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and practise absolute freedom of worship. The State Industrial School has both a Catholic and a Protestant chaplain, and to its Jewish inmates religious instruction in accordance with their faith is given. This has been in force with us for the past ten years and more; and we would not, under any circumstances, desire to change it.

One very important fact taught by reform school experience is the need of constant supervision by officers both day and night. To insist that every child shall be constantly under the eye of an officer during the day, and then place fifty or seventy-five children in a room together at night without the constant super-vision of an officer, is little less than criminal.

DO REFORM SCHOOLS REFORM?

ABSTRACT OF PAPER BY SUPERINTENDENT L. D. DRAKE,
BOONEVILLE, MO.

The earliest attempts at reformatories for youth were the establishment of the House of Refuge in the city of New York and the founding in 1818 of an association by such men as John Driscom, Thomas Eddy, Hugh Maxwell, and James W. Gerard. This effort took distinctive shape in a subsequent house of refuge, which was established on what is now Madison Square, New York City, quite near the spot where to-day stands the Fifth Avenue Hotel. From this example there spread out to Boston, Philadelphia, Westboro, Lancaster, and other points, the early reformatory institutions of the country. Statistics show that over 110,000 children have been committed to these reformatory institutions, and that over 75 per cent. have been permanently 'reformed.

What is necessary to secure this reformation? Good teachers, wholesome food, out-of-door exercise, thorough and unremitting cleanliness, the inculcation of gentle dispositions, pure thoughts, and refined manners, from examples set from hour to hour, from day to day, and from week to week, by those who have the care of these children. Appetites must be subdued or controlled, evil im

pulses must be turned aside by gentle words of counsel and advice; and the mind of the child led as rapidly as may be from the low level of its original surroundings to a higher and more elevated plane. Religion and morality must be instilled by patient and careful teaching. Such tact and knowledge of human nature are required that a teacher must possess natural qualifications for the work. The habit of prayer and praise, and the refining influences of poetry, music, and song, should be a part of the every day life. So far as is practicable, these schools should be conducted upon what is known as the cottage plan,— the most advanced method in reformatory work. These cottages should be presided over by a man and wife, whose true, gentle companionship may exert an influence of untold benefit.

In the long pleasant days of summer the time should be devoted more largely to physical labor and exercise, and less to study. In the shorter days and longer evenings of fall and winter this rule should be reversed. The children must learn the nobility of labor and how to use their hands, so that, when they go out into the world, they may be able to gain an honest livelihood.

There are two erroneous ideas in the public mind that stand in the way of the success of boys who come out of the reform school. One is that the institution is a penitentiary, with all the odium of brutal criminality, stripes, and disgrace. The other is that it is a place of idleness and pleasure, where ne'er-do-wells go to become no better than they were. A reform school is not a penitentiary. There are upon its inmates no badges of disgrace and felony. There are no walls encompassing them about. There are no guards with loaded guns to keep them within bounds. Children that enter these institutions are given every advantage possible. Science, as well as everything that pertains to a good practicable trade, is taught these youth. The boy who learns a trade is elevated to a higher plane in life.

In the literature of reform schools there are many striking instances of success in life of persons who have lived under their influence. They have been sinned against more than sinning; and, after all, they are but boys. They were born to a hard lot. We are giving them a chance. Do as much, good people, when they come out from the reform school, and help them to fasten their feet upon the ladder of honorable life and employment.

These schools are hives of industry, and schools for all that is good and attainable under the surrounding circumstances. That they deserve the encouragement and the maintenance of the public, no man or woman who has a heart can deny. And that they are an economy and a benefit in the body politic is susceptible of accurate demonstration. Therefore, I bespeak for these institutions a more careful consideration, and the criticisms which are so often made will soon cease, and the question whether reform schools reform will soon be solved; and the good people of our land will be disposed to commend rather then condemn the men and women who are spending their lives in the upbuilding of humanity.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN GIRLS' SCHOOLS.

ABSTRACT OF PAPER BY MRS. LUCY M. SICKELS,

SUPERINTENDENT, ADRIAN, MICH.

This is an intricate problem, which both interests and perplexes one. If it were merely for employment for the time being or for the profit it might bring to the institution, it would be a very easy one to solve; but the problem is to train the girls, that they may be self-supporting, each in her own path in life, after our supervision ceases. Very few of our girls have even comfortable homes with fathers or brothers who wish to support and shelter them.

