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ideal of orphan education, when combined with the cottage system and training in practical agriculture.

The National Farm School, founded recently by Rabbi Joseph. Krauskopf, near Doylestown, Pa., whose object is "the fitting of capable boys for practical and scientific agricultural callings," is an immense step forward in Jewish child-saving.

It is impossible to give the reasons in a short paper why the Jews, who were a race of shepherds and agriculturists, were forced to become merchants. Students of history know that during the dark ages — up to a recent period a Jew was not permitted to own land, to till the ground, or to become a member of a trade's guild. Thank God, the clouds of intolerance, of race hatred, are beginning to be dispelled by the benign rays of universal brotherly love and benevolence. Especially here, in this blessed country, where freedom and equality are the sacred inheritance of the humblest of its children, a new era of happiness is dawning for mankind. Let us all work in harmony to remove all pauper children from the large cities and scatter them through the country, or raise them in agricultural or industrial colonies, making good farmers of them, or teach them a trade by which they can make an honest living, and the problem of child-saving will be solved.




The title "Humane Society," as denoting an organization which includes the protection of both children and animals, was adopted by the Illinois society in the year 1877,— the first society, I believe, which joined the two services. It was believed that by such action it would be strengthened in its work, that it would induce a still closer sympathy and deeper regard and receive a more willing material support.

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The decision to include children was not reached without opposition within our own organization. It was feared that, with a horse and a child calling at the same time for help, the horse would be likely to suffer, at least by delay. But, as a matter of fact, there has been no collison of interests. It is recognized that the child cases never really interfere with the animals' protection, for the action of the society in the separate fields is too dissimilar in process. The animals' cases, being more simple, receive prompter disposition; while those of children require more exhaustive examination and more serious consideration, having in view, as they do, the separation of child from parent by judicial process as a possible conclusion. Indeed, many cases of animal cruelty may be disposed of during the process of disposition of one of those of children.

Recalling those days, I think we have been amply justified by that action, not only by our own experience, but by the fact, as I believe it to be, that no society for the prevention of cruelty to animals — perhaps none for the prevention of cruelty to children— has been organized since that date (1877) but the title "Humane Society" has been commonly adopted, and both services united thereunder.

When a humane society is established, all information of the misdeeds of the community related to its specialty flows toward it; and the neighbor in the flat above or in the shop below, the passing wayfarer, the policeman on his beat, everybody who loves a child, and nearly every one has at least pity for one in distress, will willingly carry the news of child abuse to the society, and set the remedial agency at work. The examination of the facts is the next step; and to this none but experienced, clear-headed, and absolutely trusted agents are assigned. Upon their report a decision is reached as to the proper action to be taken. Advice, admonition, help that may be possible in cases of misfortune and distress, and, in the more aggravated cases, prosecution, with loss of the child by the offender, and fine or imprisonment in jail or (in the worst cases) the penitentiary, follow.

The police of our large cities have too often a feeling of uncertainty in the results personal to themselves of duty done. Many a good officer has been spoiled by his experience with influential politicians. A short time ago a patrolman told me he knew better than to make arrests for certain offences, when committed by per

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sons who had political notoriety, as his dismissal or removal to some less favored precinct would be sure to follow. For such reason, and because the humane societies will apply all necessary means to their proper disposition without fear or favor, the police are glad to refer cases of cruelty to children to the society.

The effect upon a community of an active, well-organized, and well-governed humane society is obvious. The child-abuser's knowledge of its jurisdiction grows rapidly, nearly every day's public record presenting something for his consideration; and he receives much reliable information of its promptness in action and its thoroughness in the enforcement of the law, combined with the important fact that it can neither be brow-beaten nor humbugged, is neither corruptible nor otherwise acquiescent, all of which is, I believe, absolutely true. These principles give a sense of protection from cruelty, which has thus at least a court to appeal to, an ear that listens, a heart that understands, a willing and an effective arm.

The Illinois Humane Society since the year 1880 has taken jurisdiction of 14,773 cases of sufficient importance to record, in which the charge was cruelty to children in one form or another. And, while remedying the condition of all, it has lifted entirely out from unendurable conditions 3,185 of these children.

