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school 90 boys receive four hours' instruction in it each day. The instructor is a Swede, and a graduate of a sloyd school in Sweden.

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Industrial education for girls is being provided in all the large cities of the United States. The Boston public schools teach sewing, dress-cutting, dressmaking, and cooking. I hail the advent of an age when the woman is given equal chances with man in the race of life. While we might wish that "storms could ne'er assail' our sisters and daughters, yet our wishes are of no avail. In the stern battle of life they are assailed by the worst of storms, and it behooves them to be prepared to "stand the storm." I long to see the time when it will be fashionable for young women, even of wealth, to learn to support themselves. In Indiana 9,000 women are teaching school. Other thousands are clerks, typewriters, telegraphers, and book-keepers. To the thousands of others who follow domestic employments, it should be no disgrace. Our girls' reform schools, as a rule, fit girls for domestic life, and do the work well. Women are largely employed in the business world. One watch factory in Massachusetts employs 1,800 women. Go out on the streets of any large city between six and seven in the morning, and you will see hundreds of young women going to their places of labor. This is right. It is an assurance that the time has come when a young woman need not marry in order to have a living assured: she feels independent. Girls should not grow to womanhood with no other object than marriage. They should be trained to do some work in life. The preparation would not injure them for domestic life. Idleness is a bane to any one. No one can lead

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a truly moral life, and be idle. The workshops of the devil open the moment those of honorable toil are closed. Dissipation hides its head in the presence of honest toil. When the busy world is at labor, even crime itself retires to its lair, to come forth for its prey only at nightfall.

I do not underrate the work of our day schools, nor of religious. and moral instruction. These are essential, but alongside of them place trades teaching as first and foremost.

SEVEN YEARS IN A JUVENILE REFORMATORY.

ABSTRACT OF A PAPER BY. F. H. BRIGGS,

SUPERINTENDENT STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, ROCHESTER, N.Y.

There is perhaps no one element in the economy of the government of a modern State about which people in general have so radically different notions as they hold in reference to reform schools. To the great mass of people they are prisons where young criminals are punished for their misdeeds.

During the last session of the New York State Grange, which was held in the city of Rochester, the State Industrial School was honored by a visit from its members. It was amusing during the course of the inspection to hear the children spoken of as convicts; and the climax was reached, after all had assembled in the chapel, and different visitors had spoken briefly to the children, when one granger cried out from the gallery: "Where's the keeper? We haven't heard from the keeper yet.”

The great mass of well-to-do, law-abiding people give little thought and less sympathy to the lawless class. With them it is sufficient that they are punished for their misdeeds. The first and most important lesson that the reform school worker has to learn is that punishment as a retribution has no place whatever in the economy of the world. He learns, or ought to learn, that only as punishment is used as a means of instruction and growth has it any place in human life.

The idea that the wrong-doer should be taught to do right, and that he should be imprisoned, not for the sake of the punishment, but that an opportunity may be offered whereby he may be taught to overcome his weakness, if followed in dealing with criminals, would soon bring about a very different state of affairs from those existing at the present time.

The reform school worker, coming daily in contact with those who are more weak than erring, grows to view these so-called crimes as largely the result of a failure of the criminal to properly correlate cause and effect. No punishment has ever been found sufficiently severe to prevent law-breaking. Nothing but changing the constitution of the mind and the current of men's thoughts will prevent that.

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Experience in a reform school shows that education, physical, intellectual, and moral, is the means by which delinquent and criminal humanity is to be brought up to a normal plane of living. The physical must be developed and educated, in order that the brain may be aroused and quickened. This can only be accomplished by those employments which present a constant train of difficulties to be overcome, thus demanding increasing skill and power. Industries pursued for profit, because of the desire to make money out of the inmates of institutions, do not answer the requirements in this regard.

In order that the labor of inmates may be profitable, the work must be so subdivided that one person will do but a very small part of the making of a garment, a utensil, or machine. This requires but a short time to master; and thereafter there is no acquisition of physical skill, no demand upon the brain to produce development. With trades regularly taught this is not true. With them there is one difficulty after another to be overcome, one obstacle after another to be surmounted. The skill derived in perfecting one thing is immediately utilized in perfecting something more difficult, more complex. The result is continued physical development, which in turn reacts upon the brain, as has been proven time and again.