Let me go to our history. Take the latest arrivals, 100 in number, and I find, of the 100, I only came from a good home; 3 were orphans, and had no home; 5 had fairly good homes; 31 were not of the worst type, fathers and mothers being day laborers, going out in the morning and returning at night; 60 homes were of the worst description, far worse than none at all.

63 had fathers who were habitual drunkards; 16 had drunken and dissolute mothers; 44 had divorced parents.

Thus we see the children were neglected at home during childhood. As Victor Hugo has said, "All the vagabondage in the world begins in neglected childhood." Hence the cause and need

of industrial schools and industrial training. And let industrial training be joined to a common-school education. Adapt the industrial training to the capacity or ability of the learner, and the thousands of boys and girls now in our care, who are to be among the wage-earners of the future, may have an education of the hand, eye, and heart.

The industries which may be taught girls are limited. When I have visited boys' trade schools, and have visited the carpenter shop, paint shop, shoe shop, cabinet shop, tailor shop, broom factory, and printing-office, have seen the boys learning the mason trade, building stately chimneys, and even putting up their own cottages and making their own furniture, then I have felt that we in girls' schools are restricted, and are laboring under unfavorable conditions, when our industries are compared.

We cannot become shoemakers, carpenters, blacksmiths, or masons; and we prefer not to send our girls into the printing-office. What, then, shall the girls do? First, what is our aim? To give the girls such work as will fit them for better womanhood, better wifehood, and better motherhood.

Before taking up any branch of industry, we should be sure that it is practical, that it is something by which the girl can earn an honest livelihood in the future. Anything that tends to make girls love housewifely arts is in the right direction.

In the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y., there is a department of domestic science, which includes home nursing, food economies, preserving and pickling, cookery and laundry work, besides marketing.

In Walhanstein, England, there is a college for housewives, where young women may learn all the branches of domestic work, including cookery, needlework, laundry work, and household superintendence.

The college is appropriately named St. Martha. Only ten pupils are received at a time, in order that each may serve her turn as housekeeper, chambermaid, laundress, etc. A graduate from this school is equally fitted for a housemaid or mistress.

The Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and Industry, has a normal course in domestic science. The course of instruction covers theoretical and practical cookery, chemistry of food, and laundry work. We also find societies and scientific clubs which advertise demonstration lessons in cookery.

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The Michigan Agricultural College has opened a cooking school for the young lady students; and it has also a large class of young ladies making a study of floriculture, both of which we believe to be advisable in our Home for Girls at Adrian.

We have always taught cookery in the cottages; but that is not enough, and it cannot be done as scientifically as we wish. A cooking school will therefore be opened soon, when the girls will have practical training under a competent teacher of cooking, chemistry of food, preserving, pickling, fruit-canning, etc.

It was once supposed that any woman, no matter how stupid, if she could do nothing else, could manage a house and do household work. This is a mistake. Women are waking up to a realization of this fact; else why a mothers' congress, mothers' conventions, mothers' clubs and cooking classes, lectures on home sanitation, sick diet, emergencies, and home nursing?

At the present time, when a Woman's Exchange may be found in nearly every city, a girl or woman may, by the aid of her experience and training in our schools, be enabled to assist herself and aid the association. Home bakeries, too, are a luxury to housewives; but the woman who keeps one must be a good cook.

Laundry work is really one of the fine arts. There is beauty in a line full of snowy white muslin, or clothes-bars hung with daintily ironed ruffles, tucks, gathers, and puffs. This is a trade; and to the one who learns it and loves the work we say, You may be "Queen of the Tubs" some day.

Quilting and tying comforters is one of our employments. Each girl may piece, and have to carry away with her, a quilt, if she so desires. Knitting may be done to advantage. We knit all of our mittens by hand, and have knit many pairs of silk ones for

customers.

Dressmaking is undoubtedly one of the most profitable occupations. Dressmakers have told me repeatedly that it is difficult to find girls now who can sew well enough to become helpful apprentices. We have a dressmaking department in our home; but our girls are first taught plain sewing in the cottage sewing-room, and then those who show a taste for dressmaking are promoted to the shop to finish under a competent dressmaker. One of our girls works in a shop in the city now, has her board, lodging, and washing, besides a weekly allowance. She comes home on Sunday to

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