Chiefly through the instrumentality of humane societies the sev eral States have now upon their statute books laws to protect the abused child, to punish the offender, to separate the child from those who are unfit to have control of it, so that the “unwanted child may be placed in a position and under an influence and government that will give it the hope and the means of a better future, removed from the vice and ignorance of its present conditions, in which new home it shall be surrounded by examples of industry, disciplined in morality, and taught self-support, and set safely upon its feet in the right path.

Not alone, however, in its corrective and disciplinary work is the influence of the humane society felt among children. It strives to be educational as well. In the bands of mercy now receiving support, more or less active, from all the groups or constituents engaged in the prevention of cruelty, the humane society is making its benevolence most practical, as it seeks to instruct the growing mind; for a child kind to its dog, its cat, or its bird, cannot, without a

moral wrench, be cruel or indifferent to parent, city, State, or nation. At least, this is our theory; and we are willing to work upon its lines.

It is fairly estimated that through the work of the American Humane Education Society of Boston (of which Mr. George T. Angell is president), and the sympathetic and related efforts by humane societies throughout our country, fully a million and a half children have listened to this special gospel of kindness; and who shall say what proportion of these have been influenced for permanent good by that teaching?

It is at this point the humane society may most beneficially touch the child. None can estimate the great value of this early influence Some ten years or so ago the Illinois Humane Society organized bands of mercy in every public school of the city of Chicago, and in very many private, secular, and Sabbath schools. Some 75,000 children were then brought in immediate contact with the Humane Society. Since that year its band of mercy work has gone on among the children, as time and opportunity have served; and so the knowledge of this great mission is kept alive, to be utilized and carried forward by friends of children everywhere.

That which our State most needs to-day, in our view, is a State institution, which shall not be penal, but which shall be permanently open to street waifs, to be gathered up from the alleys, and taught something of duty in life, instructed in handicraft and made selfsupporting, at the State's cost, before they become criminals, and whose friendly doors should be firmly shut against all association with the ignorance, brutality, and crime which have brought these children there. Until we have an institution such as this, the work our private reformatory institutions can accomplish, with all their noble efforts and care, must fall far below the actual, imperative, and almost desperate need. Along this line, several of our philanthropic men and women are working; but so far they have been met by ignorance and selfishness, and action has been deferred. Success, however, will come to these wise men and women ultimately, as it should, as indeed it must.

We are constantly pressed upon by the knowledge that the disgraceful spectacle of private greed and public corruption is the result of indifference to the moral welfare of the growing child. How can a man be charged with dereliction of duty to his neighbor who has never heard of his neighbor? Why should not a child who has

consorted with criminals, with enemies of society, in his formative years, upon the first reasonable opportunity betray the "public trust " he has bought and fought himself into the possession of? It is the stupidest fatuity to expect the thistle to grow figs.

Let us, then, my friends, sustain and support with all the enthusiasm and determination of which we are capable, by liberal contribution of our surplus means, but more by our intellectual and moral effort, the humane societies of all lands, by whatsoever name they may be known, and every honest effort, organized and unorganized, by which childhood is being reached for good, and especially those groups in which some moral teaching has a place in the curriculum. If honor go not hand in hand with the multiplication table in our schools, we but raise the intellectual grade of our convicts, while their numbers increase.


But, if we shall care judiciously for these "unwanted children of our great communities, and early separate them from the evil that surrounds and is destroying them and us, and, with a sense of our own duty to them, instruct them in their duty (though that instruction should include nothing more),—their duty to self (to live cleanlily and industriously), their duty to their parents (to love, to honor, and to obey them), their duty to their neighbors (the community in which they live), and to the State (to serve it honorably, and not betray it),— we shall be doing unto these as we would be done by, giving them that which will lead to their happy self-support, individual self-respect, and civic pride and honesty, without which, though a city or a nation may boast its millions of population, yet, with the great majority but human waste in process of development into paupers or criminals, that city or nation is truly but a desert, a by-word, a hissing, and a reproach.

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