the works of the devil.

That God has always power to subdue or to subject to himself his enemies, is one thing: actually to subject them, by restraining them from doing any damage to his kingdom or his subjects, is another. In the present state, the enemies of Christ tempt his subjects, obstruct his cause, and do many things, which if they were to remain as they now are, would be an everlasting dishonour to Christ. But they shall be made his footstool, they shall no more do any of these things.

When Christ puts his enemies under his feet, he treads them down in his anger and tramples them in his fury, agreeably to Isai. Ixiii. 3. But this surely is not to bring them to a cordial reconciliation.

Therefore, as Psal. viii. 5, 6; Heb. ii. 6-9,' are fairly capable of a construction entirely different from that on which Dr. C's whole argument from them depends; they prove nothing to his purpose: especially as they are not naturally capable of his construction.

We are now to attend to Phil. ii. 9, 10, 11; "Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a † Page 224.

*Hopkins's Inquiry into the Future State.

name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father."-The question concerning this text is the same as that concerning the text last under consideration; What are we to understand by that subjection, to which Christ in consequence of his exaltation, was to reduce mankind? Is it a free and voluntary subjection in all men? Or in some men a subjection to which they shall be reduced by the power and authority of Christ, in opposition to their own inclinations? Dr. C. asserts that the former is the most plain and natural sense, and that the latter is evidently too low and restrained an interpretation. But positive asser

tions prove nothing.

As to the Doctor's reasons to prove that the subjection in question is a free and voluntary one, they are as follows; That Christ is now endeavouring to reduce mankind to a voluntary subjection to himself.* That though Christ do not in this state, prevail on all men voluntarily to subject themselves to him, yet he may prevail on them in the next state.t-That if Christ was exalted for this end, that every knee should bow to him, &c. he will fail of his end unless all men be reduced to a voluntary subjection. That the genuflection in this Phil. ii. 10, evidently means a voluntary act.§-That a compelled subjection is a poor, low kind of subjection in comparison with that which is voluntary; therefore the reward of Christ's humiliation, unless it imply an universal voluntary subjection of mankind, is low and small in comparison with what it would have been, had it implied a voluntary subjection.||

* Page 190. | Page 192, 193.

† Page 191.

+ Page 192.

Ibid.

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