But trade teaching alone does not call into play and develop all the muscles of the body. Physical culture or military training is required to do this. I have seen puny, sickly, stoop-shouldered, illdeveloped boys changed by a year of military and industrial training into erect, healthful lads. The development of the physical, however, is not an end: it is simply a means to an end. The end sought is the development of the intellectual and moral. I say intellectual first, not because I regard it as more important, but because I believe there must be a quickening and developing of the intellectual before there can be any healthful proper quickening of the moral.

That the American people on both sides the frontier believe that education is essential to the proper conduct of life of the individual is abundantly attested by the sacrifices made by parents, the hardships and privations which they endure, to enable their children to obtain as high a degree of education as possible. For this reason communities assume heavy burdens of taxation to found and conduct schools for the training of youth. If, therefore, education is necessary for the normal child, how much more essential is it to the

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abnormal classes with whom institutions have to do! I do not think I shall be challenged in the statement that they are abnormal. There is an indefinable something which marks the difference between those for whom the State is obliged to care and those who are capable of and do care for themselves.

Experience in a reform school teaches beyond a shadow of a doubt that education should stand first in importance in the work of reformation or, more properly, formation. A school may be more correctly judged by the character of the teachers which it employs than any one other thing about it. One has aptly said, “It is not the buildings, nor libraries, nor laboratories, which make a college or university: it is the men and the women who are there, with noble ends and high purposes to arouse and quicken mind, and to make men and women.”

Wherever there is one earnest, consecrated man or woman, whether in a backwoods school-house or in the noblest edifice the brain of man has yet conceived, there is a college; and there minds are being developed and quickened, and fitted for the duties of life. If, therefore, day by day the boys and girls in reform schools come in contact with teachers who have the earnestness of a noble purpose and the refinement which comes therefrom, they do not fail to gain in those qualities which go to make up manhood and womanhood.

What we need in reform schools are fewer whips, straps, and other instruments of punishment, and more men and women who believe that bad boys and bad girls can be made better, and that they are the ones who can teach them to be better.

The question is frequently asked, "What takes the place of corporal punishment in enforcing discipline?" Our system is this. We have a separate building known as the guard-house. To this all offenders are sent, if found guilty at a hearing before the disciplinary officer. This guard-house consists essentially of a corridor 200 feet in length, and 10 feet in width; fourteen rooms, each 10 × 14 feet in size, closed by double doors and lighted by a lantern in the roof, in which are four windows, 24 X 48 inches in size. Ventilation. is provided for the entire building by means of two electric fans, one of which forces pure air into each room, and the other draws out the impure air. In the corridor of this building offenders against the good order of the school are subjected to military drill from seven o'clock in the morning until six o'clock at night, with short intervals

of rest, and an hour in which to eat dinner. This military drill consists in marching to and fro for a half-hour, standing at ease for fifteen minutes, then using military setting-up exercises, which are calculated to symmetrically develop the entire body. The marching follows these again, to be in turn followed by the standing at ease, and so on throughout the day. A boy who is refractory, and refuses to obey the orders of the officer in charge of the guard-house, is put in one of the solitary confinement rooms, and kept there until he is willing to be obedient, whether it be six hours or six weeks. If for any extended period, however, one hour's exercise is allowed him during each day. During their stay in the guard-house their food consists of six ounces of bread for each meal and as much water as they desire. If the detention is long continued, the regular diet of the institution is given on Wednesdays. Deprivation of a meal is a frequent means of discipline for slight offences. The question may be asked, "Why is not the infliction of corporal punishment a more speedy and effective means of discipline?" I do not so regard it. A man's life is the result of his thought. There is nothing in the application of corporal punishment which has to do with the changing of a person's thoughts. On the other hand, the guard-house affords an opportunity for thought; and the boy is led to see the relation. which the two forms of conduct bear to his comfort and well-being. If he behaves himself, is obedient and respectful, he shares with the other cadets of the school the excellent meals which are provided, the sports of the playground, the good opinion of the officers. If he offends against good order and decency, he is shut away from all these things, where he can see nothing of what is going on. He, perhaps, has considered himself an important part of the institution; but he goes into a private apartment in the guard-house, stays for a shorter or longer term, finds that things have gone on very much better without him, and then realizes what all the rest of us have to realize,― that he is but a grain of sand among the myriads on the seashore. His personal comfort has been interfered with because of his own misconduct. So he arrives at the conclusion that the wise thing to do is to be obedient and law-abiding. Corporal punishment is not necessary to the proper conduct of an institution, and has no place in this nineteenth century.

Moral and religious teaching plays an important part in the proper education of delinquents. In the State of New York we believe in

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